1 Dai Heritage Science 2013, 1:25 RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Building limes for cultural heritage conservation in China Shi-bing Dai Abstract Introduction: Lime has been used as a building and decoration material for thousands of years in China. Recent research has focused on developing new air lime with higher bonding strength, grouts and restoration mortars etc. based on natural hydraulic lime, which is both chemically and mechanically more compatible with historic substances. Results: The most applied lime in China was, and is still air lime, and the traditional slaking and preparation technique has been passed over to the modern generation for most restoration projects. Optimum dosage of Tungoil to lime-earth as damp proofing barrier lies at app. 5 wt%. A kind of patented dispersed air lime modified with additives has been developed, which can be applied as a binder for restoration of traditional lime ornaments or lime paints. Natural hydraulic lime has been introduced into China from 2008 Recently, adhesives and grouting slurries based on natural hydraulic lime have been developed and applied for refitting and cavity filling of delaminated cultural surfaces with proven satisfaction. Conclusion: The preliminary research works show, both air lime and natural hydraulic limes through modification of latest construction chemistry achievements can meet most of restoration requirements. Keywords: Building lime, Cultural heritage conservation, Natural hydraulic lime, Adhesive, Grouting, Restoration mortar Introduction In the summer of 1998, during the international conference on conservation of Yungang Grottoes (listed as UNESCO cultural heritage in December 2001), Prof. Dr. Gunter Strübel from Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen Germany introduced the latest results on the application of natural hydraulic limes (NHL) in conservation and restoration of cultural heritage which was sponsored by the Bundesstiftung für Umwelt (DBU) [1,2]. His lecture, however, didn t cause many responses from Chinese colleagues. 10 years later, while conserving Huashan Pictographs in Ningming, Guangxi Autonomy under the leadership of China National Academy for Cultural Heritage, conservators met with difficulties in restoring cracked and delaminated lime stones. In order to find compatible conservation materials, comprehensive and extensive research works have been carried out. Materials and application methods for refitting and Correspondence: Architecture Conservation Laboratory, CAUP of Tongji University, Room 113 Wenyuan Building, No. 1239, Siping Road, Shanghai CN , PR China strengthening delaminated natural stones on the basis of natural hydraulic lime have broken through [3-7]. From 2008, natural hydraulic limes have been introduced into China and selectively used to strengthen and restore historic architecture and monuments like Huashan pictographs (Figure 1) in Guangxi and restoration of marble stones of Golden Bridge in front of Tiananmen of Forbidden City in Beijing (Figure 2). In recent years, natural hydraulic limes have become popular materials in the field of cultural heritage conservation and over 5 research and development projects have been launched by the China National Bureau for Cultural Heritage. However, there are still misunderstandings about its definitions, specification, properties and durability for the conservation of cultural heritage. Basing on the research of lime materials in China over the past two decades, this paper summarizes some of the latest achievements in research and development of lime, especially natural hydraulic lime, for conservation and restoration of cultural heritage in China under the 2013 Dai; licensee Chemistry Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
2 Dai Heritage Science 2013, 1:25 Page 2 of 9 Figure 1 Conservation of Huashan Pictographs during using natural hydraulic limes as raw material, Guangxi Autonomy. funding of several national and international research projects. Traditional slaking and preparation of lime in China Lime has been used as a building and decoration material for thousands of years in China [8,9]. However quick lime was in most cases slaked wet, only in coastal region, quick lime kilned from oyster shells was slaked dry, but without any grinding. This may be one of the reasons why the term hydraulic lime was translated into China as early as 1950 s, but not understandable and applied by most technicians. Today traditional slaking and preparation technique can still be observed in heritage conservation sites . During so called Southern Shanxi Projects, which were started from 2006, and over 100 heritage architectural temples and settlements erected before Yuan Dynasty (before 1206) are being restored, quick lime is slaked wet. Lime putty is mixed with addition of hemp, earth and pigments for masonring and roofing (Figure 3). Tempering is also a traditional preparation technique in southern China to get very smooth crack-free marbleimitated top lime plaster finishing (Figure 4). Like in Europe , hot lime is being also tried to restore natural stone architecture and ornament earthen Figure 2 Marble restoration of Golden Bridge in front of Tiananmen Beijing, using NHL2 in 2009 (right) and after restoration (left).
3 Dai Heritage Science 2013, 1:25 Page 3 of 9 Figure 3 Wet slaking and preparation of lime with hemp fibers during restoration works in southern Shanxi elements. During restoration of Bell Tower Beijing in 2010, quick lime was slaked to form lime milk according to traditional lime slaking technique to seal voids and joints by pouring into cracks immediately after slaking. The subsequent expansion of freshly slaked quick lime milk compensates the shrinkage of pure lime grout. DuringthesurveyofheritagearchitectureinJinggangshan region of Jiangxi Province, it has been told that Tungoil, a kind of natural oil from tree nut in Southchina, was mixed into earth as damp proofing barrier (Figure 5). No organic remaining, however, have been identified in the samples taken from the basements and floors. To prove the legendary tradition and optimize the dosage, lime-earth mixture composed of 10 wt% calcium hydrate (CL), 10 wt% natural hydraulic lime (NHL2, Hessler Kalk Germany), 20% sieved river sand ( mm) and 60 wt% clay rich earth was compacted with 0 15 wt% raw Tungoil. The compacted samples were sealed with polyethylene sheet and stored under water for 14 days. Then the capillary water uptake according to DIN was measured. The results show that the Tungoil reduces the water uptake and optimum dosage lies at app. 5 wt% (Figure 6). The higher dosage causes instead higher water absorption; this may be explained that high content of Tungoil may have disturbed the chemical reaction between lime and clay minerals. The damaged foundation of the earth-timber heritage architecture in Jingangshan region is being restored based on this formulation. Figure 4 Preparation of lime plaster finishing by tempering for façade restoration in Haikou 2011.
4 Dai Heritage Science 2013, 1:25 Page 4 of 9 Figure 5 Traditional earthen-timber architecture built in 1824 with foundation from lime, earth and gravel with estimated addition of Tungoil in Jiangxi Province. Building lime standards in China In 2010, new European building lime standard EN459-1, modified from previous version, was published . Comparing to old version, natural hydraulic lime (NHL), formulated lime (FL) and hydraulic lime (HL) under the category of limes with hydraulic properties has been clearly specified. Natural hydraulic lime, its use can be dated back to Romans , is a lime with hydraulic properties produced by burning of more or less argillaceous or siliceous limestones with reduction to powder Figure 6 Relationship between capillary water uptake of limeearth mixture and Tungoil content. by slaking with or without grinding. No other additions are allowed except grinding agents up to 0.1 wt%. Hydraulic lime is, however, a binder consisting of lime and other materials such as cement, blast furnace slag, fly ash, limestone filler and other suitable materials, but does not need to have a declaration of constituents. Formulated lime (FL), which is a new term, is a lime with hydraulic properties mainly consisting of air lime (CL) and/or natural hydraulic lime (NHL) with added hydraulic and/or pozzolanic material. To protect the user especially in restoration and conservation, formulated limes contain a constituent s declaration. The advantages of NHL are low strength; low content of water soluble salts, but it has also disadvantages, for example, not frost resistant if it is not completely carbonated. One of main disadvantages of HL is the fast hardening, which may cause tension cracking between historic substances and new materials. FL shall bridge the gap between NHL and HL. In the USA, new ASTM standard for hydrated hydraulic lime for structural purpose was also published in The latest building lime standard in China was issued in 1992 , which only specifies the properties of quick air lime (Table 1). According to this standard, building quick lime is graded into premium, first-class and satisfied. Yield of hydrated lime by wet slaking is a key
5 Dai Heritage Science 2013, 1:25 Page 5 of 9 Table 1 Chinese Building Lime Standard JC/T Grade Calcium quicklime Magnesium quicklime Premium Firstclasclass Qualified Premium First- Qualified Content of CaO + MgO,%, no less than Content of unslaked residue (5 mm round-hole residue on sieve),%, no more than CO 2,%, no more than Yield of lime hydrate, L/Kg, no less than indicator for quality classification. Lime with hydraulic properties was neither notified, nor specified. Therefore, strictly speaking, the old Chinese lime standard restricts the research of building lime in China. It has been therefore proposed by conservators and administrators, the Chinese building lime standards should be updated, which may refer to European standards. From 2009 laboratory tests and pilot production trials of natural hydraulic limes from various argillaceous limestones to limited scale have been launched , however until now there are no manufacturers of hydraulic limes in China, therefore currently all natural hydraulic limes for the research and application in China are imported either from France or from Germany. Lime for surface refitting, grouting and colouring There are a few research works carried out to develop grouting materials on the basis of natural hydraulic lime for structural purpose [15-18]. The results were controversy. It is however clear, due to high shrinkage, the mixture of natural hydraulic limes only with water is not suitable for grouting. They need to be modified with help of modern construction chemistry. From 2008, a system of new adhesives based on modified natural hydraulic limes has been developed. The system consists of 2 products; the first one is an adhesive for refitting and emergency re-bonding, with pull-off strength on marble substrate of app. 0.5 N/mm 2, after 28 days, can reach up to 1.0 N/mm 2 after app. 180 days. Second one is a grout with excellent flow properties for injection and cavity filling. Both formulations are already patented in China [5,6]. The practice to rescue Huashan Pictographs (Figure 1) and other natural stone monuments has proven their satisfied results. However, the durability and application under various climate zones need to be further studied. Another important approach is to develop air lime with high bonding properties. The new air hydrated lime is produced under dispersion of calcium hydrate mixed with limited addition of Methyl cellulose and antifoaming agent . Such dispersed lime with aforementioned formulation has very high adhesion strength (Table 2), which can not only be used as binder for restoration of mural paintings (Figure 7) and signs, but also as coloured lime paints both for interior and for exterior. To improve colour fastness of dispersed lime paints under outdoor weather condition, comparison tests using transparent solvent-based silane-siloxane solution and water-borne siloxane-wax dispersion as top sealer have been carried out. After app. 1 year exposure, the coloured lime paint sealed by water-borne siloxane-wax dispersion shows less colour change. The dispersed air lime shows wide range of application, for example, straw fibers and marble powder can also be mixed into it to restore marble-imitated ornaments (Figure 8). Lime-based restoration mortar for green bricks Over the past decades not only in China but also in Europe, restoration mortars were made from cement or organic resins , which are neither chemically nor Table 2 Performance comparison of various dispersed air limes Dispersed air lime, Type C Dispersed air lime Type F Commercially available dispersed lime from one German company Solid content, wt% Aggregate content% 10% (white marble powder) 0 15% 7-day pull-off strength on marble 0.75 N/mm 2 / 1 mm 0.69 N/mm 2 / 1 mm 0.28 N/mm 2 /3-4 mm substrate/ carbonization depth 28-day pull-off strength on marble 1.45 N/mm 2 /3-4 mm 1.40 N/mm 2 /3-4 mm 0.31 N/mm 2 /7-9 mm substrate / carbonization depth Capillary absorption coefficient (kg/m 2 h 0.5 ) Chalking No chalking after 24 hours No chalking after 24 hours Chalking after 7 days of construction
6 Dai Heritage Science 2013, 1:25 Page 6 of 9 Figure 9 Cement-based mortar applied in 2002 to restore green bricks in Beijing, delaminated in Figure 7 Mural painting of vernacular architecture (early 19 th century) on lime-earthen substrate in Jiangxi Province. mechanically compatible with most of traditional soft Chinese grey green bricks. More defects are caused by cement-based restoration mortar than natural influents (Figure 9). In the pilot project jointly launched by Beijing Institute for Ancient Architecture and Tongji University , a special restoration mortar for green bricks has been developed. This lime restoration mortar is formulated with low strength, lower than deteriorated green bricks, and higher water absorption capacity and shall function as the sacrificial layer to conserve historic substances. This mortar is composed of app. 18 wt% NHL2 (Hessler Kalk Germany), app. 6 wt% calcium hydrate (CL), app. 75 wt% well graded crashed old bricks and limestone fillers and very small amount of Methyl cellulose, thixotropic agent, wood fiber, iron oxide pigments. All the components are premixed dry with help of dry mortar mixer than packed in 1 L containers. Conservators mix the powder with only water and/or small amount of iron oxide pigments to match individual stone on site. After laboratory optimization, the mortar was applied in Beijing Xianlongtan (Figure 10) in Three locations with different orientation and moisture contents have been selected. The trial areas were restored as follows: the green bricks were desalinated 2 times with Figure 8 Strawed dispersed lime to restore marble imitated ornaments in Xuhui High School Shanghai (built in 1850).
7 Dai Heritage Science 2013, 1:25 Page 7 of 9 Figure 10 Trail to use lime to restore traditional Chinese green bricks (right after restoration). cellulose-based poultice. The damaged bricks were then pre-wetted with table water and well mixed lime restoration mortar was applied with maximum thickness of 5-8 mm. No water repellents have been applied. Mechanical properties according to Chinese standard JGJ/T  were tested, not under standardized climate condition rather under natural climate. Both compressive strength and flexural-tensile strength of the restoration mortar under dry weather in Beijing are higher than that under humid weather in Shanghai (Figure 11). The trial areas were finished in middle May 2012 and app 10 months after accomplishment, visual finishing, colour, texture etc. were evaluated (Figure 12). The restored surface of 2 trial areas shows effloresces locally, which may be typical phenomena of lime restoration mortar. All are crack-free, only one crack, more likely expansion crack, was found in the border between stone finishing and red plaster. This crack might be caused by salts from red plastered masonry. The capillary water absorption test with help of Karsten s Test Tube on site shows, the lime restoration mortar absorbs more water (Figure 13) than green bricks, while the drill resistance strength of the restoration mortar is app. 20% of that of solid green brick. Conclusions and discussion Lime has been used as a building and decoration material for thousands of years in China, but today it is no longer popular in new construction industry. In future, Figure 11 Mechanical strength of restoration mortar based on limes after 150 days exposed to natural weather. Figure 12 Evaluation of trial areas after app. 10 months exposure.
8 Dai Heritage Science 2013, 1:25 Page 8 of 9 Figure 13 Capillary water absorption of green bricks and their restoration mortars on mock-up areas. lime materials will be mainly used for the maintenance, restoration and conservation of historic architectures and cultural heritage. Most applied lime in history was wet slaked air lime, which was used as binder for masonry mortar or decorative plasters optimized with aggregates, fiber and natural organic resin (for example Tungoil). Lime is also used as stabilizer to consolidate earth in historic construction of city wall, roofing and earthen architecture. The traditional skills to slake and prepare lime are still being promoted in most of restoration and conservation projects. Despite the same long history in the use of lime, China is far behind of Europe in the research of lime in modern times. Due to the wet slaking and lake of grinding technique, the ancient Chinese did not realize the hydraulic properties of limes, which can only be observed through dry slaking with or without grinding. Until 2008 natural hydraulic lime was introduced from Europe into China and has been researched comprehensively, but exclusively for conservation of cultural heritage. Adhesives, grouting slurries, restoration mortar for natural stones and kilned bricks (from traditional green bricks to firebricks) based on modified natural hydraulic limes (may be defined as formulated lime, FL, according to EN459-1 /2010) have been developed. With help of modern construction chemistry achievements, natural hydraulic limes can be modified to meet almost all kinds of requirements for conservation and restoration of cultural heritage. The new challenges will be grout to seal cracks from adobe and earthen masonry. New research works in the future will be focused on comprehensive understanding the traditional Chinese lime skills scientifically (for example project granted No. 2012BAK14B05) and code of practice to transfer traditional lime skills to new generation. More efforts will be done to understand the performance of lime under different climate and long term durability. Preliminary researches have shown, lime restoration mortar with the same formulations have different strength, NHL-based restoration mortar for green bricks has high strength in Beijing climate than in Shanghai. The reasons are not clarified. Competing interests The author declares that he has no competing interests. About the author Dr.rer. nat. Shi-bing Dai (1963- ), Professor at College for Architecture and Urban Planning Tongji University, Director of Architecture Conservation Laboratory, specialized in building restoration and monument preservation. Acknowledgements This article is completed under the financial support of China National Twelfth Five Years Key Research and Development Project granted No. 2012BAC11B01-2, the Architecture Conservation Laboratory (part of the of the Key Laboratory of Ecology and Energy-saving Study of Dense Habitat, Tongji University, Ministry of Education, PR China). The author thanks Wang Jinhua, Wang Yunfeng, Hu Yuan, Zhou Xiao, Dr. Li Li from China National Academy for Cultural Heritage in Beijing for fruitful collaboration within research projects on natural hydraulic limes and their application to consolidate stone monuments, which are funded by Ningming Cultural Bureau, Guangxi Autonomy and China National Bureau for Cultural Heritage. The author thanks also Dr. Huang Jizhong for collaboration of the research project in southern Shanxi Province. The author expresses deep appreciation Hang Yang, Zhang Tao from Beijing Institute for Ancient Architecture for constructive discussion on restoration of stone and green brick. The author also acknowledges Zhang Debing, Chen Guojun, Hu Zhanyong, Zhu Shangyou and Zhou Yuee for most of the laboratory testing and mock-ups in collaboration with Shanghai DS Building Materials Co. Ltd.. Received: 23 March 2013 Accepted: 3 July 2013 Published: 2 August 2013
9 Dai Heritage Science 2013, 1:25 Page 9 of 9 Reference 1. STRÜBEL, DAI & WEBER Hrsg: Chinesisch-Deutsche Kooperation zur Konservierung der Yungang-Grotten Symposium. 2. Strübel G, Kraus K, Kuhl O, Dettmering T: Hydraulische Kalke für die Denkmalpflege. Institut für Steinkonservierung e.v.große Langgasse 29, Mainz, German: IFS Bericht Nr; ISBN Nr China National Academy for Cultural Heritage & Shanghai DS Building Materials Co Ltd: Research Report on consolidation materials to refit the Huashan Pictographs [R] (not published research report). 4. Dai SB, Wang JH: Lime-based Materials and Practices for Surface Refitting of Cultural Heritage in Structural Analysis of Historic Constructions. In Edited by Xianglin G, Xiaobin S. Switzerland: Trans Tech Publications Inc; Ad. Materials Research Vols at ISBN ISBN China National Academy for Cultural Heritage & Shanghai DS Building Materials Co Ltd: Patent: China. Beijing: State Intellectual Property Office of the PR China; No. ZL China National Academy for Cultural Heritage & Shanghai DS Building Materials Co Ltd: Patent: China. Beijing: State Intellectual Property Office of the PR China; No. ZL Zhou X, Hu Y, Wang J, Dai S: Application of Natural Hydraulic Lime for Refitting of Huashan Pictographs, Science of Conservation and Archaeology, No. 2. China: Editorial Board of Science of Conservation and Archaeology, Shanghai Museum; ISSN Du X: Restoration Technology of Traditional Chinese Ancient Buildings, 99. China: Architecture and Building Press; Li Z: Architecture and Building Technology of Traditional Chinese Architecture. 2nd edition. Shanghai, PR China: Tongji University Press; 2010: Sandstroem E, et al: Hot lime mortar in Conservation-repair and replastering of the façade of Laecko Castle. J Archit Conserv 2011, 17(1): DAI S: Restoration of historic natural stones in the past decade in China case study, in International Conference Human Resources Developement for transmission of Traditional skills natioanl approaches and their application to stone and brick. ACCU Nara 2011, 2012: Kraus K: Kalkarten gestern und heute, in IFS-Bericht Nr. 19; Beitrage zur IFS- Tagung 2004 Kalkmörtel und Kalfarbe Gestern, heute und morgen? (1 14). Institut für Steinkonservierung e.v. Große Langgasse 29, Mainz, Germany; ISSN-Nr BS EN 459-1: Building lime. Definitions, specifications and conformity criteria. UK: British-Adopted European Standard; JC/T479-92: Building Quick Limes, Chinese Standard for Building materials. Beijing: State Construction Materials Bureau of the PR China; JC/T479-92: Building Quick Limes, Chinese Standard for Building materials Pingarr on A, Victoria I: Performance Analysis of Hydraulic Lime Grouts for Masonry Repair. University of Pennsylvania; Theses upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1013&context=hp_theses. 17. Oezer F, Egloffstein P, Simon W: Sind Injektionsmörtel auf der Basis von natürlichem hydraulischem Kalk für die Instandsetzung von historischem Bauwerk geeignet? In Neue Erkenntnisse zu den Eigenschaften von NHLgebundenen Mörteln. Institut für Steinkonservierung e.v. Große Langgasse 29, Mainz, Germany; ISSN-Nr Oezer F, Egloffstein P, Simon W: Sind Injektionsmörtel auf der Basis von natürlichem hydraulischem Kalk für die Instandsetzung von historischem Bauwerk geeignet?. IFS Bericht; Neue Erkenntnisse zu den Eigenschaften von NHL-gebundenen Mörteln. 19. Tongji University & Shanghai DS Building Materials Co Ltd, Patent Application No China: State Intellectual Property Office of the PR China, Beijing; Rolf S: Leitfaden Steinkonservierung. Germany; 1997: ISBN Research report of Architecture Conservation Laboratory, Tongji Universitz: Research on restoration materials and method statements of Chinese traditional masonry in Beijing (not published research report). 22. China Construction Standards JGJ/T70: Test Standard for Building Mortars. ; doi: / Cite this article as: Dai: Building limes for cultural heritage conservation in China. Heritage Science :25. Publish with ChemistryCentral and every scientist can read your work free of charge Open access provides opportunities to our colleagues in other parts of the globe, by allowing anyone to view the content free of charge. W. Jeffery Hurst, The Hershey Company. available free of charge to the entire scientific community peer reviewed and published immediately upon acceptance cited in PubMed and archived on PubMed Central yours you keep the copyright Submit your manuscript here:
Module: 5 Lecture: 22 CEMENT INDUSTRIES INTRODUCTION Cement is broadly described as material having adhesive and cohesive property with capacity to bond the material like stone, bricks, building blocks
The use of lime & cement in traditional buildings Introduction Scotland has a long tradition of building with stone and lime stretching back to Roman times. A large proportion of Scotland s buildings constructed
8 chapter External solid plastering OVERVIEW Render provides a weatherproof surface that prevents the penetration of moisture into the outside of the building, and forms a decorative finish that enhances
Product Data 15.07.2015 Customer Information Page 1 of 6 Lambs Natural Lime Mortar V7 Pre mixed natural hydraulic lime and sand mortar. A general purpose mortar for building or pointing stone, brick and
LIME RENDER & WHY BUILDINGS NEED TO BREATHE KEIM MINERAL PAINTS THE NEED FOR BUILDINGS TO BREATHE Before the twentieth century, building techniques and materials were very different from those used today
Development of conservation compatible new materials for envelope retrofitting of historic buildings Carsten Hermann, Senior Technical Officer, Historic Scotland Glasgow is one of seven EFFESUS case study
A GUIDE TO CHOOSING THE RIGHT LIME-BASED PRODUCTS FOR RESTORING MASONRY Mape-Antique Range A guide to choosing the right LIME-based products and systems for restoring masonry To meet the latest requirements
Page 1 of 5 Technical Data Sheet Art. No. 1810 Kiesol Deep protection silicification for waterproofing and refurbishing old and new buildings in the Kiesol System according to WTA Code of Practice 4-4-04/D
Two-component flexible, waterproofing and protective cementitious grout. 1504-2 PI-MC-IR Technical features Two-component grout, based on cements, selected aggregates, special additives and synthetic polymers
NEGATIVE SIDE WATERPROOFING SYSTEMS FOR MASONRY AND CONCRETE What is negative side waterproofing? A typical case of negative side waterproofing is when water comes through the walls of a basement and the
BEST PRACTICE GUIDE Fibrelime Premixed Universal Plaster and Render Contents: Fibrelime description Fibrelime suitability Preparation before application Application Aftercare Painting General Recommended
SEE HOW TO MAKE LIME PLASTER PATTI STOUTER, BUILD SIMPLE INC. FEBRUARY 2013 WHY USE LIME? Lime plaster forms a light, clean, and durable surface that is resistant to weather and mold. A thin layer attaches
Saint Gobain Gyproc India Ltd. (Formerly India Gypsum Ltd.) Gyproc Plasters The cracks in cement sand plaster are an inherent feature which cannot be completely prevented but can only be controlled and
Stone and Masonry Restoration with Remmers Systems Cleaning Equipment Cleaning Chemicals Consolidation and Strengthening Restoration and Pointing Preservation and Conservation Stone and Masonry Restoration
EDUCATIONAL GUIDE TO INTRODUCTION TO MORTAR Contents Page Scope 3 The historical background and development of building mortars 3 Ancient mortar 3 Gypsum mortar 3 Lime Mortar 4 Quicklime 4 Hydrated lime
OLD BUILDINGS RESTORATION TECHNIQUE Dr-Ing JK Makunza University of Dar es Salaam 18 th May 2011 Introduction Zanzibar is an archipelago made up of Zanzibar and Pemba Islands. It is located in the Indian
Concrete Waterproofing Systems Integral Protection n Type B Integral Protection in accordance with BS 8102 (2009) n Unique chemical admix for waterproofing and protection of concrete n A complete and permanent
Retail Price List 2015 SETTING MORTARS SERVOFLEX TRIO SUPER TEC Flexible Full Transfer Thin Set and Medium Bed Mortar 20 KG Flexible, cement-based thin set and medium bed mortar with polymer additive for
Last Modified: Jun 15, 216 degruchy's Ecologic Mortar... Just add water! degruchy's Ecologic Mortar, in any of the stock colors, are simply a prepared blend of binder/aggregate/pigments to which you just
Technical Sheet colorstuk rapid n colorstuk rapid n is a type CG 2 high-performance, cement-based grouting material as per EN 13888, for grouting joints from 1,5 to 15 mm. Suitable for all kinds of ceramic
POINTING 1.0 MATERIALS 1.1 Sand: The sand shall comply with BS 1200, being clean, sharp, coarse, well-graded (good distribution between sizes) and of the correct colour and texture so that the new mortar,
Approved by Council March 19, 2013 City of Kingston Policies and Procedures Effective Apr. 2013 Revision Date N/A Policy on Masonry Restoration in Heritage Buildings Revision No. N/A Page No. 1 of 7 1.0
LAYING BLOCK AND BRICK Products highlighted in this section: SAKRETE Type N Mortar Mix SAKRETE Type S Mortar Mix Brick And Block Laying Basics The first step in building a brick or block wall is to construct
CI/SfB Tn6 L6813 September 2013 RIW CAVITY DRAIN R20 R20 is manufactured from1.0mm thick black high density polyethylene with studs approximately 20mm high. Other systems are available for specific uses,
GUIDELINES FOR MANUFACTURING QUALITY FLY ASH BRICKS Prepared By Fly Ash Resource Centre, State Pollution Control Board, Odisha, Bhubaneswar 1.0 INTRODUCTION Fly Ash generated from combustion of Coal in
January 2014 Guidance Note on Garden & Retaining Walls Correct construction and detailing of freestanding garden and retaining walls is important to ensure long term performance. These structures are especially
interior insulation and renovation boards A system of components that have been designed to work perfectly together to repair damage caused by mold. The system consists of boards, insulation wedges, reveal
South Gloucestershire Technical Advice Leaflet : December 2009 A TECHNICAL ADVICE Leaflet ON THE Pointing of historic buildings in South Gloucestershire This leaflet is one of a series of non-statutory
1.0 Preparation for Lime Putty Mortar Pointing 1.1 Tools & Approach A. Grinding - When used in a controlled way, angle grinders with diamond-impregnated metal blades with a maximum 1/8-inch-thickness and
TECHNICAL NOTE No. 37 April 1990 Updated January 2006 Repointing Stone and Brick (FORMERLY REPOINTING STONEWORK) 1. Historical Note Repointing of stone or brick walls is often carried out in conjunction
Hot-mixed Lime Mortars Historic Environment Scotland Àrainneachd Eachdraidheil Alba Introduction Lime mortars have been used in the construction of buildings for thousands of years and continue to be used
FACT SHEET: HYDRATED LIME FOR MASONRY PURPOSES Hydrated Masons Lime Characteristics Type S (Special) hydrated lime is a fine, white, high purity product which has been specially hydrated for convenient,
page 1 of 5 Technical Information Sheet Article No. 1810 Kiesol Deep protection silicification for waterproofing and restoring old and new buildings in the Kiesol System according to WTA Code of Practice
California Groundwater Association An NGWA Affiliate State PO Box 14369 Santa Rosa CA 95402 707-578-4408 fax: 707-546-4906 email: email@example.com website: www.groundh2o.org CGA Standard Practices Series
Secil Natural Hydraulic Lime (NHL) Secil Natural Hydraulic Lime 1 Index 1. Introduction 2. Environment 3. Secil NHL 3.1 NHL 5 3.2 Field of Application 3.3 Advantages 4. Secil NHL Mortars 4.1 The importance
WATERPROOFING OF WET ROOMS Waterproofing under tiles For longterm enjoyment of a wetroom area a complete and resistant waterproofing system is an important precondition. Most tiles are by themselves waterproof
F10 BRICK/ BLOCK WALLING To be read with Preliminaries/ General conditions. TYPES OF WALLING 110 CLAY FACING BRICKWORK TO NEW AREAS OF EXTERNAL WALLING AS NOTED ON CONSTRUCTION ELEVATIONS TYPE 1 and 2.
Salt Weathering of Masonry Walls The Venice Experience By M. Collepardi, S. Collepardi and R. Troli Synopsis: All the buildings in Venice insist on foundation immersed in sea water and then are permanently
What is Cement? History Overview of the Cement Manufacturing Process Brief Overview of Kiln Operations Why Burn Wastes? A hydraulic cement made by finely pulverizing the clinker produced by calcining to
Page of 5 Technical Information Sheet Article No.0543 Historic Lime Mortar Base mixture dry slaked, cement-free sand-lime mortar) for the production of mortars and renders according to historical models
304.06 DIVISION 300 BASES SECTION 304 AGGREGATE BASE COURSE DESCRIPTION 304.01 This work consists of furnishing and placing one or more courses of aggregate and additives, if required, on a prepared subgrade.
Certification of Glass for Use in Concrete I Dr Belen Morales Manager ConGlassCrete II Project Centre for Cement and Concrete University of Sheffield Two Main Areas of Work Waste Glass as Pozzolan Waste
Metropolitan Builders Association Masonry & Concrete Standard Background Masonry and concrete work in residential construction often provides the base structure upon which the house is built or as a veneer.
PROPERTY REFURBISHMENT WITH VANDEX PRODUCTS. COMPATIBLE WITH THE ENVIRONMENT SAFE PROVEN OVER MANY YEARS Valuable Properties Need Not Decay! Old buildings often show efflorescence, damp and plaster damage.
Ceramic processing The higher performance of ceramics is the result of strict control ol of purity, composition, microstructure and processing. Because of their inherent brittleness, ceramics cannot be
page of 5 Technical Information Sheet Article No. 0543 Historic Lime Mortar Range of use Remmers Historic Lime Mortar was developed especially for the repair and restoration of historical substrates. It
Mineral waterproof coating PCI Dichtschlämme 305 for basement walls, swimming pools and potable water tanks With official test certificate. FIELDS OF For indoor and outdoor use. For walls and floors. For
Mortars for Masonry and Rendering Choice and Application by Kenneth Sandin Contents Kenneth Sandin was born in Vimmerby, Sweden, in 1947. He earned the degree Doctor of Technology (TeknD) in Civil Engineering
Cement and Concrete Research 35 (2005) 1128 1134 Influence of fly ash and its mean particle size on certain engineering properties of cement composite mortars Gengying Li a, *, Xiaozhong Wu b a Department
6 Short Guide Lime Mortars in Traditional Buildings ISBN 978-1-84917-177-5 All images unless otherwise noted are Crown Copyright Principal Authors: Jessica Snow and Clare Torney Published by Historic Scotland,
Mortar Mixes Here are seven common and uncommon mortar mixes. They are types N, M, S and O. There is also mortar for glass block, straight lime mortar and type K. Type K is used solely in historic preservation.
WHAT IS PAINT? Paint, surface coating, lacquer and varnish are terms which have become somewhat synonymous and confused. International Standard ISO 4618-1 gives the following definitions:- Paint: a pigmented
06005_Jan06_2014.pdf Page 1 of 14 INDEX Page 06005-1 REFERENCE TO STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS 2 06005-2 CONCRETE AGGREGATE 2 06005-3 TESTS ON CONCRETE AGGREGATE 3 06005-4 CEMENT 4 06005-5 PROVIDING CHEMICAL
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 315 320, Article ID: IJCIET_07_02_027 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=2
The solution. - MINI - APPLICATION GUIDE THE PROVEN PERFORMER THAT NEVER LETS GO REV 04/11 Australian Made & Owned INTRODUCTION BondCrete the proven performer has evolved since 1951 into the most versatile
THE INTELLIGENT CHOICE Dry Mix Mortar Production Plants Dry mix mortar production plants PLANTS For generations, clients all over the world trust in Wehrhahn as a reliable partner keeping traditions and
Installing Tile in Pools and Fountains Waterproofing, Surface Preparation and Thin-set Mortar Selection are Critical Steps in Submerged Tile Projects. By Steve Taylor, Director of Architecture and Technical
7th UK CARE Annual General Meeting UK Chinese Association of Resources and Environment Greenwich, 15 September 2007 USE OF WASTE GLASS AS AGGREGATE IN CONCRETE Liang, Hong 1 ; Zhu, Huiying 2 ; Byars, Ewan
Fixing Instructions: 01 Porcelain to Screeded Concrete Floors Surface Tiles can be fixed to all structurally sound surfaces consisting of concrete, sand and cement screeds and renders, blockwork, masonry,
INTERIOR, PAINTS, PRIMERS, PLASTERS, DECORATION IMPREGNATION PRIMER AK - 011 Designed for priming of plaster, simple and lightweight cellular concrete, lime and cement plasters, aerated concrete and mineral
LEED FICHE TECHNICAL TECHNIQUE DATA LEED SHEET Daubois Inc. Daubois Inc. manufactures and distributes specialized mortars and pre-mixed concrete. The company s two business divisions are the industrial
IN COMPLIANCE WITH EUROPEAN STANDARDS Ultracolor CG2 CEMENTITIOUS GROUT Fast setting and drying grout for 2 to 20 mm joints, available in 26 colours; does not produce efflorescence WHERE TO USE Interior
Advanced Dry Mortar Technology for Construction Industry Ir. Raymond Wan MEng, CEng, MIM, MICE, MICT, MHKIE, RPE Abstract Products developed based on advanced dry mortar technology have widely been used
1. Foundation/Basement 17 PERFORMANCE GUIDELINES 1. FOUNDATION/BASEMENT 1.1 Efflorescence on concrete or masonry surfaces Efflorescence is the formation of a white crystalline or powdery deposit on the
Who prefers the Nature can rely on us. Traditional lime renders and mortars The future of historic buildings lies in the knowledge of the past... Products for renovation & restauration Historic Pure Lime
From the Building Limes Forum Ireland Website www.buildinglimesforumireland.com What is Lime? Lime has been used as the principal binder for mortars and plasters for the past 10,000 years. The earliest
1 Mortar and grout materials Proportion specification Property specification Field testing Concrete knowledge does not always apply tronger mortar is not better ebraska Concrete Masonry Association January
Concrete Repair Applications and Procedures Objectives Identify what surface preparation is needed Identify typical modes of failure and testing methods How to choose the correct material for the repair
BEST PRACTICE GUIDE Singleton Birch Quality Lime Products Hydraulic Lime Mortars For Wall Building & Re-pointing Contents: Grades of Hydraulic Lime & Non Hydraulic Lime for Building Works General Principles
DURABILITY OF MORTAR LININGS IN DUCTILE IRON PIPES Durability of mortar linings I. S. MELAND SINTEF Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cement and Concrete, Trondheim, Norway Durability of Building Materials
11-3 3 High performance, high volume fly ash concrete It should be obvious that large scale cement replacement in concrete with these industrial by-products will be highly advantageous from the stand point
International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 4 (4) (2015) 520-525 www.sciencepubco.com/index.php/ijet Science Publishing Corporation doi: 10.14419/ijet.v4i4.4932 Research Paper Effect of basalt aggregates
Rapid Set Products Product Information Product Name: RAPID SET CEMENT ALL 55 LB CONCRETE REPAIR MATERIAL Rapid Set Cement All is a high quality, durable, easy-to-use, multi-purpose repair material that
Clean, Efficient & Resilient Energy A Study in Industrial Insulation Clean, Efficient & Resilient Energy Topics: Function of an Insulation Selection of an Insulation Performance of an Insulation Protective
POLYMER MODIFED DRY-MIX TILE ADHESIVES Mr. Richard Zhang Wacker Polymer Material (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. Abstract: Modern ways to install ceramic tile is by so called thin-bed dry-mix tile adhesives. In order
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.