1 Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Maternal Mortality in the United States KYRIAKOS S. MARKIDES, PHD UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS MEDICAL BRANCH GALVESTON, TEXAS PRESENTED AT THE HOWARD TAYLOR INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM MATERNAL MORTALITY, WASHINGTON, D.C., ANNUAL CLINICAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY, MAY 3, 2011.
2 Socioeconomic, racial and ethnic disparities in health remain wide in the United States. The greatest and most persistent are racial and present in: Infant mortality Low birth weight Total mortality Life expectancy at every age, except, perhaps at very advanced ages (85-90 years and older). High mortality from major causes of death: Cardiovascular, Cancer.
3 WHO (2010) Trends in Maternal Mortality: ,000 maternal deaths worldwide in 2008; down from 546,000 in 1990 (34% decline). 355,000 (99%) were in developing countries with subsaharan Africa and South Asia accounting for 313,000 deaths, or 87% of the total. Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) in developing countries was 290 deaths/100,000 live births, vs. 14 in developed countries.
4 WHO (2010): continued According to the 1992 ICD-10 of WHO Maternal mortality refers to: The death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management; but not from accidental or incidental causes. (pg.4). Because of improvements in technologies and life sustaining procedures, increasingly more women survive adverse outcomes of pregnancy and delivery beyond the 42 days. Such late maternal mortality up to 365 days is now included in the definition employed in countries with advanced civil registration systems.
5 WHO (2010): continued Estimates for 1990 to 2008 presented are based on new and improved methodology and cannot be compared to previous estimates. The MMR for the U.S. increased from 12/100,000 in 1990, to 24/100,000. Other developed countries showing increases: Canada: 6-12 Finland: 7-8 United Kingdom: 10-12
6 WHO (2010) continued The U.S. ratio in 2008 was higher than the ratios of most developed countries. Part of the poor U.S. international standing is the result of racial disparities (Tucker et al, 2007). An analysis of 181 countries from 1980 to 2008 using the broader definition (up to 365 days) experienced a substantial increase in maternal mortality among developed countries. (Hogan et al, 2010)
7 Reasons for increases in U.S. MMR: Approximately 40-50% may be due to administrative changes, including improved ascertainment of maternal mortality on death certificates. The remainder is likely to be real. (Main, 2010) There is evidence in severe maternal morbidity and major complications from 1998 to 2005 (Kuklina et al, 2009; Jamieson et al, 2009; Callaghan, Kuklina et al, 2010; Bateman, Berman, et al; Cang and King, 2008).
8 Reasons for increases in U.S. MMR (Continued) Main (2010). Possible Factors: Intermittent insurance coverage of some mothers with underlying medical conditions. Increase in older mothers Increases in obese and very obese mothers Increases in requested caesarian births Emerging infection (HIV/AIDS; H1N1 in 2009). Racial disparities remain high
9 Racial Disparities in Maternal Mortality (continued)
12 Racial Disparities in MMR (continued) Racial Disparities in maternal mortality persist after controlling for socio-economic status differences. (Lang and King 2005; Main, 2010; Walker and Chestnut, 2010). Such racial disparity parallels a persisting racial difference in infant mortality. African Americans continue to have about twice the infant mortality rate of non- Hispanic whites. While socioeconomic factors account for some of the difference, a racial disparity persists after controlling for socioeconomic status differences. (Collins and David, 2009; Goldenberg and Culhane, 2007; Walker and Chestnut, 2010.) Reasons parallel those for excess maternal mortality.
13 Racial Disparities in MMR (continued) A 2003 CDC report on pregnancy-related mortality surveillance during the 1990 s noted that the racial disparity in maternal mortality was the highest among the maternal and child health indicators. African American women at any education level had mortality ratios that were three to four times those for white women (much higher than the racial disparity in infant mortality discussed above). CDC, 2003.
14 Racial Disparities in MMR (continued) In one analysis it was found that African American women did NOT have significantly greater prevalence rates of preeclampsia, eclampsia, abruptio placentae, placenta previa and postpartum hemorrhage, than white women during However, they had significantly higher mortality from each of these conditions. Thus the racial disparity results from a higher case-fatality rate (Tucker et al, 2007).
15 Racial Disparities in MMR (continued) Factors: Lack of prenatal care Lack of access to adequate care High rates of co-morbidity, or preexisting conditions. Socioeconomic disadvantages thus lower access to and use of prenatal care.
16 Racial Disparities in MMR Factors: (continued) Transportation problems Skepticism regarding professional healthcare Greater likelihood to develop certain complications such as peripartum cardiomyopathy, and hypertension even when one controls for these potential confounders, African American women still bear a significant proportion of the maternal mortality burden (Lang and King, 2008, pg. 522)
17 Racial Disparities in MMR Factors: (continued) Potential factors not fully appreciated include: Differences in nutrition Stress levels Family structures Genetics A greater appreciation of these and other factors is needed to guide prevention and treatment strategies.
18 Hispanic/Non-Hispanic/White Disparities The Hispanic population of the U.S. numbers more than 50 million and is expected to reach 120 million by 2050 (30 % of total). Growth is due to high immigration rates and increased fertility. Approximately two-thirds of these are of Mexican origin; Central and South American origin; and Puerto Rican and Cuban origin.
19 Hispanics (except Cuban Americans are Socioeconomically disadvantaged, but have favorable overall mortality Markides and Coreil, 1986 AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC PARADOX Risk Factor Profiles High rates of DIABETES High OBESITY Similar rates of hypertension, Cholesterol High SMOKING rates among men, lower among women (fewer cigarettes). Cuban American males smoke the most High ALCOHOL (binge) drinking rates among women increases with acculturation Low rates of physical ACTIVITY Strong FAMILIES Migration Selection
20 Recent Evidence of a Salmon Bias Turra & Elo (2008) used the Medicare-NUDIMENT data to examine the existence of a salmon bias. Data supported a salmon bias: foreign-born social security beneficiaries living abroad had higher mortality rates than foreign-born beneficiaries living in the U.S. Too small to explain mortality advantage. Effect of salmon bias on death rates is partially offset by the high mortality of Hispanic emigrants returning to the U.S.
21 A Different Test of the Salmon Bias Hummer and colleagues (2007), examined infant mortality rates among Hispanics by nativity and in comparison to non-hispanic whites. They found that first hour, first day and first week mortality rates among infants born in the U.S. to Mexican immigrant women are about 10 % lower than those of infants of U.S. born non-hispanic white women. It is unlikely that such favorable rates are the result of out-migration of Mexican origin women and infants.
22 UNITED STATES TABLES BY HISPANIC ORIGIN (2006) E. Arias, NCHS, 2010
23 Hispanic Paradox in Infant Mortality Despite their generally disadvantaged socioeconomic situation, most Hispanic origin populations have rather favorable infant mortality rates (Brown et al, 2007; Gonzalo-Quintero et al; Hummer et al, Literature reviews of the Hispanic Paradox have suggested that it is especially present in infant mortality and old-age mortality (Franzini et al, 2001, Hummer et al, 2007; Markides and Eschbach, 2011).
24 Hispanic Paradox in Infant Mortality Low levels of education, income, and health insurance coverage among Hispanics compared with non-hispanic Whites is thought to put them at considerably greater risk of negative health outcomes, including infant mortality. However, they have rather favorable health outcomes. Such favorable health outcomes are primarily attributed to immigrants, most of whom are of Mexican origin.
25 Hispanic Paradox in Maternal Mortality CDC rates from for all Hispanics show somewhat lower Maternal Mortality rates than for non- Hispanic Whites, and considerably lower than those for African Americans with whom they share socioeconomic conditions. No data by type of Hispanic origin were Earlier CDC data for on pregnancy-related mortality were consistent with the above. Cuban women were the most advantaged and Puerto Rican, the least; Mexican-origin women were in between. (Hopkins et al, 1999).
26 Hispanic Paradox in Maternal Mortality (continued) Because minority status and socioeconomic resources contribute to poor health outcomes, we expected Hispanic women to fare worse than non-hispanic White women, but we found the disparity in the risk of pregnancy-related death between black and Hispanic women striking. (Hopkins et al, 1999) Because Hispanic women are similar socioeconomically to black women, further study is needed of the factors that contribute to this Hispanic Paradox in pregnancy related mortality. (Hopkins et al, 1999)
27 Hispanic Paradox in Maternal Mortality (continued) Guendelman and Colleagues (2006) found that despite their lower education and relative poverty, Mexican-born women experienced lower odds of any maternal morbidity than U.S. born Mexican American women, which is consistent with the Hispanic Paradox of favorable birth outcomes. However the foreign-born did not show an advantage in maternal mortality. Migration selection, health behaviors, and cultural factors are important.
28 Conclusion Racial and Ethnic health disparities in maternal mortality parallel those in infant mortality, overall mortality, and life expectancy. In fact, the black/white disparity in maternal mortality appears to be greater than the disparity in other health indicators and suggests that there is considerable room for improvement through prevention and treatment strategies.
29 Conclusion (continued) There is evidence of a Hispanic Paradox in maternal mortality which parallels the Hispanic Paradox in infant mortality. However, there does not appear to be an overall Hispanic or Mexican-origin advantage as there is infant and overall mortality. Migration selection, cultural factors and health behaviors. Evidence of negative acculturation in all health indicators which may lead to more negative outcomes in the future.
30 Conclusion Migration selection, cultural factors and health behaviors. Evidence of negative acculturation in all health indicators which may lead to more negative outcomes in the future The literature on Hispanic maternal Mortality and Maternal health overall is rather scarce despite its large size and high fertility.
Measuring Maternal Mortality From Research to Practice: Training in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research 2016 Dr. Karim Abawi firstname.lastname@example.org Maternal mortality, key facts Every day, approximately
Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Review June Hanke, RN MSN, MPH Harris Health System Community Health and Wellness Millennium Development Goals 1. Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achieving universal
Infant Mortality in Arkansas Disparities in 2013 March 2013 Prepared for the Arkansas Minority Health Commission by Jennifer Maulden, MA Martha Phillips, PhD Table of Contents Introduction... 2 Executive
The Social Demography of Health The Social Demography of Health Four of the most important variables employed in epidemiological research are social class, gender, age, and race. It has been found that
Disparities in Health in the United States A conceptual framework for a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding health disparities and proposing policy solutions towards their elimination First Draft
Health Care Access to Vulnerable Populations Closing the Gap: Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Florida Rosebud L. Foster, ED.D. Access to Health Care The timely use of personal health services
Wendy Martinez, MPH, CPH County of San Diego, Maternal, Child & Adolescent Health Describe local trends in birth Identify 3 perinatal health problems Identify 3 leading causes of infant death Age Class
MATERNAL MORTALITY IN THE UNITED STATES: Current Status Jeffrey C. King, M.D., FACOG Professor and Director Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine University of Louisville Chair, ACOG Special Interest Group
Closing the Gap Closing the Gap Decline in Black Infant Mortality Rates in Boston, 2001-2012 Racial and ethnic differences in infant mortality rates are among the earliest and most persistent health inequities
If you live in Lubbock A Statistical Review A report given to the Board of Health, City of Lubbock, March 2011 Brian D. Carr, Ph.D., Board Member *denotes areas of possible intervention Population Total
CHIS Studies North Carolina Public Health A Special Report Series by the 1908 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, N.C. 27699-1908 www.schs.state.nc.us/schs/ No. 125 April 2001 Enhanced Surveillance of Maternal
THE HEALTH OF LINN COUNTY, IOWA A COUNTY-WIDE ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH STATUS AND HEALTH RISKS Project Team Pramod Dwivedi, Health Director Kaitlin Emrich, Epidemiologist Julia Von Alexander, Public Health
infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births ARE FLORIDA'S CHILDREN BORN HEALTHY AND DO THEY HAVE HEALTH INSURANCE? Too Many of Florida's Babies Die at Birth, Particularly African American Infants In the
Medical Sociology Twelfth Edition William C. Cockerham Chapter 4 The Social Demography of Health: Gender, Age, and Race Gender: The Narrowing Gap in Longevity 2008 study revealed declines in life expectancy
NUMBER #2 July 2007 Demographic Profile of Michigan s Latino Population A Summary of the 2000 Census Executive Summary Jean Kayitsinga Lori Post Francisco Villarruel This report, based on an analysis of
Access to Care / Care Utilization for Nebraska s Women According to the Current Population Survey (CPS), in 2013, 84.6% of Nebraska women ages 18-44 had health insurance coverage, however only 58.2% of
report card on infant mortality suny downstate medical center RESEARCH Steven Ritzel, MPH, MIA Director for Regional Planning and Research, Office of Planning SUNY Downstate Medical Center ADVISORY COMMITTEE
No. 160 August 2009 Among Adults Enrolled in Medicaid in North Carolina by Paul A. Buescher, Ph.D. J. Timothy Whitmire, Ph.D. Barbara Pullen-Smith, M.P.H. A Joint Report from the and the Office of Minority
INFANT MORTALITY REPORT INTRODUCTION This report is an overview on infant mortality as it relates to Wirral. It outlines the national infant mortality target, gives information on Wirral s progress towards
By: Latarsha Chisholm, MSW, Ph.D. Department of Health Management & Informatics University of Central Florida Health Disparities Health disparities refers to population-specific differences in the presence
Healthy People 2020 Arkansas Health Status Report 2016 Bryant Phelan, MPH Martha M. Phillips, PhD, MPH, MBA Gabrielle Edwards, BS UAMS Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health This project was supported
, Minnesota Maternal and Child Health Annual Report 29-213 THE CURRENT CONDITION OF MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH IN OLMSTED COUNTY Population Report This page intentionally left blank 2 , Minnesota Maternal
INTRODUCTION Infant Mortality Rate is one of the most important indicators of the general level of health or well being of a given community. It is a measure of the yearly rate of deaths in children less
Presentation by Dr. David Paul Chair, Delaware Healthy Mother & Infant Consortium Infant Mortality in Delaware BACKGROUND & KEY FACTS Delaware s infant mortality rate has continued to remain higher (8.5/1,000
Peoria County Community Health Indicator Report 2015 Providing and highlighting Peoria County's progress on various health benchmarks including causes of death, risk and protective factors, and socioeconomic
Racial Disparities in US Healthcare Paul H. Johnson, Jr. Ph.D. Candidate University of Wisconsin Madison School of Business Research partially funded by the National Institute of Mental Health: Ruth L.
North Carolina Diabetes Prevention and Control Fact Sheet November 2012 Women and Diabetes Highlights Diagnosed diabetes among women in North Carolina doubled from 5 percent in 1995 to 10 percent in 2010
Maternal and Child Health 2014-2015 Chapter 5: Maternal and Child Health 157 2014-2015 Health of Boston Maternal and Child Health Birth rates, infant mortality rates (IMR), and infant characteristics of
بسم اهلل الرمحن الرحيم Last lecture we discussed various concepts concerning demographic studies, in this lecture we ll discuss some more concepts like: Mortality Rates, Life Expectancy, Population Composition
ORIGINAL ARTICLE MATERNAL MORTALITY IN NEWYOKK CITY: EXCESS MOKTALITY OF BLACK WOMEN JING FANG, MD, SHANTHA MADHAVAN, DRPH, AND MICHAEL H. ALDERMAN, MD ABSTRACT TO assess maternal mortality in New York
King County City Health Profile Vashon Island West Seattle North Highline Burien SeaTac/Tukwila Vashon Island Des Moines/Normandy Park Kent-West East Federal Way Fed Way-Dash Point/Woodmont December, 212
49. INFANT MORTALITY RATE Wing Tam (Alice) Jennifer Cheng Stat 157 course project More Risk in Everyday Life Risk Meter LIKELIHOOD of exposure to hazardous levels Low Medium High Consequences: Severity,
As the Nation s principal health statistics agency, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) compiles statistical information to guide actions and policies to improve the health of the population.
Translating the Biology of Adversity Into More Effective Policy and Practice JACK P. SHONKOFF, M.D. Julius B. Richmond FAMRI Professor of Child Health and Development, Harvard School of Public Health and
MARCH OF DIMES SPECIAL REPORT Born Too Soon: Prematurity in the U.S. Hispanic Population FOR RELEASE NOVEMBER 1, 2007 Born Too Soon: Prematurity in the U.S. Hispanic Population The problem of preterm birth
Home Button Calendar Button Link Button Search Button OSDH Chronic Disease Service Logo Image Arthritis/Osteoporosis Programs Cancer Prevention Programs Diabetes Prevention Program Heart Disease and Stroke
State Health Assessment Health Priority Status Report Update June 29, 2015 Presented by UIC SPH and IDPH 1 Health Priority Presentation Objectives 1. Explain context of how this discussion fits into our
Policy Forum I N S T I T U T E O F G O V E R N M E N T&P U B L I C A F F A I R S I N S T I T U T E O F G O V E R N M E N T&P U B L I C A F F A I R S Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities in Illinois: Are
Projections of the Size and Composition of the U.S. Population: to Population Estimates and Projections Current Population Reports By Sandra L. Colby and Jennifer M. Ortman Issued March 15 P25-1143 INTRODUCTION
January 2014 RDA Report 11.202 Olympia, Washington Pregnant and Parenting in Care in Washington State: Comparison to Other and Women who Gave Birth Laurie Cawthon, MD, MPH Barbara Lucenko, PhD Peter Woodcox,
Health Factors Health Behaviors MATCH County Ranking Data (Mobilizing Action Toward Community Health) 2010 Snapshot of Health Behaviors that Impact Health Outcomes MATCH - Buncombe County Buncombe Value
Pregnancy-Related Deaths Due to Cardiomyopathy - Florida, 1999-2010 THE FLORIDA PREGNANCY-ASSOCIATED MORTALITY REVIEW (FL-PAMR), 1999-2010 Funded through Title V MCH Block Grant FL-PAMR HISTORY In 1996,
Perinatal Mortality in New Zealand: Personal reflections from the UK perspective Professor Marian Knight NIHR Research Professor in Public Health National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit University of Oxford,
//1 The Epidemiology of Infectious and Chronic Diseases in Minority Communities December 7, 11 Mary G. McIntyre, M.D., M.P.H. Assistant State Health Officer for Disease Control and Prevention Alabama Department
Cardiovascular Disease and Maternal Mortality what do we know and what are the key questions? AFSHAN HAMEED, MD, FACOG, FACC Associate Clinical Professor Maternal Fetal Medicine and Cardiology University
1 A Strategic Plan for Improving Preconception Health and Health Care: Recommendations from the CDC Select Panel on Preconception Care Presentation by Kay A. Johnson, MPH, EdM Research Assistant Professor,
NEWS RELEASE FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Contact: Jennifer Morales or Rakesh Singh August 1, 2000 (202) 347-5270 New Report Provides Critical Information About Health Insurance and Access for Racial and Ethnic
Human Development Report Office OCCASIONAL PAPER The Impact of Health Insurance Coverage on Health Disparities in the United States Rowland, Diane and Catherine Hoffman. 2005. 2005/34 Inequality and health
Appendix D-- Epidemiology of AIDS in Women, Injection Drug Users, African Americans, and Hispanics The epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the United States has now entered its second
Categorizing Race and Ethnicity in Medical Research Marvella E. Ford, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Medicine Associate Director, Cancer Disparities Hollings Cancer Center July 18, 2012 Population
DISPARITIES IN MATERNAL & INFANT HEALTH: ARE WE MAKING PROGRESS? LESSONS FROM CALIFORNIA Fall 2004 Disparities In Maternal And Infant Health: Are We Making Progress? Lessons From California Prepared by:
DOI 10.1007/s10995-015-1665-6 COMMENTARY Putting the M Back in the Maternal and Child Health Bureau: Reducing Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Michael C. Lu Keisher Highsmith David de la Cruz Hani K. Atrash
Planning & Action February 2008 9 By Mark Salling, Ph.D., and Michele Egan Health Needs Analysis, Assessment Looks at the Region Last year, The Center for Health Affairs (CHA) asked Community Solutions
Disparities in Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Health & Disease How Far Have We Come and What Remains to be Done? Martha L. Daviglus, MD, PhD Deaths Attributable to Cardiovascular Disease (United States:
Minority Health in West Virginia April 27 Bureau for Public Health Office of Epidemiology & Health Promotion 35 Capitol Street, Room 165 Charleston, 2531 Joe Manchin III, Governor Martha Yeager Walker,
The Health and Well-being of the Aboriginal Population in British Columbia Interim Update February 27 Table of Contents Terminology...1 Health Status of Aboriginal People in BC... 2 Challenges in Vital
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this
1 Healthy Goal: 2006 Child Well-Being Report Card A United Way Capital Area Success By 6 White Paper 1 Table of Contents Healthy Goal...1 Immunization Rates...2 Low Birth Rates...3 Mothers and Children
How Healthy are North Carolina s Mothers and Babies? HHS Joint Appropriations Subcommittee March 18, 2015 Dorothy Cilenti, DrPH, MPH, MSW Clinical Assistant Professor Department of Maternal and Child Health
Strategies to Enhance Health and Wellness in Minority Communities Valerie L. Giddings, Ph.D. Angela Radford Lewis, Ph.D., CFCS June 23, 2016 (4 pm) Overview Minority communities have been most affected
CHAPTER 2: CANCER MORTALITY Cancer Mortality More than 5,300 Kansans, on average, die of cancer each year. In Kansas, age-adjusted cancer mortality rates decreased significantly during the period 2000-2009
Stroke Prevention in Women Stroke is the 3rd leading cause of death in women. Stroke is the leading cause of disability and the third leading cause of death in women. In the United States, more than half
September 17, 2010 Secretary Kathleen Sebelius Department of Health and Human Services Hubert H. Humphrey Building 200 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20201 RE: Comments on OCIIO- 9992- IFC, Interim
Smoking Still Matters Before, During and After Pregnancy Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health (MCAH) Division Center for Family Health August 25, 2015 Photo: MCAH Library Maternal Tobacco Control Collaboration
Definitions of Maternal Mortality Produced by the Population Research Institute Morbidity versus Mortality Mortality: rate of death in a population Example: One person in a town of a hundred people died
Type 1 Diabetes W ( Juvenile Diabetes) hat is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile-onset diabetes, is one of the three main forms of diabetes affecting millions of people worldwide.
Factual Information Contained in this Report: Health Perceptions Health Insurance Coverage Health Care Access Preventive Health Care Maternal and Child Health Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use PURPOSE
Florida Department of Health Division of Disease Control Bureau of Epidemiology Chronic Disease Epidemiology Section Charlie Crist Governor Ana M. Viamonte Ros, M.D., M.P.H. State Surgeon General Florida
North Carolina Minority Health Facts / Latinos Office of Minority Health and State Center for Health Statistics September 1999 Demographics According to the 1997 Census, Latinos* constitute approximately
1 Does Disadvantage Start at Home? Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Early Childhood Home Routines, Safety, and Educational Practices/Resources Glenn Flores, MD Professor & Director, Center for the Advancement
An Overview of Abortion in the United States Guttmacher Institute January 2014 Objectives Provide an overview of unintended pregnancy and abortion in the United States. Review the incidence of pregnancy
Women s and Men s Health: A Comparison of Select Indicators OF & HEALTH HUMAN SERVICES. USA U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women s Health DEPARTMENT Recommended citation: U.S. Department
2013 Diabetes Snapshot Report The state of diabetes in Arkansas Jennifer Maulden, MA Martha Phillips, PhD University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Public Health 10/3 1/2013 This project was
March 2004 Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Women s Health Coverage and Access To Care Findings from the 2001 Kaiser Women s Health Survey Attention to racial and ethnic differences in health status and
AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND FACTSHEET What is Stillbirth? In Australia and New Zealand, stillbirth is the death of a baby before or during birth, from the 20 th week of pregnancy onwards, or 400 grams birthweight.
1 WHO/IER/HSI/12.1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 01 1 1 1 1 1 World Health Statistics 1 1 1 A snapshot of global health 0 World Health Organization 2012 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization
Alaska Maternal and Child Health Data Book 23 15 Adolescent Mortality Nationally, unintentional injury, assault and suicide account for 51% of deaths among adolescents ages 1-14 years in 2. Over the last
Public Health Seattle & King County Public Health Data Watch Volume 1 Number 1 August 28 Health of Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders in King County Key Points Over 15, Native Hawaiian and Other
Maternal Mortality Rate in Jordan & Maternal Nutrition: Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR), also called Maternal Mortality Rate, is the ratio of the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births from any
Part Burden of disease:. Broad cause composition 0 5. The age distribution of burden of disease 6. Leading causes of burden of disease 7. The disease and injury burden for women 6 8. The growing burden
Cultural Diversity, Health Disparities and Public Health Satellite Conference and Live Webcast Wednesday, November 28, 2007 12:00-1:30 p.m. (Central Time) Faculty Lisa C. Gary, PhD, MPH Department of Health
Promoting Family Planning INTRODUCTION Voluntary family planning has been widely adopted throughout the world. More than half of all couples in the developing world now use a modern method of contraception
A Review of Available Data on the Health of the Latino Population in North Carolina Paul A. Buescher, PhD Abstract Objective: To portray major health problems and conditions in the Latino population of
CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS BETWEEN TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND MATERNAL MORTALITY IN MALAWI Abiba Longwe-Ngwira and Nissily Mushani African Institute for Development Policy (AFIDEP) P.O. Box 31024, Lilongwe 3 Malawi
MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH OF ASIAN AMERICANS, NATIVE HAWAIIANS, & PACIFIC ISLANDERS Good health begins before we are born and can last a lifetime. Likewise, health disparities can begin even before birth.
Fertility and Birth Rates Updated: In 2014, the birth rate for young women (ages 15 to 24) continued to decline, after a small peak in 2007, although it increased slightly for the 25 to 44 age group. The
ADULT VACCINATION SCREENING FORM Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Please circle or for the following questions. Think of all the vaccine shots you have