1 Water Heater Sizing TS Saturday 2:15pm 5:15pm J. Joe Scott CPD, FASPE, LEED
2 Water Heater Sizing (to keep you out of hot water)
3 What is a water heater? An immersion element in a bucket works, but it is not very efficient.
4 A Brief History There have been several innovations in water heating technology over the years, but while some things have changed, some have not. Let s review a little history
5 Hot Water in 1894
6 Hot Water in 1894
7 Hot Water in 1916
8 Pipe Sizing Tables in 1916
9 Quantity and Demand Factors are not new ideas
10 The Plumber s Handbook 1922
11 Coal Fired Water Heater
12 Heater rated by the amount of coal used to heat the water
13 When Plumbing was plumbing 1916
16 Enough History Water heater technology can sometimes be as concerning today as it was a century ago
17 Water Heating is sometimes not what you would expect. Other areas of the world look at water heating differently than we do. They will provide hot water for showers and bathing only. Certain locations use ambient temperature water. And then there are others
20 Hot Water Temperature Is Important Generation Temperature Distribution Temperature Usable Temperatures You need to understand what each term means and why they are different.
21 Hot Water Temperature Is Important Generation Temperature the temperature of the water out of the water heater. Generally, a minimum of 140 F should be considered when generating hot water. This is to minimize bacterial growth in the water. But caution is necessary
22 Scalding Water Temperature Effects on Adult Epidermis 1 Temperature ( F) First Degree No Irreverible Damage Second Degree Full Thickness Injury H 4.5 Hours 5H Hours Hours 3 Hours Minutes 45 Minutes Minutes 20 Minutes Minutes 10 Minutes Minutes 4.2 Minutes Seconds 1.5 Minutes Seconds 60 Seconds Seconds 30 Seconds Seconds 5 Seconds Seconds S Second 1 JCAH Hot Water Temperature Standard (Chicago: American Society of Hospital Engineers, February, 1982) Technical Document No.:14:2-82
23 Temperatures Distribution temperature there may be two or three different distribution systems within the same building. 105 F, 120 F, 140 F F & 160 F are common distribution ib i temperatures. Separate piping loops and returns for each temperature t are required. Do not mix temperatures within the recirculation piping.
24 Usage Temperatures Use: Lavatory Showers and Tubs Commercial Laundry Residential Dishwasher and Laundry Temperature ( F): Commercial Kitchen
25 Mixed Water Temperature Mixing water at different temperatures to make a desired mixed water temperature is the main purpose of domestic hot water systems. Equation 1.4: P = (T m -T c )/(T h -T c ) T h = Supply hot water temperature T c = Inlet cold water temperature T m = Desired mixed water temperature P i th h t t lti li hi h i d P is the hot water multiplier, which is expressed as a percentage.
26 Recovery Rates Depending on the fuel that is used to fire the water heater, the input and recovery rate calculations are different.
27 Basic Relationships and Units The fundamental formula for a steady state heat balance for the heat input and output of the system. q = r w c T q = time rate of heat transfer, Btu/h r = flow rate, gph w = weight of heated water, lb/h c = specific heat of water, Btu/lb/ F T = change in heated water temperature, F
28 Gas Water Heaters For the purposes of this presentation, the specific heat of water is constant at: c = 1 Btu/lb/ F and the weight of water is constant at: thus: 8.33 lb/gal q = gph[(1 Btu/lb/ F)(8.33 lb/gal)( T)]
29 Electric Water Heaters Assuming that 1 kilowatt of electrical power will raise 410 gallons of water 1 F. The kilowatt input of the electric water heater may be determined from the following formula: kw = (gph)/(gal. of water per kw at T) T = temperature rise, F gph = gallons per hour of hot water required
30 Electric Water Heaters Temperature Rise, T, F Gallons of W ater per kw
31 Steam Water Heaters The amount of steam required to heat water 100 F with 15 psig steam: Steam (lbs/hr) = (gpm)(500)( T)/950 T = temperature rise, F gpm = gallons per minute of hot water required 500 = the hydronic constant (8.33 lbs/gal x 60 min.) 950 = latent heat in btu/lb for 15 psi steam
32 Recovery & Energy Usage BTU/H Calculations Recovery (gph): 1200 gph Temp. Rise (F) 100 F Weight of Water (Lbs) 8.33 lbs Efficiency (%) 85% % Input Nat. Gas (btuh) 1,176,000 btuh Input Nat. Gas (mbh) 1,176 mbh Input (kw) kw BTU/H Calculations Recovery (gpm): 30 gpm Temp. Rise (F) 100 F Weight of Water (Lbs) 8.33 lbs Input 15 lb Steam (lbs/hr) 1579 lbs/hr
33 Water Usage Patterns in 1916
34 Storage and Recovery There is a relationship between storage and recovery. The recovery rate of the heater can be reduced if the amount of hot water in storage is increased. Once the recovery rate of the heater is determined, the amount of storage required to keep up with the instantaneous demand for hot water should be reviewed. Determining the exact relationship will depend on the building type being designed. ed.
35 Principles & Practice of Plumbing, 1906
36 Principles & Practice of Plumbing, 1906
37 Storage Capacity
38 Modified Hunter s Curve
39 Selection of Equipment Gas fired equipment and its operating temperature shall be selected to assure the operating temperature of the heater will not be less than the dewpoint temperature t of fthe flue gas to avoid condensation. In other words, the inlet temperature to certain types of gas fired water heaters and the final temperature of the heated water must checked with the manufacturer in order to verify the design parameters of the water heater have not been exceeded.
40 Stratification Stratification is the fraction of usable stored water in the warm water layer that is formed by the natural tendency of the warmer water to rise to the top and occurs in all uncirculated tanks. It has been found that the amount of usable water in stratified horizontal and vertical tanks is about 65% and 75%, respectively. 75% Usable Water 65% Usable Water
41 Hot Water Temperature What is the maximum temperature to be distributed to the plumbing fixture according to the code?
42 Hot Water Temperature What is the maximum temperature to be distributed to the plumbing fixture according to the code? Americans With Disabilities Act: Model Plumbing Codes: (There are provisions for maximum water temperatures from showers to be limited to 120 degrees F. F.)
43 Hot Water Temperature What is the maximum temperature to be distributed to the plumbing fixture according to the code?
44 Legionella Pneumophila Legionella Pneumophila, also known as Legionnaires Disease, is a respiratory illness that can be fatal. The bacteria that can cause Legionnaires Disease are widespread in natural sources of water. In warm water, the bacteria can grow and multiply to high concentrations. Drinking water containing the Legionella bacteria has no known effects.
45 Legionella Pneumophila However, inhalation of the bacteria into the lungs, i.e. during showers, can cause Legionnaires Disease. It is incumbent upon designers to familiarize themselves with the latest t information on the subject and to take this data into account when designing their systems.
46 Legionella Pneumophila Careful consideration should be given to the temperature the water in the heater is heated to. ASPE recommends heating the water to 140 degrees F. as does ASHRAE and others.
47 Relief Valves Pressure and Temperature Relief Valves are different and have different applications. Combination temperature/pressure relief valves are available and are generally used in domestic systems. It is recommended the designer research the various relief valves, ratings and their applications.
48 Relief Valves Location of relief valves: Since heat rises, the hottest water in the water heater will be at the top of the tank. The relief valve should be located where the hottest water will be. Due to temperature lag (under no flow conditions), the relief valve must be located in the uppermost 6 inches of the tank. (Temperature lag is the decrease in temperature in the piping leaving the tank).
52 Relief Valves:
53 Relief Valves: Did we mention the piping could not decrease in size?
54 Relief Valves:
55 Relief Valves: And certainly cannot be plugged for any reason
58 Relief Valves Pressure and dtemperature Relief fvalves also rated by different methods and usually have multiple ratings listed on the valve. The various listing agencies, AGA, ANSI, ASME, NBBPVI, have ratings which are on each relief valve. Depending on the listing agency, the criteria for the relieving characteristics changes.
59 Thermal Expansion As water is heated, it expands and thus increases its volume. If this extra volume of water is not compensated for the pressure in the entire hot water system increases. This is complicated by the addition of a check valve, backflow prevention device, pressure reducing valve or even a water softener ahead of the water heater.
60 Thermal Expansion
61 Thermal Expansion, the old way
62 Thermal Expansion One method dto compensate for the expansion of hot water is the installation of a thermal expansion tank. The increase in volume can be calculated by multiplying the water heater tank volume by an expansion factor. The expansion factor will change depending on the change in temperature of the water.
63 Thermal Expansion For example: Atemperature t change from 40 Ft to 140 F will increase the volume of the water heater by gallons per gallon of capacity. 500 gallons (0.0150) = 7.5 gallons of expanded water volume. If this expansion in the volume of water is not compensated for, the pressure in the system will increase.
64 Thermal Expansion
65 Thermal Expansion
66 Thermal Expansion
67 Storage and Recovery The design of a domestic water heating system begins with estimating the facility s load profile and identifying the peak demand times. To accomplish these steps, the designer must conduct discussions with the users of the space, determine the building type, and learn of any owner requirements. The information thus gathered will establish the required capacity of the water heating equipment and the general type of system to be used.
68 Storage and Recovery There is a relationship between storage and recovery. The recovery rate of the heater can be reduced if the amount of hot water in storage is increased. Once the recovery rate of the heater is determined, the amount of storage required to keep up with the instantaneous demand for hot water should be reviewed. Determining the exact relationship will depend on the building type being designed.
69 Selection of Equipment Gas fired equipment and its operating temperature shall be selected to assure the operating temperature of the heater will not be less than the dewpoint temperature t of fthe flue gas to avoid condensation. In other words, the inlet temperature to certain types of gas fired water heaters and the final temperature of the heated water must checked with the manufacturer in order to verify the design parameters of the water heater have not been exceeded.
70 Stratification Stratification is the fraction of usable stored water in the warm water layer that is formed by the natural tendency of the warmer water to rise to the top and occurs in all uncirculated tanks. It has been found that the amount of usable water in stratified horizontal and vertical tanks is about 65% 75% Usable and 75%, respectively. Water 65% Usable Water
71 Stratification, cont d Stratification during recovery yperiods can be reduced significantly by mechanical circulation of the water in the tank. During periods of demand, however, it is useful to have good stratification since this increases the availability of water at a usable temperature.
72 Stratification, cont d For Example: If a tank were equally stratified between 140 F at the top and 40 F at the bottom, this tank, in theory, could still deliver half its volume at 140 F. But, if the two layers were completely mixed, the tank temperature would drop to 90 F, which, in most cases, is an unusable temperature. One way to encourage stratification in tanks is by limiting the velocity of water entering the tank.
73 Codes and Standards Some of the most often used codes and standards are: Regional, State and Local plumbing codes ASHRAE/IES 90.1 ASME code for fired and unfired pressure vessels ASME and AGA codes for relief valves UL listing for electrical components NSF listing AGA approval for gas burning components NFPA Standards NEC - National Electrical lcode
74 Sizing the Water Heater Why is sizing a water heater so difficult? Understanding key issues about the building and hot water system can make the sizing of a water heater much easier.
75 Understand your building type - You must understand your building type to understand how the building will use hot water. Fitness centers, dorms, hotels, sports arenas, hospitals, laboratories, prisons, schools, etc all have the same fixtures but different load profiles.
76 De-rating of Water Heaters Altitude De-rating: Water Heaters installed above 2000 feet above sea level need to be de-rated to account for the reduction in oxygen content. Oil fired heaters should be de-rated 5% for every 1000 feet above 2000 feet above sea level. Gas fired heaters should be de-rated 4% for every 1000 feet above 2000 feet above sea level.
77 Careful of your assumptions Further investigations are often required when using modern equipment and fixtures. Flow rates and water usage has decreased in the past decade and most of the information available has not accounted for the reduction in water usage. The trend of reducing the amount of hot water being used will continue as the industry embraces sustainability issues.
78 Sizing the Water Heater Rational method: Quantity of fixtures x Flow x Duration during the peak period of water usage equals the amount of water required to meet the demand.
79 Rational Method HOT WATER CALCULATION FLO W DURATIO N GPH GPH GPH O THER TO TAL GPH FIXTURE QTY. RATE OF FLOW DEMAND DEMAND DEMAND DEMAND OF 140 F GPM SOURCE LAVATO RY - PRIVATE LAVATO RY - PUBLIC WASHFOUNTAIN (4 PERSON) SHOWER BATHTUB LAUNDRY TUB SERVICE SINK MO P SINK HYDRO THERAPY TUB CLINICAL SINK SINK DISPOSER/PRE-RINSE COMP. SINK COMP. SINK COMP. SINK DISHWASHER (RESIDENTIAL) HOSE STATION CLO THES WASHER (RESIDENTIAL) CO MMERCIAL DISHWASHER 0 COMMERCIAL WASHER-EXTRACTOTO R 0 SUBTOTALS
80 Sizing the Water Heater The quantity of fixtures important, but the demand of the building is the determining factor.
81 Various building types have different load profiles The type of building served will assist in determining what kind of water heater should be used. Office buildings, Hospitals and Hotels all have different characteristics that make them unique.
82 Key yq Questions for every building How is hot water in the building used? How many hours per day is hot water needed? Is there something unique about the operation of the building that could effect the amount of hot water required?
83 Key yq Questions for every building Hospitals Nursing Homes Schools Laboratories ato Prisons Health Clubs Dormitories Multi-Family Dwelling Building Occupancy Simultaneous usage Hours of operation Building Occupant Demographic Peak hour (or should it be two hours)
84 Special Considerations i Fixtures to watch for: Vichy showers, Arm/leg bath, Hot tubs, emergency showers.
85 Laboratory Hot Water? Emergency showers can be the largest almost user of hot water in a laboratory. Emergency equipment water supply must be evaluated depending on the risk. ANSI Z358.1 indicates tepid water should be used. This is generally accepted to be 85 degrees F. This water must be potable.
86 Equipment? Equipment to watch for: Washer/extractors Glass washers, dishwashers, kitchen equipment, process equipment, rack washers, cart washers Zamboni's (200 gallons every 20 minutes)
87 Various Hot Water Requirements
88 Changing flow rates
89 Changing water demands
96 And this?
99 Laundries di Rules of Thumb: Generally washers require 2.5 gallons per pound of laundry. Approximately 70% of the water will be hot water. Storage capacity of the laundry heater should be a minimum of 50% of the hourly demand.
100 Laundry Drains
101 Required pre-heating?
102 Required pre-heating
103 So what size water heater do you think this will take?
104 Thermostatic Mixing Valves: Hot Water Cold Water 200 gpm 200 gpm 200 gpm
105 Thermostatic Mixing Valves: Pressure drop can be too high if piping does not change size close to the equipment or valve being served.
108 Let me count tth the ways Relief valve discharge Relief valve missing Dielectric unions Isolation valves on tanks
109 Relief Valves: Relief Valves need to comply with the following things: Located in the top 6 of the tank they are protecting. Discharge within 6 of the floor or drain. Proper materials.
110 Gives all new meaning to the term combustion air.
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