Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health Insurance Coverage Among Adult Workers in Florida. Jacky LaGrace Mentor: Dr. Allyson Hall

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1 Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health Insurance Coverage Among Adult Workers in Florida Jacky LaGrace Mentor: Dr. Allyson Hall

2 Overview Background Study objective Methods Results Conclusion Limitations/Future research Acknowledgements

3 Background 45 million Americans are without coverage 82% of uninsured children and adults under 65 live in a household with a working person (Kaiser Commission on Medicaid & the Uninsured, 2004) 18.5 million of the uninsured are employed Minorities, especially, Hispanics more likely to lack coverage (Commonwealth Fund, 2004)

4 Background Racial/ethnic differences in health care coverage are related to employment Various reform proposals focus on strengthening employer-based system of coverage Little is known about variations occurring at the state and local level Health insurance is a major predictor of appropriate healthcare utilization

5 Purpose Investigate extent to which socioeconomic and employment-related factors explain racial/ethnic differences in rates of insurance coverage among adult workers in Florida Explore whether minorities remain at a disadvantage in obtaining coverage even when controlling for other variables

6 Methods Data source is the 2004 FHIS Telephone Survey, a stratified random-digit digit dial sample Survey conducted with 17,436 households, and provided data on 46,876 individuals Analysis was limited to working adults age (N=23,395) Utilized the statistical data analysis software Stata Bivariate analysis calculated the rates of uninsurance across racial and ethnic groups

7 Methods Logistic regression analysis conducted while controlling for: -Demographic factors (e.g. race, gender, and marital status) -SES (e.g. FPL, and education) -Employment-related characteristics (e.g. length of employment, FT/PT employment, and firm size) -Geographic location

8 Descriptive Statistics Among Adult workers in the population: 63.7% are White, 13.9% Black, 18.2% Hispanic, and 4.2% Other Male: 53.5% Female: 46.5%

9 % Uninsured Adult Workers in Florida by Race, 2004 Total White Black Hispanic Other 50% 40% 33% 30% 20% 19% 15% 23% 18% 10% 0% Source: 2004 Florida Health Insurance Study (FHIS)

10 % Uninsured Adult Workers in Florida by Race, and Employment Type, 2004 White Black Hispanic Other 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 49% 48% 36% 38% 37% 30% 25% 26% 22% 18% 11% 13% FT Employment PT Employment Self-Employed Source: 2004 Florida Health Insurance Study (FHIS)

11 % Uninsured Adult Workers in Florida by Race, and Firm Size, % 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 26% White Black Hispanic Other 47% 47% 36% 1-24 Employees 15% 28% 38% 20% Employees Source: 2004 Florida Health Insurance Study (FHIS) 25% 19% 11% 9% Employees 9% 11% 6% 5% 1,000 or More Employees

12 % Uninsured Adult Workers in Florida by Race, and Sector, 2004 White Black Hispanic Other 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 16% 10% 3% 53% 49% 36% 31% 25% 26% 15% 16% 8% Government Private Self-Employed Source: 2004 Florida Health Insurance Study (FHIS)

13 Adjusted Odds of Being Uninsured Among Adult Workers in Florida Race/Ethnicity Odds Ratio P> t (95% Conf. Interval) Black Hispanic Other *Reference group is White *Controlling for: FPL, education, age, gender, marital status, employment sector, firm size, length of employment, type of employment, and geographic location Source: 2004 Florida Health Insurance Study (FHIS)

14 Conclusion Hispanic adult workers are more likely to be uninsured, and socioeconomic and employment characteristics do not entirely explain this phenomena Future research is needed to better understand why Hispanic workers have lower rates of health insurance coverage

15 Limitations of Research Have not considered immigrant status A cross-sectional sectional study Study is based on a survey Rural/urban variations not fully explored

16 Future Research Refine outcome variable Examine disparities occurring within racial/ethnic groups (Hispanic, and Black) Investigate rural/urban differences across Florida

17 Acknowledgments Dr. Allyson Hall Dr. Paul Duncan Dr. Robert Frank McNair program & staff Dr. Terry L. Mills Lorna Chorba Florida Center for the Medicaid and the Uninsured

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