1 Immunohistochemical differentiation of metastatic tumours Dr Abi Wheal ST1. TERA 3/2/14 Key points from a review article written by Daisuke Nonaka
2 Intro Metastatic disease is the initial presentation in 10-15% of cases (higher in carcinomas) In up to 1/3 of cases the primary tumour site may not be identified Common organs involved in metastasis Lung, LN s, liver, bone and brain In these organs there is a higher incidence of mets than primary tumours
3 Intro In some cancers, there may be a long latent period before metastasis and therefore a detailed medical history together with radiological findings is essential. Such information allows you to narrow down the differential and therefore select relevant immuno cost-effective and time-efficient
4 Undifferentiated tumours Can be classified into generic morphological categories :- Small round blue cell neoplasm Spindle cell neoplasm Epithelioid neoplasm Pleomorphic neoplasm In each category, depending on age, sex, clinical history and location of metastasis, there would be a statistically probably differential diagnosis
5 Immunohistochemistry In metastatic undifferentiated tumours, immuno should aim at determination of the broad category of tumour groups Carcinoma Cytokeratin Melanoma S100 Lymphoma CD45 Sarcoma Vimentin Germ cell tumour no pan-germ cell tumour immuno
6 Carcinomas Cytokeratins are useful screening markers Poorly differentiated carcinomas show variable expression to CK s EMA (epithelial membrane antigen) may serve as a supplement to CK s especially in sarcomatoid or undifferentiated carcinoma that are ve for CK. EMA however is negative in some epithelial tumours (endocrine, medullary thyroid) and are positive in some haematopoieitc malignancies. Abberant CK staining in nonepithelial malignancy is weak and stains focally whereas CK staining in carcinomas is strong.
7 Germ cell tumours There is no pan-germ cell tumour immuno marker When germ cell tumours are suspected OCT3/4 detects components of seminoma and embryonal carcinoma OCT3/4 is a transcription factor and is fundamental in the maintenance of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells its expression dissappears rapidly when cells differentiate. Combinations of CD30 and CD117 can help to distinguish between seminoma and embryonic carcinoma Seminoma CD30 -, CD117 + Embryonal CD30 +, CD117 -
8 Metastatic seminoma in a LN OCT3/4 immuno
9 Malignant melanoma S100 in the screening marker for MM with >95% sensitivity. S100 however has a low specificity and is also expressed in other tumours Peripheral nerve sheath tumours Occasional adenocarcinomas Therefore melanocyte-specific markers are used HMB-45 (sensitivity 75-92%) Melan A (sensitivity 69-93%) However, desmoplastic and spindle cell melanomas are negative for melanocyte-specific markers
10 Malignant melanoma S100 Melan A HMB45
11 Haematopoietic malignancies CD45 has high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (nearly 100%) for lymphoid tumours However, CD45 is unexpressed in lymphoblastic lymphomas and variably expressed in plasma cell neoplasms and anaplastic large cell lymphomas.
13 Organ specific markers Lung TTF-1 Thyroid thyroglobulin, calcitonin Adrenal Melan-A, inhibin-a and calretinin are expressed in adrenocortical carcinomas Breast ER & PR GI & pancreas CDX-2 Liver HepPar-1 Kidney RCC, CD10 Ovary CA125 Endometrium ER, PR Prostate - PSA
14 Transcription factors Proteins that control the first step of gene expression. Orchestrate the complex pathways of cellular growth and differentiation. Some are tissue/organ specific therefore helpful for determining cell lineage of tumour
15 TTF-1 Expressed in lung, thyroid and ventral forebrain Expressed in 75% of lung adenocarcinomas Usually negative in mucinous carcinomas and bronchogenic squamous cell carcinomas Consistently expressed in papillary, follicular Hürthle cell and poorly differentiated carcinomas of the thyroid Expressed in 18% of anaplastic and variably in medullary thryroid carcinomas.
16 Metastatic thyroid follicular carcinoma stained for TTF-1.
17 WT-1 Normally expressed in developing human organs kidneys, ovarian surface epithelium and mesothelium Usually negative in all endometrial carcinomas In ovarian carcinomas positive in serous adenocarcinoma, transitional carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma negative in clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous carcinomas Good marker for epithelioid malignant mesothelioma Useful to distinguish mesothelioma from adenocarcinoma of the lung
18 CDX-2 Plays a critical role in the development of the intestines Useful marker for intestinal differentiation Expressed in 70-85% of colorectal adenocarcinomas which is also retained in metastatic foci Its expression declines in poorly differentiated carcinomas Also seen in adenocarcinomas of GOJ, stomach, ampulla and small intestine. Seen in 5-30% of pancreas ductal adenocarcinomas, cholangiocarcinmas and gall bladder adenocarcinomas.
19 CDX-2 staining in normal bowel Ascending colon Descending colon Rectum Adenocarcinoma of the colon
20 P-63 Pivotal in the development and maintenance of stratified epithelia Expressed by squamous epithelium, urothelium and thymic epithelium as well as myoepithelial cells in breast, salivary, bronchial and sweat glands basal cells of prostate Bronchus Almost always expressed by SCC, thymomas, BCC, urothelial carcinomas and myoepithelial carcinomas
21 Fli-1 Master regulator of the haemangioblast, a common precursor of blood and endothelium Expressed by endothelial cells of all types of vessel Positive in Ewing s sarcoma/pnet, lymphoblastic lymphomas and malignant vascular tumours (angiosarcoma, epithelioid haemangioendotheliomas and Kaposi sarcomas) Also expressed in subset of Merkel cell carcinomas, malignant melanomas, synovial sarcomas, adenocarcinomas of the lung and breast.
22 Ewing s sarcoma Fli-1 Epithelioid angiosarcoma Fli-1
23 Nectrotic tumours Immuno may not work due to loss of antigenicity or may result in false positivity Immuno hay be helpful in some situations HMB-45 & Melan-A in maligant melanoma CK, OCT3/4, CD30 &CD117 in germ cell tumours The necrotic cells that retain immunoreactivity correspond to areas where the outline of tumour cells (ghost cells) are recognised on H&E
24 Be careful when using immuno as there are no definite rules. Use immuno to confirm your suspected diagnosis not to give the initial diagnosis.
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