Plate out in PVC Extrusion A never ending Story? Dr. M. Schiller, Dr. B. Pelzl, R. Haberleitner (Chemson Group), Dr. Y. Salamonov (Elnova)

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1 Plate out in PVC Extrusion A never ending Story?

2 Influence of filler, Titanium dioxide and modifier Influence of extrusion Influence of lubricants and soaps Influence of water Summary The lab method The mechanisms Cover of QUEEN s Vinyl Innuendo EMI

3 Bohemian Rhapsody Is this the real life Is this just fantasy Caught in a landslide No escape from reality Open your eyes Look up to the skies and see I'm just a poor boy, I need no sympathy Because I'm easy come, easy go, A little high, little low, Anyway the wind blows, doesn't really matter to me, To me Dr. F. Mercury, M. Schiller, R. Taylor, Dr. B. Pelzl, J. Deacon, R. Haberleitner B. May (Queen) (Chemson Group), Dr. Y. Salamonov (Elnova)

4 Plate out in the Die Extrusion direction Extruder drawing: G. Aylett & Associate/AUS

5 Plate out in the Die Analytical results Examples for profiles/% Titanium Lead Calcium Zinc Organica Chloride pos. pos. pos. 0,3 0, pos. pos. pos.

6 Plate out in the Calibrator Extrusion direction Extruder Water steam Calibrator Water steam distillation Exceed of solubility Deposites

7 Plate out analysis Plate out composition: Solution of problem: - inorganics -- Chlorine -- Calcium, Zinc, Lead -- Titanium - organics -- short-chain fatty acids -- low melting lubricants -- costabilisers -- antioxidants - optimisation of mixing, extruder set up - optimisation of dryblend and stabiliser compostion - addition of antiplate out-additives

8 Chemson s method #1 (Die) Breaker Plate #3 # #2 Adaptor

9 Reliability of the Method C u m u la tiv e fr e q u e n c y Derivative plot Average =.03 Std. deviation = 0.0 Standard error = 0.1 0,75 7,25 7,75,25,75 9,25 Plate out 0

10 Influence of Water 13 Plate out rating ,1 0,2 0,3 phr water

11 Dependency on phr PE wax Plate 1 out 1 Plate 1 out 1 PE 1 Plate 1 out 1 0,1 0,2 0,3 0, phr PE 0,5 1 PE 1 Plate 1 out 1 0,1 0,2 0,3 0, phr CaSt 0,5 PE 1 0,1 0,2 0,3 0, phr PbSt 0, MT/ C 19

12 Dependency on phr PE wax Plate 1 out 1 Plate 1 out 1 0,1 0,2 0,3 0, phr PE 0,5 1 0,1 0,2 0,3 0, phr PE 0,5 3 Plate 1 out 1 Plate 1 out 1 0,1 0,2 0,3 0, phr PE 0,5 2 0,1 0,2 0,3 0, phr PE 0,5

13 The test formulation 0,00 phr PVC [k=7] 1,00 phr processing aid 0,25 phr NLS 0,50 phr DBLS 3,00 phr DBLP 0,25 phr Calcium stearate 0,20 phr PE wax 0,20 phr oxidised PE wax 2,00 5,00 phr Titanium dioxide (Supplier A) 5,00,00 phr acrylic modifier 3,00,00 phr filler with coating

14 Influence of filler 0,00 phr PVC [k=7] 5,0 phr Lead stabiliser 3,50 phr Titanium dioxide (Supplier A),50 phr acrylic modifier 235 Nm extrusion torque 215 Bar extrusion pressure 1 Plate out value ,00,50,00 phr 7,50 filler 9,00

15 Influence of filler Plate out value 2 0 0,00 2,75 5,50,25 11,00 13,75 phr filler

16 Influence of Titanium dioxide 0,00 phr PVC [k=7] 5,0 phr Lead stabiliser 5,50 phr chalk,50 phr acrylic modifier 235 Nm extrusion torque 215 bar extrusion pressure Plate out value ,00 3,50,00 phr,50 TiO 2 5,00

17 Influence of Titanium dioxide manufacturer 0,00 phr PVC [k=7] 5,0 phr Lead stabiliser 5,50 phr chalk,50 phr acrylic modifier 3,50 or 7,00 phr Titanium dioxide 235 Nm extrusion torque 215 bar extrusion pressure 20 7,0 phr 3,5 phr Supplier A Supplier B Supplier C plate out

18 Influence of acrylic modifier 0,00 phr PVC [k=7] 5,0 phr Lead stabiliser 5,50 phr chalk 3,50 phr Titanium dioxide (supplier A) 235 Nm extrusion torque 215 bar extrusion pressure 1 Plate out value ,00,00 7,00 phr modifier,00 9,00

19 Influence of extrusion torque 0,00 phr PVC [k=7] 5,0 phr Lead stabiliser 5,50 phr chalk 3,50 phr Titanium dioxide (supplier A),50 phr acrylic modifier 215 bar extrusion pressure 1 Plate out value Nm 255

20 Influence of extrusion pressure 0,00 phr PVC [k=7] 5,0 phr Lead stabiliser 5,50 phr chalk 3,50 phr Titanium dioxide (supplier A),50 phr acrylic modifier 235 Nm extrusion torque 1 Plate out value bar 235

21 Influence of mixting procedure normal double batching normal Plate out double batching normal double batching normal double batching

22 Summary 1. Water increases the plate out both in die and calibrator. 2. Plate out decreases the gloss. 3. Lippoldt s mechanism applies also to lead-based systems.. PE waxes, Calcium and Lead stearates form alloys! 5. The higher the filler dosage is the less plate out will result.. The more Titanium dioxide was added the more plate out will occur. 7. Acrylic modifier has probably no influence on the plate out.. A higher extrusion torque causes more plate out. 9. The extrusion pressure has no or only a small influence on plate out.. An increase of mass temperature causes in the most cases more plate out. 11. The plate out-method allows to characterise the processing window of waxes and soaps. Anyway the wind blows

23 Thank you for your kind attention Cover of QUEEN s Vinyl Innuendo EMI

24 DoE Statistical Design of Rheological Experiments (1) Variables: - metal soap - internal lubricant - paraffin Responses: - Extrusion torque - Extrusion pressure - Plate out Number of Experiments: +1 Used Softeware: ECHIP

25 DoE Statistical Design of Rheological Experiments (2) - Metal soap phr - paraffin phr Paraffin 0. - internal phr Mixture soap Wax B Wax C internal 0. 0 Metal soap 0.7

26 Statistical Design of Rheological Experiments (3) - Reliability DoE Fitted values 1 extrusion-torque Observations Observations Fitted values 2 extrusion-pressure

27 Statistical Design of Rheological Experiments () - Reliability DoE Fitted values Plate-out Observations

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