1 International Journal of Languages Education and Teaching Volume 3 / 2014 THE ASSESSMENT OF TURKISH WRITTEN EXAMINATION QUESTIONS BASED ON THE TEXT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE BARRETT S TAXONOMY Ali GÖÇER Assoc. Prof. Dr. Erciyes University Department of Turkish Education ABSTRACT In this study, Turkish text-based written examination questions posed to students in secondary schools were examined. In this research, document analysis method within the framework of the qualitative research approach was used. The data obtained from the documents consisting of written examination papers were analyzed with content analysis method. In this study, it is intended to determine whether the written examination questions asked and to measure the students acquisition about the verbal skills in accordance with the purpose or not; whether the distribution of the written examination questions on the Barrett's taxonomy domain sublevels is balanced or not; and whether the examination questions meet the acquisitions determined in the program or not. Document review within the framework of a qualitative research method was used in this study. The study has been conducted in 43 primary schools selected from different socio-cultural districts in Kayseri province. A total of 49 written examination papers have been determined with random method among papers. During the analysis, the taxonomic scale were used, given extensive information and added to the end of research. According to the results obtained, a written exam questions used to determine students' reading comprehension skills are concentrated stage of simple understanding in the Barrett's Taxonomy, the steps of meeting the reorganizing and the satisfaction was not enough. The distribution of the written examination questions in according to Barrett's Taxonomy sublevels is not balanced. Keywords: reading comprehension, text-based questions, measurement and evaluation, Barrett's taxonomy. 1. Introduction Education, in general terms, the job of bringing about changes in human behavior (Baykul, 1992). The ultimate aim is to prepare by developing students' cognitive, linguistic and social skills a higher education institution and to life in basic training institution. The Ministry of Education stated in the name basic skills cognitive, linguistic and social skills, in the field high-level skills such as in the target Turkish, mathematics, science, social studies courses program. Basic language skills in Turkish courses consist of reading, listening/viewing, speaking, and writing. Reading obtained naturally in family atmosphere and facilities of the social environment. Reading is an important skill gained through training activities in regular school environment after the listening and speaking skills.
2 2 Ali GÖÇER Educational institutions enable students to be equipped with the basic qualification with respect to the knowledge of their respective age and grade level. Moreover, educational institutions give the opportunity to exhibit these skills and acquired knowledge. Students gaining such important qualifications find out the status of the development in teaching and learning process and activities should be planned according to this. For this, assessment and evaluation activities must be put into practice to determine students performance in activities, and to enhance the level of competency. The acquisition of the language depends on the development of the child s cognitive, affective, and psychomotor aspects. Therefore, child s language development in the primary education period must be defined by examining from a cognitive aspect in order to understand the process better (Yapıcı, 2004). The first student characteristics determining the level of student learning is his cognitive entry behavior; and the second is quality of the sensory input characteristics related to learning process (Bloom, 1998). Students' levels of readiness must be carefully determined in order to provide them with a number of skills which match the corresponding levels. Students cognitive competencies need to be determined so that future studies may be conducted at the desired level and succeed in achieving their goals. Therefore, written examination questions used in determining student success must be prepared in order for them to gain basic and upper level skills such as understanding, comprehension, interpreting, drawing cause and effect relationship, decision making, elucidation, arranging, questioning, solving problems, and they must contribute not only to the cognitive development of the students, but also to their affective and psychomotor development (Göçer, 2011). The educational objectives in the measurement and assessment process need to be known. As a matter of fact, assessment is a tool used to investigate the extent to which certain objectives are accomplished and to decipher which objectives have not been adequately accomplished. Therefore, the prerequisite for writing test items (questions) for the objectives set at different levels is the classification of the objectives and educators knowledge of the content of these objectives (Yılmaz, 2002). Questions have a special importance in educational settings and especially in Turkish language teaching as they mobilize thinking, allow thinkers to reach to truths, have a key role in accessing the meaning of texts and also function as the main tool of measurement and evaluation (Sarar Kuzu, 2013). When preparing written examination questions, the determination of knowledge accumulation as well as skills acquisition during the process must be aimed at. Students skills such as deciding, interpreting, deriving results, drawing cause and effect relationship must be measured, and the obtained results must be utilized in planning their future educational environments (Göçer, 2011). Basic skills associated with flourishes of language skills and are skills that will use lifelong. In this context, basic skills targeted to be reached in programs as follows: accurate and efficient using of Turkish; critical thinking, creative thinking, communication, problem solving, ability of research, decision-making, information technologies and entrepreneurship (MEB, 2006).
3 THE ASSESSMENT OF TURKISH WRITTEN EXAMINATION QUESTIONS BASED ON THE TEXT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE BARRETT S TAXONOMY Among the factors that can explain the relationship between questioning and reading comprehension, three have been discussed in previous literature: (a) active text processing, (b) knowledge use, and (c) attention focus. According to some authors, it is possible that the generation of questions improves reading comprehension as a result of active text processing. When asking questions, students are involved in multiple processes requiring deeper interaction with text. During questioning, students ponder relationships among different aspects of the text. They hypothesize, focus on details and main ideas, use attention selectively on different text sections, and possibly anticipate conclusions about information in the text. Questions may contribute to reading comprehension mostly because they initiate cognitive processes (Taboada and Guthrie, 2006). According to Treiman (2003) and Dechant a (1991) reading, a process of decoding individuals who have reached a certain level of cognitive development, the letters representing the sounds of the language and form of these letters come together and fulfill as a result of recognition of the functioning of language string. This aspect of the decoding process, depending on the reader's competence and equipment takes place in a manner extending from the bottom upwards from sounds, sentences, and from there to the text (cit. Ülper and Yalınkılıç, 2010). The reading is a skill giving the opportunity to encounter of students reaching different sources of new information, events, situations and experiences. The reading is a skill that allows learning, research, interpretation, discussion, critical thinking. In Turkish program, aimed students can read the texts correctly, critically interpret and on making a habit of reading. The rules of reading, to understand the texts read, analysis, evaluation of the texts read, make a habit of reading and gain a variety of activities for the conversion are included in Turkish program (MEB, 2006). The reading ability both the lives of education and job of students has a function. An individual's quality of life is highlighted the acquisition of reading skills and transformation of the way of life. Reading ability has an important function in the life of an individual's gaining, development, measurement, and must be formatted according to the results of the process. The most important point to be emphasized here is measuring students' reading comprehension skills and planning of the process according to the results of measurement. As such, the process of learning and teaching, the quality of education will be given according to the individual differences of students. As such the quality of education given to students based on individual differences will increase in the process of learning and teaching. The assessment of students' reading comprehension skills are taken into consideration in process evaluation (observation notes, form data, which measures the status of skills, participation in activities in the process conditions). In addition to these, classic written exam questions based on texts are used. There are taxonomies prepared and used in different purposes and functions previously. According to Dindar and Demir, one of this taxonomy is Bloom Taxonomy and although in order to classify the objectives of education and training especially is used in the determination of the levels of question at the cognitive domain (2006, p. 90). Barrett's Taxonomy is a study prepared to determine the status of students' reading comprehension.
4 4 Ali GÖÇER Barrett developed a Taxonomy of Cognitive and Affective Dimensions of Reading Comprehension (in Clymer 1968 cited in Glaser, 1973). Barrett talks about the teachers encountered error of two different concepts in the teaching process about reading comprehension. These misconceptions; as one of perception and understanding of the reading comprehension skills is to assume covers from many different unmanageable and uncontrollable skills. Barrett has developed Cognitive and Affective Taxonomy of reading comprehension to eliminate these misconceptions and to demonstrate controllable and understandable process of teaching. According to Yıldırım, Barrett benefited from the work of Bloom (1956), Sanders (1966), Letton (1958) and Guszak'ın (1965) etc. in the process of developing their taxonomy (2012, p. 46). This taxonomy of reading comprehension is divided in five different categories. They are: (1) literal comprehension, (2) reorganization, (3) inferential comprehension, (4) evaluation and (5) appreciation. In this taxonomy are ordered from easy to difficult according to each category contained and covered based the difficulty of competence (Clymer, 1968; Pearson, 2009 cited in Yıldırım, 2012 and Barrett Taxonomy ( 1,2 ). This study focused on measurement of the level of cognitive and affective development of students' success measurement by means of a written exam questions. To do this, Turkish written exam questions was examined to determine the level students comprehension, reorganization, appreciation, and evaluation distribution of sub-levels of Barrett's Taxonomy. Cognitive Domain. Phenomenon, concept, classification, etc. (knowing); defining, summarizing, explaining, and interpreting the content of a communication (Reorganization) and evaluating the compatibility of a unity in internal and external scales (evaluation) are the cognitive features desired to be actualized with education (Özçelik, 1998). The objectives and behaviors located in the cognitive domain (acquisitions) rather aim to measure the skills that occur in the intellect of the students (İşman & Eskicumalı, 2001). Affective Domain. According to Yıldırım, emotional response to the content in this domain (to the characters or events, to response the author's language used, description) is in the foreground. At the same time, be sensitive to the aesthetic and emotional aspects, and take action for the value of psychological and artistic elements of the text (2012). Intuitive Domain. These domain levels are classified into discern, discrimination, inspiration, to keep under control, the relationship building past and the future (Sönmez, 2001). The taxonomic distributions were made taking into account gains related fields showing the relationship of the horizontal and vertical progressivity. Classifications have been made to the fields such as cognitive, affective and intuitive. Like this distributions Barrett also made the taxonomic distribution for (cognitive-emotional) areas.
5 THE ASSESSMENT OF TURKISH WRITTEN EXAMINATION QUESTIONS BASED ON THE TEXT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE BARRETT S TAXONOMY Table 1. The Taxonomic Distributions Which Shows the Horizontal Coalescence Relation and Vertical Progressivity Relation of the Acquisitions Related to the Cognitive, Affective and Intuitive Domains (developed using Sönmez, 2001 and Document of Barrett Taxonomy 1,2 ). Cognitive and Affective Domain Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Intuitive Domain (The Barrett Taxonomy of Reading Comprehension) Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Receiving Responding Valuing Organizing Characterizing Discern Discrimination Inspiration To keep under control The relationship building past and the future Literal Comprehension Reorganization Inferential Comprehension Evaluation Appreciation In Table 1, distributions of sub-steps for cognitive, emotional, intuitive fields of the Barrett Taxonomy of Reading Comprehension were given. Measurement and assessment activities must be considered in unity and progressivity (Ozbay, 2006 b). Unity shows the coverage of all language skills, whereas progressivity shows the distribution of the development level of the language skills. Students statuses of basic language skills acquisition are measured with questions in different levels (Özbay, 2005; 2006 a). For example, situations of students understand about what they've read will be determined questions which by the steps of Barrett's Taxonomy covering the range of cognitive and affective meaning. 2. Aim and Scope of This Study Attributes of the questions are extremely important in responding to questions about the text. If questions are prepared in accordance with the scientific principles, they contribute to deep understanding of the text and students well-rounded view at the text. In this respect, the necessity and the importance of research related to investigating questions on the text is more clearly understood (Ülper and Yalınkılıç, 2010). From this point, the aim was to determine the taxonomic distribution of the written examination questions used in measuring students acquisition of reading comprehension in Turkey, and to make a number of suggestions designed in accordance with the results obtained. Research Questions Within the framework of the aim and the scope of this answers were sought the following questions, Written test questions for reading comprehension skills; 1. Is the distribution of written examination questions used in measuring students' comprehension skill target behaviors related to students reading comprehension within Barrett's Taxonomy Sublevels balanced? 2. Is the distribution of introduced as the target acquisitions used in the development of students' reading comprehension skill target behaviors within Barrett's Taxonomy Sublevels balanced? 3. Do distributions of the exam questions related to reading comprehension overlap with the achievements that are specified in the cognitive/affective field in the Turkish programs? 4. Do teachers have adequate knowledge and experience in preparing examination questions?
6 6 Ali GÖÇER 3. Method 3.1. Model of the Research In this research, document analysis method within the framework of the qualitative research approach was used. The data obtained from the documents consisting of written examination papers were analyzed with content analysis method. The research has been conducted in 43 institutions of primary education selected from different socio-cultural districts in the Kayseri province. Written examination paper samples were collected from 35 teachers. A total of 49 fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth grade written examination papers were randomly selected from among 321 written examination papers. From these written examination papers 212 questions were analyzed by 4 field expert researchers independent from one another. Field experts involved in the study were informed about the content of the study. Experts are given the written examination paper to examine, with examples Barrett s Taxonomy is used to predict which sublevel of the scale (see Appendix 1). The following stages were followed in the analysis of the written examination questions. First of all, the selected examination paper samples were sorted by assigning numbers from 1 to 49 to the papers. Then, 212 questions within the papers were dealt with one by one, and it was determined to which level of Barrett s Taxonomy they belonged. Question terms in the question base like who, what, where, when, how, express, define, summarize, compare, plan, arrange, distinguish, show, conclude, find, what is it, show me, will result etc. have been taken into account in determining the question levels. Taxonomic scale that is used for determining sublevels of questions is given in Appendix 1 in table form (Yıldırım, 2012; Akyol, Yıldırım, Ateş & Çetinkaya (2013; Barrett's Taxonomy from Clymer 1968, cit. Hays, 1972, Baltra, 1983 and Document of Barrett Taxonomy 1,2 ). The same approach has been followed and the method of analysis of the acquisitions and reading acquisitions specified in the program in the taxonomic scale are also included. In determining the acquisition genre, acquisition expressions like knows, understand, use, compare, apply, explain, indicate, abstracts, notices, plans, organizes, distinguishes, identifies, finds results etc. based upon. Question and acquisitions easier to understand if there is a balanced distribution of Barrett's taxonomy in the findings given in the tables, supported by a separate graph (see figure 1) Determining of Working Group and Study Material The working population of this study is 35 Turkish language teachers studying in the selected 43 institutions of primary education Kayseri province in Turkey. In determining the working group has been preferred purposeful sampling method. In the study document, examination papers are examples of implementations by teachers of Turkish written exams.
7 THE ASSESSMENT OF TURKISH WRITTEN EXAMINATION QUESTIONS BASED ON THE TEXT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE BARRETT S TAXONOMY Written examination paper samples were collected from 35 teachers of the Turkish language. 321 written examination papers samples were collected from Turkish teachers. A total of 49 fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth grade written examination papers was randomly selected. From these written examination papers 212 questions were analyzed. Table 2. Personal information about teachers (participants) and Study Material Distribution of Teachers According to Their Genders f % Woman Man Total Distribution of the Exam Papers According to Grades f % Fifth Grade Sixth Grade Seventh Grade Eighth Grade Total Distribution of the Questions According to Grades f % Fifth Grade Sixth Grade Seventh Grade Eighth Grade Total Distribution of Reading Comprehension Acquisitions According to Grades f % Fifth Grade Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grades Toplam As shown in Table 2, 21 (%60.00) women and 14 (%40.00) men participated in the study. Referring now to distribution of the exam papers seen that fifth grade 10 (%20.41), sixth grade 11 (%22.45), seventh grade 17 (%34.69), eighth grade 11 (%22.45), and to distribution of the questions seen that fifth grade 52 (%24.53), sixth grade 50 (%23.58), seventh grade 59 (%27.83), eighth grade 51 (%24.06). Referring now to distribution of the reading comprehension acquisitions seen that fifth grade 45 (%57.69), and sixth, seventh, eighth grades 33 (%42.31). A total of 78 acquisitions on reading comprehension are considered in Turkish programs. As a result of investigation findings related to the distribution of sublevels of Barrett's Taxonomy of acquisitions and questions are given in Table 2, 3 and Data Analysis Document analysis, include about the case or cases that investigated the resolution of written materials containing information (Yıldırım and Şimşek, 2005). Understanding the contents of the documents and determination of the content of words and sentences in the texts are made content analysis (Yaman and Erdoğan, 2007, p. 242). Data analysis stages data arrangement, description and interpretation within the framework of research questions. Sentences and concepts that make up questions in exam papers are discoverable using content analysis method (Yıldırım and Şimşek, 2005). Questions on the exam papers collected from Turkish teachers were examined using content analysis method.
8 8 Ali GÖÇER From these written examination papers 212 questions were analyzed by 4 field expert researchers independently from one another. Field experts involved in the study were informed about the content of the study. The experts are given the written examination paper to examine, with examples Barrett s Taxonomy is used to predict which sublevel of the scale (see Appendix 1). For the reliability of the study, four experts were included in the study for the examination of reading comprehension questions in the written exam papers. Questions addressed independently by each expert and were made the distribution of Barrett's Taxonomy Sublevels. The exam questions overlap with the acquisitions that are specified reading comprehension in the cognitive and affective field program. During the examination a scale that includes Barrett's Taxonomy sublevels and acquisitions reading comprehension in program is used (scale is given in Appendix 1). The opinions of four experts included in the study were coded for each question using comparative analysis. The findings of the review (code information) were subjected to an analysis of the reliability of the code. Percentage of the reliability of the cod is calculated using the reliability formula given by Miles & Huberman (1994) the following. number of agreements reliability = total number of agreements + X 100 disagreements As a result of the formula, the consensus of the four experts was achieved (87.1%). There were different opinions on the 13 exam questions. These differences are discussed and then reached on a consensus on these questions among experts Findings Related to the Documents Table 3. The Distribution of fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Grades Reading Comprehension Acquisitions According to Barrett s Taxonomy Sublevels Grades Fifth Grade 6, 7 and 8. Grade Total Cognitive/affective Domain Sublevels f % f % F % Literal Comprehension Reorganization Inferential Comprehension Evaluation Appreciation Total In fifth Grade Turkish Teaching program include 5 main purposes on reading comprehension and under these purposes 71 acquisition expression. These 5 basic purposes and the number of acquisitions related purposes as follows (MEB, 2009): 1. the application of reading rules (9 acquisition) 2. reading Comprehension (42 acquisition) 3. making meaning (3 acquisition) 4. the enrichment of vocabulary (6 acquisition) 5. appropriate reading according to species, the methods and techniques (11 acquisition)
9 THE ASSESSMENT OF TURKISH WRITTEN EXAMINATION QUESTIONS BASED ON THE TEXT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE BARRETT S TAXONOMY In sixth, seventh, and eighth grades Turkish Teaching program include 5 main purposes on reading comprehension and under these purposes 51 acquisition expressions. These 5 basic purposes and the number of acquisitions related purposes as follows (MEB, 2006): 1. the application of reading rules (5 acquisition) 2. text comprehension and analysis (31 acquisition) 3. text evaluation (2 acquisition) 4. the enrichment of vocabulary (4 acquisition) 5. the gaining of the habit of reading (9 acquisition) This study aimed to determine the status of student reading comprehension and carried out using text-based questions. Therefore, the limitation has been made on the acquisitions. In this framework, 51 acquisition expressions in the fifth grade, and 33 acquisition expressions in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades were taken into account. As shown in Table 3, the number of acquisition considered is 78 in all grades. The highest rate acquisition expressions 13 out of 45 (%28.89) are in the level of Inferential Comprehension in the fifth grade. The lowest rate (15:55%) observed in the level of Appreciation with 7 acquisition expressions in the fifth grade. The highest rate acquisition expressions 10 out of 33 (%30.30) are in the level of Literal Comprehension in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. The lowest rate (%9.10) observed in the level of Appreciation with 10 acquisition expressions in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. The lowest rate in both categories is also seen Appreciation. Table 4. The Distribution of fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Grades Examination Questions According to Barrett s Taxonomy Sublevels Grades Total Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth Cognitive/affective Grade Grade Grade Grade f % Domain Sublevels Literal Comprehension Reorganization Inferential Comprehension Evaluation Appreciation Total As shown in Table 4, Fifth Grade: 31 questions out of 52 (59.61%) consists of in the level of Inferential Comprehension and Reorganization fields. The lowest number of questions was seen Appreciation level. Sixth Grade: 35 questions out of 50 (%70) consist of in the level of Literal Comprehension field. The lowest number of questions was seen Evaluation level. Seventh Grade: 41 questions out of 59 (%70) relate to Literal Comprehension level. The lowest numbers of questions was seen Evaluation level, and 11 questions were seen in the level of Inferential Comprehension and 7 questions in the level of Reorganization fields from the remaining 18 questions.
10 10 Ali GÖÇER In eighth grade, the vast majority of questions (64.71%) has taken place in the level of Literal Comprehension, and 8 questions were seen in the level of Evaluation and 7 questions in the level of Inferential Comprehension, and 3 questions in the level of Reorganization fields from the remaining 18 questions. There isn t any question of the Appreciation sublevel at the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Table 5. The Distribution of fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Grade Total Questions and Reading Comprehension Acquisitions According to Barrett s Taxonomy Sublevels Cognitive/Affective Domain Sublevels The Distribution of Total Questions The Distribution of Reading Comprehension f % f Acquisitions % Literal Comprehension Reorganization Inferential Comprehension Evaluation Appreciation Total As shown in Table 5, the distribution of the total number of questions and the distribution of the total number of reading comprehension acquisitions are not parallel to the steps. 55,19 Literal Comprehension Reorganization Inferential Comprehension 20,76 23,08 20,51 28,21 Evaluation Appreciation 12,73 9,43 15,38 12,82 1,89 Figure 1. The Distribution Status of Question and Acquisition Levels According to All Grades As shown in Table 3, and Figure 1, acquisitions on the basis of in all classes are seen close to each other and distributed nearly uniform according to Barrett's Taxonomy cognitive/affective domain sublevels. However, balanced distribution is not seen in the questions.
11 THE ASSESSMENT OF TURKISH WRITTEN EXAMINATION QUESTIONS BASED ON THE TEXT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE BARRETT S TAXONOMY A large part of the questions (55.19%) was seen at the level of Literal Comprehension. On the other hand, percentage of exploring students understanding and comprehension skills such as understanding and interpretation of the text, establishing the relationship between events containing Inferential Comprehension, Reorganization, and Evaluation fields was found to be lower. According to Poyrazoğlu, teachers carry out the work of the measurement and evaluation depending on traditions. Many of the questions asked by teachers are in the level of 'knowing' (recall), and not include all taught. This test is controversial in terms of reliability and validity to measure students skills (1993). In a study of text-related questions, each grade level in Turkish primary school textbooks was seen mostly recall (simple mean), and less understanding (Kutlu, 1999). From the data obtained in this study, it can be said to be reached to parallel results. 4. Results and Recommendations 4.1. Results Written examination questions used to determine students' acquisitions in cognitive / affective domain is not uniformly distributed of Barrett's Taxonomy sublevels. As shown in Figure 1, many of the questions examined were concentrated in Literal Comprehension level. Questions are not in adequate level of Inferential Comprehension, Reorganization and Evaluation fields. Acquisitions on the basis of in all classes are seen close to each other and distributed nearly uniform according to Barrett's Taxonomy cognitive/affective domain sublevels. In a recent study by Akyol and others reached a similar conclusion. Result of this study is as follows: Teachers questions, which were prepared in accordance with the texts chosen, were classified as literal comprehension questions which require lower order thinking and comprehension skills (2013). The distribution of questions according to Barrett's Taxonomy cognitive/affective domain sublevels does not coincide with the distribution of the acquisitions the same levels of in the program. From this point, it can be said that exam questions do not meet the targeted acquisitions exactly. As a result of this research, it is noteworthy that the lowest rate in terms of acquisition and questions was in the level of Appreciation at the all grades. It is understood that teachers have a certain level of knowledge and experience for preparing questions to measure the level of students understanding. However, a large proportion of the questions concentrated in Literal Comprehension level. Therefore, it can be said that teachers did not pay required attention to the preparation of the exam question. Taxonomy sublevels should have uniform distribution and should match acquisitions at a reasonable rate in order for acquisitions to be viewed as knowledge and skills.
12 12 Ali GÖÇER 4.2. Recommendations It is important to determine student success by measuring the level of knowledge as well as teaching usage of that knowledge in daily life and most importantly with adequacy. Assessment and evaluation is an important application area in the determination of the case as well as the removal of a higher level of skills. The planning of the teaching and learning process is an important function as a projection of the results of assessment and evaluation. Therefore, teachers preparing the evaluation questions should give equal importance cognitive/affective domain sublevels of Barrett's Taxonomy and related acquisitions. Teachers asking questions to students such as the level of 'Simple Understanding' should consider the subject and will be gain skills in written exams. Therefore, questions should be prepared in Inferential Comprehension, Reorganization and Evaluation levels. In short, teachers using questions in assessing the ability of reading and comprehension of students must take the appropriate level of the acquisitions specified in the program. Both the teachers prepare questions and those who prepare Ministry of National Education program should make a new arrangement to revise the framework of questions and acquisitions for all grades. The planning of the teaching and learning process, advancement in accordance with the plan and observing the target acquisitions in students' knowledge and skills is possible by paying attention to assessment and evaluation practices. Assessment and evaluation practices of teachers are of great importance. In this respect, both pre-vocational training and in-service training must be prepared for teachers in the pedagogical measurement-assessment field. References Akyol, Hayati; Yıldırım, Kasım; Ateş, Seyit & Çetinkaya, Çetin (2013). What Kinds of Questions Do We Ask for Making Meaning? Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 9(1), Baltra, Armando (1983). Learning How to Cope With Reading in English for Academic Purposes in 26 Hours. Reading in a Foreign Language, 1(1), Baykul, Yaşar (1992). Eğitim Sisteminde Değerlendirme. Hacettepe Ü Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 7, Bloom, S. Benjamin (1998). İnsan Nitelikleri ve Okulda Öğrenme. (Çev. D. A. Özçelik), İstanbul: MEB Yayınları. Clymer, Theodore (1968). Current Conceptions of Reading, Innovations and Change in Reading Instruction, ed. Helen M. Robinson. The Sixty-Seventh Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Pp
13 THE ASSESSMENT OF TURKISH WRITTEN EXAMINATION QUESTIONS BASED ON THE TEXT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE BARRETT S TAXONOMY Dindar, Halil and Demir, Metin (2006). Beşinci Sınıf Öğretmenlerinin Fen Bilgisi Dersi Sınav Sorularının Bloom Taksonomisine Göre Değerlendirilmesi. GÜ, Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 26(3), Document of Barrett Taxonomy 1 ) Cognitive and Affective Dimensions of Reading Comprehension (online, date of internet access: ). Available at: Document of Barrett Taxonomy 2 ) of Reading Comprehension (online, date of internet access: ). Available at: Comprehension/Barrett's%20Taxonomy%20of%20Reading%20Comprehension.pdf Durukan, Erhan (2009). 7. Sınıf Türkçe ders kitaplarındaki metinleri anlamaya yönelik sorular üzerine taksonomik bir inceleme. Milli Eğitim, 181, Glaser, Margaret Jean (1973). The Effect of the Placement of Detail and Inference Questions on Second Graders' Comprehension (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Department of Reading the Graduate College in the University of Arizona. Göçer, Ali (2011). Evaluatıon of Wrıtten Examınatıon Questıons of Turkısh Language in Accordance wıth Bloom s Taxonomy. Croatian Journal of Education, 13(2), Göçer, Ali (2014). Türkçe Eğitiminde Ölçme ve Değerlendirme. Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayınları. Hays, Warren Sherman (1972). Certain Relationships between Word Recognition and Comprehension of Second and Fifth Grade Children (Doctoral Dissertation). The Graduate College in the University of Arizona. İşman, Aytekin and Eskicumalı, Ahmet (2001). Eğitimde Planlama ve Değerlendirme. Adapazarı: Değişim Yayınları. Kutlu, Ömer (1999). İlköğretim Okullarındaki Türkçe Ders Kitaplarındaki Okuma Parçalarına Dayalı Olarak Hazırlanmış Sorular Üzerine Bir Araştırma. Eğitim ve Bilim, 111, Kuzu, Tülay Sarar (2013). Türkçe Ders Kitaplarındaki Metin Altı Sorularının Yenilenmiş Bloom Taksonomisindeki Hatırlama ve Anlama Bilişsel Düzeyleri Açısından İncelenmesi. CÜ Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 37(1), MEB (2009). İlköğretim Türkçe Dersi (6, 7, 8. Sınıflar) Öğretim Programı. Ankara: (Talim ve Terbiye Kurulu Başkanlığı) Devlet Kitapları Müdürlüğü Basımevi.
14 14 Ali GÖÇER MEB (2009). İlköğretim Türkçe Dersi Öğretim Programı ve Kılavuzu (1-5. Sınıflar). Ankara: Devlet Kitapları Müdürlüğü Basımevi. Miles, Matthew. B. & Huberman, Michael A. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: an expanded sourcebook (2nd Ed). California: Sage Publications. Özbay, Murat (2005). Bir Dil Becerisi Olarak Dinleme Eğitimi. Ankara: Akçağ Yayınları. Özbay, Murat (2006 a). Türkçe Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri I. Ankara. Öncü Kitap. Özbay, Murat (2006 b). Türkçe Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri II. Ankara: Öncü Kitap. Özçelik, Durmuş Ali (1998). Ölçme ve Değerlendirme (3. Basım). Ankara: ÖSYM Yayınları. Poyrazoğlu, O. Nuri (1993). Türkçe Öğretiminde Karşılaşılan Güçlükler ve Çözüm Önerileri. İlköğretim Okullarında Türkçe Öğretimi ve Sorunları, Ankara: TED Yayını. Sönmez, Veysel (2001). Program Geliştirmede Öğretmen El Kitabı (Geliştirilmiş 9. Basım). Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık. Taboada, Ana and Guthrie, John T. (2006). Contributions of Student Questioning and Prior Knowledge to Construction of Knowledge from Reading Information Text. Journal of Literacy Research, 38(1), Ülper, Hakan and Yalınkılıç, Kadir (2010). Son İki Türkçe Programına Göre Hazırlanan Türkçe Ders Kitaplarındaki Metin Sonu Sorularının Nicel ve Nitel Görünümü. Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 3(12), Yapıcı, Mehmet (2004). İlköğretim Dil Bilgisi Konularının Çocuğun Bilişsel Düzeyine Uygunluğu. İlköğretim-Online, 3(2), Available at: Yıldırım, Ali and Şimşek, Hasan (2005). Qualitative Research Methods in Social Sciences (5th Edition). Ankara: Seckin Publications. Yıldırım, Kasım (2012). Öğretmenlerin Öğrencilerin Okuduğunu Anlama Becerilerini Değerlendirmede Kullanabilecekleri Bir Sistem: Barrett Taksonomisi. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 9(18), Yılmaz, Hasan (2002). Eğitimde Ölçme ve Değerlendirme (6. Basım). Konya: Çizgi Kitabevi Yayınları.
15 THE ASSESSMENT OF TURKISH WRITTEN EXAMINATION QUESTIONS BASED ON THE TEXT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE BARRETT S TAXONOMY Appendix 1. The Scale Used in the Determination of to which Sublevel of the Questions belong in the Barrett s Taxonomy Sublevels (developed using Yıldırım, 2012, and Document of Barrett Taxonomy 1,2 ). (Note: Author has used the Turkish version of this scale in the other his work -book study- named 'Measurement and evaluation in Turkish Education: Göçer, 2014, s. 209' submitted for publication at the same time.) Barrett s Taxonomy Sublevels Level Qualities Aims and Acquisitions related to Reading Comprehension in Turkish Program Level 1: Literal Comprehension Level 2: Reorganization Level 3: Inferential Comprehension Level 4: Evaluation To recognize (become aware of details, the main idea of the sequence of events, comparisons, the behavior of the characters) and remembrance is important in this level. To obtain and understand the purposes and the questions is organized at this level. This level of understanding is intended to remember for an event the information. Purpose and questions of this step may include the following features: Recognizing: includes students find the ideas or information in the text. Recognizing the details: names of the characters, information about the time or place where the event occurred... Recognizing the main ideas: students are asked to find the main idea of the text. Recognizing the sequence of events: Finding the order of events and actions. Recognizing comparisons: Finding similarities and differences in the text. Recognizing behavior of the characters: Determination of the characters in the text related behaviors. Remembering/Recall: Details (main idea, sequence of events, cause-effect relationships, similarities and differences in behavior of the characters etc. information in the text) is asked to say it again. Classifying (Identifying the main points), Summarizing and Synthesizing are important in this level. Readers would have to reorganize the ideas in the text. The purposes of this level of in this understanding are asked from students to bring together the information in the text where more than one. The questions of this level of in this understanding requires a single answer although coverage of a lot of information. Making inferences for details in text is important in this level. Inferential Comprehension (In this level is checked; inferring supporting details, inferring main ideas, inferring sequence, inferring comparisons, inferring cause and effect relationships, inferring character traits, predicting outcomes, interpreting figurative language). The evaluation on dreams and reality is important in this level (In this level is checked; judgments of reality or fantasy, judgments of fact or opinion, judgments of adequacy and validity, judgments of appropriateness, judgments of worth, desirability and acceptability). Namely the evaluation of ideas, relevance, the value of the text, interest and acceptability. Overall Purpose: Reading Comprehension and Analysis of the Text Reading Comprehension Acquisitions Takes the meaning of words and word groups in the context of the text. Determines the keywords in the text. Sets the subject of the text, the main idea / the main sense. Determines auxiliary ideas/emotions in the text. Determines event, location, time, person, entity in the text. Realizes the cause-and-effect relationships and the purpose and effect relationships in text. Distinguish objective and subjective judgments in the text. Summarizes their own words the text. Responds to questions about the text. Generates questions about the text. Understands the type of text-related features. Understands the plan of the text. Understands the connections between the components of the text. Recognizes the contribution of the arts to the narrative in text. Explains ways of improving critical thinking skills utilized in in the text. Makes comparison on the text. Comments events, feelings, thoughts, and dreams itself by putting the person cadre. Produces different solutions to the problems cited in the text. Makes an estimate of the tips on content in the text. Makes the text before and/or post-plot. Distinguishes the language of the poem. Refers to the feelings evoked by the poem itself. Compares the read his own life and daily life.
16 16 Ali GÖÇER Level 5: Appreciation Emotional response to the content is important in this level (characters or events, response to the author's language, description). Emotional response to the content, identification with characters or incidents, reactions to the author s use of language, and imagery is checked in this level. Comments about the visual aspects of the text. Exposes the relationship between the content of the text with the title. Finds different titles on the read the text. Obtains information about the text author or poet. Overall Purpose: Text Evaluation Reading Comprehension Acquisitions Evaluates the text in terms of language and expression. Evaluates the text in terms of content.
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