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1 Human Development & Learning Part 1 A review of Psychology Applied to Teaching With permission by Dr. Jack Snowman Professor Emeritus Southern Illinois University Note: Research from other sources inserted where applicable In an effort to approach faculty needs on Human Development and Learning (HD&L). I contacted my mentor in that field. Dr. Jack Snowman of Southern Illinois University, School of Education, Carbondale Illinois. I have received permission to excerpt parts of his book for this study. I will also use class notes from time spent with Dr. Snowman. Included also are class notes from teaching HD&L to undergraduates and students at the School of Education Graduate School at Campbellsville University. The first topic is: The Teacher-Practitioner and the Teacher-Theorist In many fields of endeavor, there are those who practice a skill and those who theorize on such skills. In education, some considered teaching both an art and science. However, teaching as a science is inadequate when considering the variety of teachers and students. The human element defies a structured way to write, paint a picture, or write music. While there are guidelines for how students learn and teachers teach, it not all can be done by formulas. One should consider throwing their heart into being a teacher (Highet, The Art of teaching, 1973)). J.M. Steven in his years of teaching makes the distinction between the Teacher- Practitioner and the Teacher-Theorist (Educational Psychology, 1967). The teacher-practitioner should practice teaching skills in the classroom with

2 enthusiasm and commitment. When analyzing ones performance in the classroom one should be a theorist; both objective and unemotional Snowman, 2006). The flexibility and adaptive behaviors of a teacher-practitioner are necessary when ones desires positive results in the classroom. Often one can achieve the same results using different types of instruction. Here is the rub, how can one find and practice the best teaching method best suited for him or her? In order to make the best decision one needs a model of learning. Model of Learning (Dr. Jack Snowman, 2006) 1.) Phase 1 Take into account what students are like characteristics and variability). 2.) Phase 2 Specify what is to be learned (objectives). 3.) Phase 3 Provide instruction (applying what is know about learning and motivation). 4.) Phase 4 Determine if students have learned (evaluate mastery of objectives). There several key stage development theories, Erickson: Psychosocial development, Piaget: Cognitive Development, and Piaget and Kohlberg: Moral Development. If one is to teach in higher education, it would be helpful to know how your students got to where they are today. For some basic theory, consider the following: Note: Taken from course teaching notes 1.) Erikson: Psychosocial Development 2-3 years/autonomy vs. shame and doubt

3 4-5 years/initiative vs. guilt 6-11 years industry vs. inferiority years identity vs. role confusion 2.) Piaget: Cognitive development Equilibration: seeing coherence and stability in what is known vs. what is learned Scheme: an organized pattern of behavior or thought Assimilation: a new experience fitted into existing scheme Accommodation: new experience causes existing scheme to change Note: The next three separate younger and older children Conservation: properties stay the same despite changes in appearance Decentration: considering more than one quality at a time Operation: a mental action that can be reversed Egocentric thinking: assuming other see things the same way Preoperational stage: form many schemes but unable to reverse action Concrete Operational stage: can reverse operations but generalize from concrete experiences Formal Operational stage: able to deal with abstraction, form hypotheses, and engage in mental manipulation In this next section, consider cheating and plagiarism in classes at TTUHSC/SOP 3.) Piaget and Kohlberg: Moral Development Morality of Constraint: sacred rules; no exceptions, no allowances for intentions; consequences determine guilt Moral Behavior depends on circumstances

4 Preconventional morality: avoid punishment, receive benefits in return Conventional morality: impress others, respect authority Post Conventional morality: mutual agreements; consistent principles When working with stage theories consider not all individuals flow from one stage to another smoothly. In fact, some individuals can be stuck in lower level stages inhibiting growth required for the next stage. In most stages, age changes in interpretation of rules. When considering post-conventional morality research has shown very few adolescents or adults reach this level (Turiel, Blatt, Kohberg). Actually, even those reaching that level because they adapt their responses to unique situations (Snowman, 1986) So, how do teachers encourage moral development? 1.) Age usually determines response to moral conflicts 2.) Take the perspective of a student; what do they see as important morally? 3.) Introduce moral dilemmas into the class from time to time. Don t preach, rather ask what they think 4.) Create a classroom that encourages student-to-student interaction What can compromise both moral and educational development in students? Dr. Wendy Duncan-Hewitt of the Harrison School of Pharmacy at Auburn University postulates a list of barriers to the development of congruent behaviors in her paper (The Development of a Professional: Reinterpretation of the Professionalization Problem From the Perspective of Cognitive/Moral Development, 2004): 1.) Stress and fatigue can cause students to take shortcuts resulting in academic dishonesty and narrowing of academic scope.

5 2.) Punishment and reward, Punishment and reward can force students who are uncommitted to the tenets of the profession to behave professionally. However, reward and coercion are socially dependent strategies for change that require surveillance and follow through if they are to be successful. 3.) Inadequate Selection Procedures and Standards, selection based on high grades in science subjects does not necessarily guarantee the presence or development of appropriate professional attributes. One solution that suggested is simply to select more developed students. However, given the current distribution of developmental attainment in applicants, this would probably result in classes being half-filled. 4.) A Weak Sense of Belonging to the Profession as Identified, The consistent provision of pharmaceutical care requires development to P4. While pharmaceutical care is adopted as the mission of pharmacy by professional organizations, accrediting bodies, and educational institutions, it has not made strong inroads into the practice of community pharmacy. As a result, most students enter practice with a different vision of their future (F3) than is expressed throughout the curriculum. The fact that what the faculty member says is different from what appears to be the case, causes faculty members to lose esteem in the eyes of the students and for the idea of pharmaceutical care to lose value. 5.) Mentor Reluctance, When schools attempt to initiate a comprehensive mentoring program in which all faculty members assume some mentoring responsibilities, it becomes very clear that a significant proportion of the faculty have no interest in that role. In fact, a good number believe that such mentoring is not their responsibility. While this attitude probably has a developmental component, this reluctance may also stem from a relatively peripheral interest in professional pharmacy, either fundamentally (many faculty members have no pharmacy background, although they have developed authority in a peripheral discipline), or because of cumulative disappointment leading to disenchantment.

6 When asked to mentor graduate students rather than PharmD students, many formerly reluctant faculty members enthusiastically accept and embrace the mentoring role. Therefore, one important solution is to encourage more student pharmacists to pursue PhDs and academic careers. 6.) Developmentally Appropriate Teaching, Research in cognitive complexity34 has shown that an optimal growth environment is moderately complex with respect to the abilities of the student: too much or too little complexity in the environment leads to a decrease in performance, leading to an inverted U -shaped response curve. We can manipulate complexity by increasing or decreasing structure, adding or removing irrelevant variables, and increasing or decreasing the complexity or number of problems presented in a given situation. 7). Developmentally Appropriate Testing, Testing should be focused more on assessment; less on evaluation. As assessment, testing is a process for improving quality and is inherently developmental. Assessment is critical for developing lifelong learning skills and increasing performance in diverse contexts. When done correctly, it develops metacognitive skills and leads to empowerment.36 However, when testing is undertaken in the spirit of negative evaluation ( that was bad, you were terrible, etc), it can lead to avoidance of reflection and feedback because of the negative emotions it engenders. Professionalism is operationalized through an educational/practice culture that embraces assessment as its core process. This is a culture in which every person learns to seek assessment enthusiastically and in which every aspect is assessed and thereby subject to change and improvement faculty members, students, curriculum, and administration. 8.) Developmentally Appropriate Learning Goals, Development takes time. If a student enters the program with an F2 worldview, then F3 knowledge, values, and habits must be inculcated before performances at F4 can be expected. Table

7 2 highlights some curricular expectations for professionalism within the developmental framework. It may take more than 4 years for entering F2 students to achieve truly professional outcome.

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