# Simulation, prediction and analysis of Earth rotation parameters

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Simulation, prediction and analysis of Earth rotation parameters with a dynamic Earth system model Florian Seitz Earth Oriented Space Science and Technology (ESPACE)

2 Earth rotation parameters and their physical interpretation Besides their necessity for various applications (e.g., the realisation of time and reference systems, navigation) Earth rotation parameters (ERP) are interesting for various disciplines of geosciences, since dynamic processes in the Earth system are reflected in their temporal variations. Analysis of ERP time series allows for conclusions with respect to processes and changes in the Earth system on various temporal scales However: Since ERP are integral quantities their physical interpretation is very difficult: Specific features in the time series cannot be related to contributions of individual system components particular causative processes without further information Independent information from physical modelling is required 2

3 Physical model of Earth rotation Development of the physically consistent and comprehensive Dynamic Earth System Model DyMEG: Composed of a discrete number of interacting system components Consistent modelling of -rotational variations -gravity field variations -geometrical surface variations that are caused by various dynamic processes in the Earth system Focus of this presentation: Model results for inter-annual variations of polar motion caused by processes in the coupled atmosphere-hydrosphere h h system. 3

4 Polar motion: Signal characteristics Journées 2011 "Systèmes de référence spatio temporels" ", Vienna x component 4

5 Balance of angular momentum in the Earth system The model approach for Earth rotation is based on the balance of angular momentum in an Earth-fixed coordinate system (Euler-Liouville Equation): d dt with angular momentum L(t): I(t): h(t): ω(t): H( t) + ω(t) H( t) = L( t) external gravitational torques (Sun, Moon, planets) Earth s tensor of inertia relative angular momenta Earth rotation vector H( t) = I( t)ω( t) + h() t Numerical solution of the Euler-Liouville Equation for ω(t) in DyMEG: Simulation of polar motion and the Earth s angular velocity (ΔLOD). 5

6 Experiment 1: Realistic atmospheric and hydrospheric forcing Numerical values for ΔI(t) and h(t) from atmospheric reanalyses of NCEP - assimilates meteorological observation data ocean circulation model ECCO - unconstrained version (c ) - forced by NCEP fields of wind stress, heat and freshwater fluxes consistent representation of dynamics and mass transports in the subsystems atmosphere and ocean water, groundwater and snow fields from the global hydrological model LaD neglected: earthquakes, volcanoes, postglacial uplift, core/mantle, 6

7 Model results for polar motion x-component: corr.: 0,98; RMS-diff.: 29,5 mas y-component: corr.: 0,99; RMS-diff.: 23,3 mas 7

8 Experiment 2: ERP predictions - scenario runs over 200 years ΔI(t) and h(t) from ensemble runs of the fully coupled atmosphere-hydrosphere model ECOCTH of the MPI for meteorology (Hamburg, Germany) Simulation of the atmospheric-hydrospheric angular momentum variability over a time frame of 200 years ( ) ECOCTH has also been used for simulations in the frame of the 4th IPCC AR full consistency: conservation of mass, energy and momentum five equiprobable model runs (different initial conditions for the state of 1860) Absolutely free model: atmosphere oceans hydrology force each other mutually there is no information about real time only statistical conclusions can be drawn! 8

9 Model results for polar motion ( ) x-components of polar motion: All runs feature a clear beat between annual and Chandler oscillation IERS C01/C04 9

10 Model results for polar motion ( ) Chandler signal annual signal Runs show similar annual signals but twice as strong as observed Chandler components are very different 10

11 Model results for polar motion ( ) Chandler signal +26 a +54 a Background noise of ECOCTH is capable of exciting realistic Chandler amplitude variations Korr.: 0.74 Korr.:

12 Strongest contributor to Chandler excitation? (Atmosphere: Mass + Motion) (Atmosphere + Ocean: Motion) (Atmosphere: Motion) (Ocean: Mass + Motion) (Atmosphere + Ocean: Mass) (Ocean: Motion) (Atmo. + Ocean: Mass + Motion) atmosphere a bit stronger than the ocean wind dominates motion significantly stronger the mass 12

13 Final remarks and conclusions Simulations with DyMEG allow for a meaningful geophysical interpretation of ERP Naturally, the interpretability of model results depends on the applied forcing ECOCTH allows for statistical interpretations of long-term variations of ERP. ECOCTH is capable of producing realistic variations of the Chandler oscillation Experiments reveal the dominance of wind excitation (=random white noise) for the continuous forcing of the Chandler oscillation. 13

14 END Journées 2011 "Systèmes de référence spatio temporels" ", Vienna 14

15 Dynamic model for Earth rotation (DyMEG) Journées 2011 " "Systèmes de référence spatio temporels" ", Vienna 15

16 Influence of the initial values Model results for polar motion over 200 yrs ECOCTH ( ) x 0 = 0 x 0 = 0.3 x 0 =

17 White noise Chandler wobble excitation (1) ", Vienna tio temporels" référence spat Jo ournées 2011 "Systèmes de r Experiment: Substitution tion of atmospheric and oceanic forcing by uniformly distributed random numbers (white noise) Result: Resonant excitation of the Chandler oscillation over 1000 years Formation of maxima and nodes according to energy level and phase of random excitations cf. Seitz et al.,

18 White noise Chandler wobble excitation (2) ", Vienna tio temporels" référence spat "Systèmes de r ournées 2011 " Jo Observed CW Similar characteristics of simulated and observed free polar motion Atmospheric background noise due to random variability (weather) is the most likely excitation mechanism of the Chandler oscillation 18

19 Rotational deformation Modeled as temporal variation of the Earth s centrifugal potential: 2 3 Ω a ΔC 21 () t = ( R ( k 2)m 1 () t +I ( k 2)m 2 ()) t 3GM 2 3 Ω a ΔS 21( t ) = ( R( 2)m 2( ) ( 2)m 1( )) k t I 3GM k t k = k + Δk + Δk * O A with the pole tide Love number. IERS-Conv. 2010: k 2 = i 19

20 Quality factors in the literature CW period Q [range] Source ± [50, 400] Wilson & Haubrich (1976) Lenhardt & Groten (1985) ± [47, >1000] Wilson & Vicente (1990) ± [30, 500] Kuehne et al. (1996) ± [35, 100] Furuya & Chao (2001) Schuh et al. (2001) 82 IERS-Conv. (2010) 20

21 Results for k 2 ", Vienna tio temporels" référence spat "Systèmes de r ournées 2011 " Jo k2 = i Model Chandler period = d Q-Factor = ± ± IERS-Conv. 2010: k 2 = i 21

22 Forward modeling (DyMEG, ) k2 = i Model forcing: NCEP + ECCO Model Chandler period = d Q-Factor = 82 Full PM C01/C04 Chandler C01/C04 Corr-Coef.: 0.82 RMS-Diff.: 82.2 mas Corr-Coef Coef.: 0.89 RMS-Diff.: 55.7 mas 22

### Gravity Field and Dynamics of the Earth

Milan Bursa Karel Pec Gravity Field and Dynamics of the Earth With 89 Figures Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York London Paris Tokyo HongKong Barcelona Budapest Preface v Introduction 1 1 Fundamentals

### 4.1 Momentum equation of the neutral atmosphere

Chapter 4 Dynamics of the neutral atmosphere 4.1 Momentum equation of the neutral atmosphere Since we are going to discuss the motion of the atmosphere of a rotating planet, it is convenient to express

### Shape of the Earth. Gravity anomalies. Post glacial rebound

Shape of the Earth Reference ellipsoid and geoid Gravity anomalies Isostasy Post glacial rebound Tides and Earth rotation Shape of the Earth Condition of hydrostatic equilibrium in a fluid Effect of rotation

### What causes Tides? If tidal forces were based only on mass, the Sun should have a tidegenerating

What are Tides? Tides are very long-period waves that move through the oceans as a result of the gravitational attraction of the Moon and the Sun for the water in the oceans of the Earth. Tides start in

### CPO Science and the NGSS

CPO Science and the NGSS It is no coincidence that the performance expectations in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are all action-based. The NGSS champion the idea that science content cannot

### 3.6 Solving Problems Involving Projectile Motion

INTRODUCTION 1-2 Physics and its relation to other fields introduction of physics, its importance and scope 1-5 Units, standards, and the SI System description of the SI System description of base and

### A. 81 2 = 6561 times greater. B. 81 times greater. C. equally strong. D. 1/81 as great. E. (1/81) 2 = 1/6561 as great.

Q12.1 The mass of the Moon is 1/81 of the mass of the Earth. Compared to the gravitational force that the Earth exerts on the Moon, the gravitational force that the Moon exerts on the Earth is A. 81 2

### 8. Mercury, the planet nearest to the Sun, has extreme surface temperatures, ranging from 465 C in sunlight to 180 C in darkness.

6.E.1 Unit Test DO NOT WRITE ON THIS QUIZ!!! 1. The largest body in our solar system is Earth. the Sun. Jupiter. the Moon. 4. What do the four planets closest to the Sun have in common? Their solid, rocky

### Physics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives

Physics 9e/Cutnell correlated to the College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives Big Idea 1: Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure. Enduring

### Milford Public Schools Curriculum. Department: SCIENCE Course Name: Sixth Grade Earth and Space Science Course Description:

Milford Public Schools Curriculum Department: SCIENCE Course Name: Sixth Grade Earth and Space Science Course Description: In sixth grade students will develop an understanding of how Earth consists of

### Dynamics of Iain M. Banks Orbitals. Richard Kennaway. 12 October 2005

Dynamics of Iain M. Banks Orbitals Richard Kennaway 12 October 2005 Note This is a draft in progress, and as such may contain errors. Please do not cite this without permission. 1 The problem An Orbital

### CHAPTER 11. The total energy of the body in its orbit is a constant and is given by the sum of the kinetic and potential energies

CHAPTER 11 SATELLITE ORBITS 11.1 Orbital Mechanics Newton's laws of motion provide the basis for the orbital mechanics. Newton's three laws are briefly (a) the law of inertia which states that a body at

### 4.1 Describing Motion. How do we describe motion? Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

Chapter 4 Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 4.1 Describing Motion Our goals for learning:! How do we describe motion?! How is mass different from weight? How do we

### Today. Laws of Motion Conservation Laws Gravity tides. What is the phase of the moon?

Today Laws of Motion Conservation Laws Gravity tides What is the phase of the moon? How is mass different from weight? Mass the amount of matter in an object Weight the force that acts upon an object You

### Use the following information to deduce that the gravitational field strength at the surface of the Earth is approximately 10 N kg 1.

IB PHYSICS: Gravitational Forces Review 1. This question is about gravitation and ocean tides. (b) State Newton s law of universal gravitation. Use the following information to deduce that the gravitational

### NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION

NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION Background: Aristotle believed that the natural state of motion for objects on the earth was one of rest. In other words, objects needed a force to be kept in motion. Galileo studied

### Name Class Date. true

Exercises 131 The Falling Apple (page 233) 1 Describe the legend of Newton s discovery that gravity extends throughout the universe According to legend, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree and realized

### Physics 211 Week 12. Simple Harmonic Motion: Equation of Motion

Physics 11 Week 1 Simple Harmonic Motion: Equation of Motion A mass M rests on a frictionless table and is connected to a spring of spring constant k. The other end of the spring is fixed to a vertical

### GEOPHYSICAL EFFECTS ON SITE DISPLACEMENTS FOR PERMANENT GPS TRACKING STATIONS IN TAIWAN

GEOPHYSICAL EFFECTS ON SITE DISPLACEMENTS FOR PERMANENT GPS TRACKING STATIONS IN TAIWAN C. C. Chang Department of Surveying and Mapping Engineering Chung Cheng Institute of Technology Tahsi, Taoyuan 335,

### Chapter 10 Rotational Motion. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 10 Rotational Motion Angular Quantities Units of Chapter 10 Vector Nature of Angular Quantities Constant Angular Acceleration Torque Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia Solving Problems

### Tide - rhythmic oscillation of the ocean surface due to gravitational & centrifugal forces ( inertia ) between the Earth, Moon and Sun.

Chapter 4: The Changing Level of the Sea Tides Longer Scale Variations Influence on Beaches Tide - rhythmic oscillation of the ocean surface due to gravitational & centrifugal forces ( inertia ) between

### Curriculum Map: 7th Grade Science

Month September 2016-2017 Curriculum Map: 7th Grade Science October Unit Human Impact on the Environment Astronomy: Cosmology What is the Earth's place in the universe? Essential Questions (List 1-3 Essential

### Chapter 4 Rotating Coordinate Systems and the Equations of Motion

Chapter 4 Rotating Coordinate Systems and the Equations of Motion 1. Rates of change of vectors We have derived the Navier Stokes equations in an inertial (non accelerating frame of reference) for which

### Attitude and Orbit Dynamics of High Area-to-Mass Ratio (HAMR) Objects and

Attitude and Orbit Dynamics of High Area-to-Mass Ratio (HAMR) Objects and Carolin Früh National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellow, AFRL, cfrueh@unm.edu Orbital Evolution of Space Debris Objects Main

### Computer climate models are the heart of the problem of global warming predictions.

COMPUTER CLIMATE MODELS Computer climate models are the heart of the problem of global warming predictions. By Dr. Timothy Ball Abstract Entire global energy and climate policies are based on the Reports

### Pre-requisites 2012-2013

Pre-requisites 2012-2013 Engineering Computation The student should be familiar with basic tools in Mathematics and Physics as learned at the High School level and in the first year of Engineering Schools.

### The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity. Chapter 4 Lecture

Chapter 4 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

### DIRECT ORBITAL DYNAMICS: USING INDEPENDENT ORBITAL TERMS TO TREAT BODIES AS ORBITING EACH OTHER DIRECTLY WHILE IN MOTION

1 DIRECT ORBITAL DYNAMICS: USING INDEPENDENT ORBITAL TERMS TO TREAT BODIES AS ORBITING EACH OTHER DIRECTLY WHILE IN MOTION Daniel S. Orton email: dsorton1@gmail.com Abstract: There are many longstanding

### Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X?

Solar System 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Polaris 2. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered

### 2. Orbits. FER-Zagreb, Satellite communication systems 2011/12

2. Orbits Topics Orbit types Kepler and Newton laws Coverage area Influence of Earth 1 Orbit types According to inclination angle Equatorial Polar Inclinational orbit According to shape Circular orbit

### School of Biotechnology

Physics reference slides Donatello Dolce Università di Camerino a.y. 2014/2015 mail: donatello.dolce@unicam.it School of Biotechnology Program and Aim Introduction to Physics Kinematics and Dynamics; Position

### Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Covered with Water 6 th Grade Subject Area: Science Grade: 6

One Stop Shop For Educators The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved

6th Grade Science Curriculum Next Generation Science Standards Next Generation Science Sub-standards I can statements Vocabulary MS-ESS1: Earth s place in the universe. MS-ESS1-1: Develop and use a model

Page 1 of 5 Exploring Creation With Physical Science Table of Contents Module 1 : The Basics Atoms and Molecules 1 Experiment 1.1: Atoms and Molecules 1 Measurements and Units 8 The Metric System 8 Manipulating

### Today. Laws of Motion. Conservation Laws. Gravity

Today Laws of Motion Conservation Laws Gravity Laws of Motion Motion notions: slow fast Speed: Rate at which object moves fast change in direction slow example: speed of 10 m/s Velocity: Speed and direction

### Smart Science Lessons and Middle School Next Generation Science Standards

Smart Science Lessons and Middle School Next Generation Science Standards You have chosen the right place to find great science learning and, beyond learning, how to think. The NGSS emphasize thinking

### Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 1. Newton s Laws 2. Conservation Laws Energy Angular momentum 3. Gravity Review from last time Ancient Greeks: Ptolemy; the geocentric

### EART162: PLANETARY INTERIORS

EART16: PLANETARY INTERIORS Francis Nimmo Solar system formation Last Week Composition of solar nebular Solar photosphere Carbonaceous chondrites Samples of planetary interiors (Moon, Earth, Mars, Vesta)

### Exemplar Problems Physics

Chapter Eight GRAVITATION MCQ I 8.1 The earth is an approximate sphere. If the interior contained matter which is not of the same density everywhere, then on the surface of the earth, the acceleration

APPLIED MATHEMATICS ADVANCED LEVEL INTRODUCTION This syllabus serves to examine candidates knowledge and skills in introductory mathematical and statistical methods, and their applications. For applications

### J. Szantyr Lecture No. 2 Principles of the Theory of Turbomachinery

J. Szantyr Lecture No. 2 Principles of the Theory of Turbomachinery a) Axial ventilator or pump b) Diagonal (mixed flow) ventilator or pump c) Centrifugal compressor or pump d) Axial-radial water turbine

### Homework 4. problems: 5.61, 5.67, 6.63, 13.21

Homework 4 problems: 5.6, 5.67, 6.6,. Problem 5.6 An object of mass M is held in place by an applied force F. and a pulley system as shown in the figure. he pulleys are massless and frictionless. Find

### Summary: The Universe in 1650

Celestial Mechanics: The Why of Planetary Motions Attempts to Describe How Celestial Objects Move Aristotle, Hipparchus, and Ptolemy: The Ptolemaic System Aristarchus, Copernicus, and Kepler: The Copernican

### Climate, Climate Variability, and Climate Change: A. Presented by: Prof. Robert Oglesby, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Climate, Climate Variability, and Climate Change: A Basic Primer Presented by: Prof. Robert Oglesby, University of Nebraska, Lincoln WHAT IS CLIMATE? Does a good definition really even exist? KEY CONCEPTS

### Chapter 3: Force and Motion

Force and Motion Cause and Effect Chapter 3 Chapter 3: Force and Motion Homework: All questions on the Multiple- Choice and the odd-numbered questions on Exercises sections at the end of the chapter. In

### Laws of Motion and Conservation Laws

Laws of Motion and Conservation Laws The first astrophysics we ll consider will be gravity, which we ll address in the next class. First, though, we need to set the stage by talking about some of the basic

### QUESTION BANK UNIT-6 CHAPTER-8 GRAVITATION

QUESTION BANK UNIT-6 CHAPTER-8 GRAVITATION I. One mark Questions: 1. State Kepler s law of orbits. 2. State Kepler s law of areas. 3. State Kepler s law of periods. 4. Which physical quantity is conserved

### Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System

Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws

### Simple harmonic motion

PH-122- Dynamics Page 1 Simple harmonic motion 02 February 2011 10:10 Force opposes the displacement in A We assume the spring is linear k is the spring constant. Sometimes called stiffness constant Newton's

### Gravitation. Gravitation

1 Gravitation Newton s observations A constant center seeking force is required to keep an object moving along a circular path. You know that the moon orbits the earth and hence there should be a force

### Astronomy Review. Use the following four pictures to answer questions 1-4.

Astronomy Review Use the following four pictures to answer questions 1-4. 1. Put an X through the pictures that are NOT possible. 2. Circle the picture that could be a lunar eclipse. 3. Triangle the picture

### PHY121 #8 Midterm I 3.06.2013

PHY11 #8 Midterm I 3.06.013 AP Physics- Newton s Laws AP Exam Multiple Choice Questions #1 #4 1. When the frictionless system shown above is accelerated by an applied force of magnitude F, the tension

### Thompson/Ocean 420/Winter 2005 Tide Dynamics 1

Thompson/Ocean 420/Winter 2005 Tide Dynamics 1 Tide Dynamics Dynamic Theory of Tides. In the equilibrium theory of tides, we assumed that the shape of the sea surface was always in equilibrium with the

### Response to Harmonic Excitation

Response to Harmonic Excitation Part 1 : Undamped Systems Harmonic excitation refers to a sinusoidal external force of a certain frequency applied to a system. The response of a system to harmonic excitation

### Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton. Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight

Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight Q: What is the Law of Universal Gravitation? A: Everything in the universe has gravity.

### Let s first see how precession works in quantitative detail. The system is illustrated below: ...

lecture 20 Topics: Precession of tops Nutation Vectors in the body frame The free symmetric top in the body frame Euler s equations The free symmetric top ala Euler s The tennis racket theorem As you know,

### Lecture L19 - Vibration, Normal Modes, Natural Frequencies, Instability

S. Widnall 16.07 Dynamics Fall 2009 Version 1.0 Lecture L19 - Vibration, Normal Modes, Natural Frequencies, Instability Vibration, Instability An important class of problems in dynamics concerns the free

### Gravity. in the Solar System. Beyond the Book. FOCUS Book

FOCUS Book Design a test to find out whether Earth s gravity always pulls straight down. A pendulum is a weight that hangs from a string or rod that can swing back and forth. Use string and metal washers

### The Two-Body Problem

The Two-Body Problem Abstract In my short essay on Kepler s laws of planetary motion and Newton s law of universal gravitation, the trajectory of one massive object near another was shown to be a conic

### Unit G484: The Newtonian World

Define linear momentum (and appreciate the vector nature of momentum) net force on a body impulse of a force a perfectly elastic collision an inelastic collision the radian gravitational field strength

### The Layered Earth. Unit B Plate Tectonics. Unit D Shaping the Earth. Unit A The Solid Earth. Unit C Minerals and Rocks. Unit E Earthquakes

The Layered Earth: Content Overview The Layered Earth Unit A The Solid Earth Unit B Plate Tectonics Unit C Minerals and Rocks Unit D Shaping the Earth Unit E Earthquakes Unit F Volcanoes Unit G Geologic

### tps Q: If the Earth were located at 0.5 AU instead of 1 AU, how would the Sun s gravitational force on Earth change?

tps Q: If the Earth were located at 0.5 AU instead of 1 AU, how would the Sun s gravitational force on Earth change? A. It would be one-fourth as strong. B. It would be one-half as strong. C. It would

### AUTODESK SIMULATION MULTIPHYSICS 2013

AUTODESK SIMULATION MULTIPHYSICS 2013 Which Analysis to Use? FANKOM MÜHENDİSLİK 2/4/2013 AUTODESK SIMULATION MULTIPHYSICS Which Analysis to Use? Use the following guidelines to help choose the correct

### DIPLOMA IN ENGINEERING I YEAR I SEMESTER ENGINEERING PHYSICS - I

GOVERNMENT OF TAMILNADU DIRECTORATE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION DIPLOMA IN ENGINEERING I YEAR SEMESTER SYSTEM L - SCHEME 2011-2012 I SEMESTER ENGINEERING PHYSICS - I CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTER STATE BOARD

### Tennessee State University

Tennessee State University Dept. of Physics & Mathematics PHYS 2010 CF SU 2009 Name 30% Time is 2 hours. Cheating will give you an F-grade. Other instructions will be given in the Hall. MULTIPLE CHOICE.

### A Model of the Rotation of Venus Based on 5 Parameters. J.Souchay, L.Cottereau (SYRTE, observatoire de Paris)

A Model of the Rotation of Venus Based on 5 Parameters J.Souchay, L.Cottereau (SYRTE, observatoire de Paris) Plan General Remarks on Venus and its rotation How to model the Venus rotation The «polar motion»

### Data in seismology: networks, instruments, current problems

Data in seismology: networks, instruments, current problems Seismic networks, data centres, instruments Seismic Observables and their interrelations Seismic data acquisition parameters (sampling rates,

### Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System. Nebular Theory. Origin of the Solar System. Origin of the Solar System. The Solar Nebula

Origin of the Solar System Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System Reading: Chapter 9 Quiz#2 Today: Lecture 60 minutes, then quiz 20 minutes. Homework#1 will be returned on Thursday. Our theory must explain

### Earth and moon revolve around their common centre of mass which is located a distance c from the centre of the Earth.

B7: Tides, rotation and orbit B7.1 Tides Tides on the Earth arise from the gravitational influence of the Moon and Sun. This results in motion of seawater and also in changes in gravity that can influence

### An equivalent circuit of a loop antenna.

3.2.1. Circuit Modeling: Loop Impedance A loop antenna can be represented by a lumped circuit when its dimension is small with respect to a wavelength. In this representation, the circuit parameters (generally

### Orbital Mechanics and Space Geometry

Orbital Mechanics and Space Geometry AERO4701 Space Engineering 3 Week 2 Overview First Hour Co-ordinate Systems and Frames of Reference (Review) Kepler s equations, Orbital Elements Second Hour Orbit

### Sample Questions for the AP Physics 1 Exam

Sample Questions for the AP Physics 1 Exam Sample Questions for the AP Physics 1 Exam Multiple-choice Questions Note: To simplify calculations, you may use g 5 10 m/s 2 in all problems. Directions: Each

### SIO 229 Gravity and Geomagnetism: Class Description and Goals

SIO 229 Gravity and Geomagnetism: Class Description and Goals This graduate class provides an introduction to gravity and geomagnetism at a level suitable for advanced non-specialists in geophysics. Topics

### The Gravitational Field

The Gravitational Field The use of multimedia in teaching physics Texts to multimedia presentation Jan Hrnčíř jan.hrncir@gfxs.cz Martin Klejch martin.klejch@gfxs.cz F. X. Šalda Grammar School, Liberec

### Chapter 1: Introduction

! Revised August 26, 2013 7:44 AM! 1 Chapter 1: Introduction Copyright 2013, David A. Randall 1.1! What is a model? The atmospheric science community includes a large and energetic group of researchers

### Wind Turbines. Wind Turbines 2. Wind Turbines 4. Wind Turbines 3. Wind Turbines 5. Wind Turbines 6

Wind Turbines 1 Wind Turbines 2 Introductory Question Wind Turbines You and a child half your height lean out over the edge of a pool at the same angle. If you both let go simultaneously, who will tip

### KERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT CERRO COSO COLLEGE PHYS C111 COURSE OUTLINE OF RECORD

KERN COMMUNITY COLLEGE DISTRICT CERRO COSO COLLEGE PHYS C111 COURSE OUTLINE OF RECORD 1. DISCIPLINE AND COURSE NUMBER: PHYS C111 2. COURSE TITLE: Mechanics 3. SHORT BANWEB TITLE: Mechanics 4. COURSE AUTHOR:

### Orbital Mechanics. Angular Momentum

Orbital Mechanics The objects that orbit earth have only a few forces acting on them, the largest being the gravitational pull from the earth. The trajectories that satellites or rockets follow are largely

### 1 Newton s Laws of Motion

Exam 1 Ast 4 - Chapter 2 - Newton s Laws Exam 1 is scheduled for the week of Feb 19th Bring Pencil Scantron 882-E (available in the Bookstore) A scientific calculator (you will not be allowed to use you

### The Formation of Planetary Systems. Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1

The Formation of Planetary Systems Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1 Modeling Planet Formation Any model for solar system and planet formation must explain 1. Planets are relatively isolated in space 2. Planetary

### Rotational Errors in IGS Orbit & ERP Products

Rotational Errors in IGS Orbit & ERP Products Systematic rotations are a leading IGS error they affect all core products except probably clocks Sources include defects in: IERS model for 12h + 24h tidal

### The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Correlation to. EarthComm, Second Edition. Project-Based Space and Earth System Science

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Achieve, Inc. on behalf of the twenty-six states and partners that collaborated on the NGSS Copyright 2013 Achieve, Inc. All rights reserved. Correlation to,

### Newton s Laws. Newton s Imaginary Cannon. Michael Fowler Physics 142E Lec 6 Jan 22, 2009

Newton s Laws Michael Fowler Physics 142E Lec 6 Jan 22, 2009 Newton s Imaginary Cannon Newton was familiar with Galileo s analysis of projectile motion, and decided to take it one step further. He imagined

### Galileo and the physics of motion

Galileo and the physics of motion Studies of motion important : planetary orbits, cannonball accuracy, basic physics. Galileo among first to make careful observations Looked at velocity, acceleration,

### Chapter 13 - Gravity. David J. Starling Penn State Hazleton Fall Chapter 13 - Gravity. Objectives (Ch 13) Newton s Law of Gravitation

The moon is essentially gray, no color. It looks like plaster of Paris, like dirty beach sand with lots of footprints in it. -James A. Lovell (from the Apollo 13 mission) David J. Starling Penn State Hazleton

### Pressure, Forces and Motion

Pressure, Forces and Motion Readings A&B: Ch. 4 (p. 93-114) CD Tutorials: Pressure Gradients, Coriolis, Forces & Winds Topics 1. Review: What is Pressure? 2. Horizontal Pressure Gradients 3. Depicting

### Black holes 101(beyond science fiction)

Chapter 13: Gravitation Newton s Law of Gravitation Why is gravity important? Revisit the following: gravitational force, weight, and gravitational energy Stellar motions: the orbits of satellites and

### Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13. Gravitation. Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton

Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13 Gravitation Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton II_A2: Planetary Orbits in the Solar System + Galaxy Interactions (You Tube) 21 seconds 13-1 Newton's Law

### Physics 53. Rotational Motion 1. We're going to turn this team around 360 degrees. Jason Kidd

Physics 53 Rotational Motion 1 We're going to turn this team around 360 degrees. Jason Kidd Rigid bodies To a good approximation, a solid object behaves like a perfectly rigid body, in which each particle

### Penn State University Physics 211 ORBITAL MECHANICS 1

ORBITAL MECHANICS 1 PURPOSE The purpose of this laboratory project is to calculate, verify and then simulate various satellite orbit scenarios for an artificial satellite orbiting the earth. First, there

### Breeding and predictability in coupled Lorenz models. E. Kalnay, M. Peña, S.-C. Yang and M. Cai

Breeding and predictability in coupled Lorenz models E. Kalnay, M. Peña, S.-C. Yang and M. Cai Department of Meteorology University of Maryland, College Park 20742 USA Abstract Bred vectors are the difference

### Presentation of problem T1 (9 points): The Maribo Meteorite

Presentation of problem T1 (9 points): The Maribo Meteorite Definitions Meteoroid. A small particle (typically smaller than 1 m) from a comet or an asteroid. Meteorite: A meteoroid that impacts the ground

### Orbital Dynamics. Orbital Dynamics 1/29/15

Orbital Dynamics Orbital Dynamics 1/29/15 Announcements Reading for next class Chapter 5: Sections 5.1-5.4 Homework #2 due next class (Tuesday, Feb. 3) Project #1 topic ideas due next Tuesday (Feb. 3)

### REGIONAL CLIMATE AND DOWNSCALING

REGIONAL CLIMATE AND DOWNSCALING Regional Climate Modelling at the Hungarian Meteorological Service ANDRÁS HORÁNYI (horanyi( horanyi.a@.a@met.hu) Special thanks: : Gabriella Csima,, Péter Szabó, Gabriella

### Lecture L18 - Exploring the Neighborhood: the Restricted Three-Body Problem

S. Widnall 16.07 Dynamics Fall 008 Version 1.0 Lecture L18 - Exploring the Neighborhood: the Restricted Three-Body Problem The Three-Body Problem In Lecture 15-17, we presented the solution to the two-body

### GGOS and the Importance of the Combination of Space Techniques. Hansjörg Kutterer Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy, Germany

GGOS and the Importance of the Combination of Space Techniques Hansjörg Kutterer Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy, Germany Content Combination of space-geodetic techniques Combination examples

### So if ω 0 increases 3-fold, the stopping angle increases 3 2 = 9-fold.

Name: MULTIPLE CHOICE: Questions 1-11 are 5 points each. 1. A safety device brings the blade of a power mower from an angular speed of ω 1 to rest in 1.00 revolution. At the same constant angular acceleration,

### Name: Date: Period: Gravity Study Guide

Vocabulary: Define the following terms. Law of Universal Gravitation Gravity Study Guide Weight Weightlessness Gravitational Field Black hole Escape velocity Math: Be able to use the equation for the law