Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

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1 Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice

2

3 Gerben Bruinsma David Weisburd Editors Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice With 311 Figures and 150 Tables

4 Editors Gerben Bruinsma Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR) Amsterdam, The Netherlands VU University Amsterdam Amsterdam, The Netherlands David Weisburd Department of Criminology, Law and Society George Mason University Fairfax, VA, USA Faculty of Law The Hebrew University Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel ISBN ISBN (ebook) ISBN (Print and electronic bundle) DOI / Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London Library of Congress Control Number: # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)

5 Preface Introduction When we began our effort to outline and organize the Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice with our distinguished Associate Editors, we set before ourselves a major task that would be different from that of most other encyclopedias that are produced today in various fields. We looked back in history to find our task. We sought to define the parameters of the discipline of criminology and criminal justice, in the spirit of the encyclopedias first developed in the 18 th century. This Encyclopedia would not be a dictionary of the field, but a cutting edge statement of knowledge in the field at this time. Crime and criminal justice are major dynamic issues in contemporary societies. Every society is confronted with variations in crime rates and has to deal with large groups of crime places, offenders, and victims. Crimes appear in changing images in everyday life and criminal justice agencies have to find solutions for these societal phenomena. This means that the science of criminology is important not just for scientists and scholars who want to develop basic knowledge and understand the causes of crime, but also to policy makers and practitioners. Criminology as a discipline spans both basic and applied research questions, and criminology has been enriched by its ability to both provide scientific knowledge to practice and to raise critical questions about the basic principles and effects of policy and practice. There is an international community of active producers of criminological knowledge in every continent at universities, research institutes, and governmental offices. The globalization of criminological knowledge has increased the dissemination of criminological research and theory to all parts of the world. This Encyclopedia seeks to summarize that broad array of knowledge. Undergraduate and graduate students in criminology and criminal justice are taught using general text books with brief sections on relevant topics. Further information is explored on the Internet, using Wikipedia texts for additional knowledge or for writing papers. These texts have not been reviewed by scholars in the field. The print and online versions of this Encyclopedia give students, researchers, policy makers, and practitioners direct access to a reliable body of knowledge on topics that have been written by experts in the discipline. Indeed, in this Encyclopedia it is often the originators of theories, practices, or methods that are writing the entries. These entries will give students and scholars efficient and solid insights into the knowledge they need for their courses. v

6 vi Preface Goals This Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice presents the current state of knowledge of this discipline. Like science in general, criminology expanded during the last two centuries, starting with the first geographic studies on the distribution of crime rates until new neurological knowledge of offenders and innovative forensic techniques to detect perpetrators, and to evidence-based treatment programs for serious or frequent offenders or local governmental to private interventions in crime situations. We needed ten volumes with 579 entries to display today s criminology and criminal justice knowledge base. It represents our efforts to provide the reader with current state-of-the-art knowledge in criminology and criminal justice. The aim of the Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice is to supply a comprehensive reference tool for the field of criminology and criminal justice that is both cutting edge and of very high scientific quality. This ten volume work provides a complete and systematic coverage of this growing field that is unprecedented, as it is truly international and includes fields related to criminology, such as police science, forensics, and certain areas of psychology. Each entry offers an extended description of the topic, relevant literature, current base of knowledge, and ideas about what needs to be studied in the future. The on-line version will be updated continuously after the first publication serving millions of students, researchers, policy makers, and practitioners of all continents. Defining the Discipline The goal of this Encyclopedia is to provide a comprehensive reference work for the field of criminology and criminal justice. We worked hard, meeting multiple times with our Associate Editors, to identify what the critical areas were, and what research existed that we could include in the Encyclopedia. The Encyclopedia in this sense "defines the field" through its choice of organization and entries. We aimed at identifying emerging ideas and trends, so that the work will be timely at publication and afterwards. This Encyclopedia covers the field broadly, and internationally, and attempts to be up to date as to recent developments in research and practice in the field. This Encyclopedia is not a dictionary, nor a kind of Wikipedia without any quality assessment, and aims at comprehensive and cutting edge knowledge that defines the contours of the field of criminology and criminal justice. That is why we included the fast developing new fields of forensics, psychology of law, and investigative psychology. The ten volumes cover the following broad fields of criminology and criminal justice (listed with the Associate Editors responsible): Corrections and Criminal Justice Supervision in the Community (Doris MacKenzie) Courts, Sentencing, and the Judicial System (Leslie Sebba) Police and Law Enforcement (Stephen Mastrofski) Crimes, Criminals, and Victims (Alex Piquero)

7 Preface vii Crime Places and Situations (Cynthia Lum) Explanations for Criminal Behavior (Sally Simpson) History of Criminology (all Associate Editors and Editors-in-Chief) Data, Methods, and Statistics (Arjan Blokland and Dan Nagin) Social Interventions and Prevention (Gwladys Gilliéron & Martin Killias) Forensics and Forensic Science Investigative Psychology (Peter Neyroud) Psychology of Law (Karen Amendola) Every section defines a number of areas of research (a total of 111), and consequently a number of relevant topics or articles that are included as entries (579). The entries are arranged in alphabetical order. Each entry provides an overview of what is covered, followed by a short list of suggested readings and references. All entries have been reviewed, first by the Area Editors, then by the Associate Editors, and finally by the Editors-in-Chief. Not all of the articles submitted could be accepted into the Encyclopedia, as is the case with other academic work that is reviewed. We very much appreciate the efforts of all of our authors, who have truly produced an important work in criminology and criminal justice. Acknowledgements As the reader can imagine, this ten volume Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice is a work that involves the collaborative efforts of many people. In the 18th century, Dennis Diderot and Jean le Rond d Alembert published between 1751 and 1772 the first encyclopedia on science with the assistance of hundreds of scholars. It consisted of 28 volumes with 60,000 articles on all imaginable topics of the natural sciences. The editors themselves contributed 6,000 articles. This Encyclopedia is also a joint effort of many people. When David Weisburd was approached by Springer, he invited Gerben Bruinsma to join him as Editor-in-Chief. We contributed equally to the Encyclopedia, explaining the alphabetical order of our names. We had the magnificent support of a group of 12 Associate Editors, all renowned experts in their fields. They organized their section by defining the areas of research and used their extended professional network to contact the 111 Area Editors. We owe them very much for their efforts: Karen Amendola (Police Foundation), Arjan Blokland (NSCR), Gwladys Gilliéron (Distance Learning University Switzerland, Brig, Switzerland), Martin Killias (KRC Killias Research & Consulting SA), Cynthia Lum (George Mason University), Doris MacKenzie (Penn State University), Stephen Mastrofski (George Mason University), Daniel Nagin (Carnegie Mellon University), Peter Neyroud (Cambridge University), Alex Piquero (The University of Texas at Dallas), Leslie Sebba (The Hebrew University), and Sally Simpson (University of Maryland). We also would like to thank the 111 Area Editors who selected the authors and reviewed the papers in their areas. Their names are listed separately in this Encyclopedia. Lastly, we are grateful to all our authors who contributed with scholarly entries to the Encyclopedia. It is their

8 viii Preface collective effort and expertise that has made the publication of Springer s Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice a successful enterprise. A special word of gratitude is for the staff of the publisher, Springer. Many people have contributed to the Encyclopedia from its inception through its production. We thank them all for their wonderful work. But some Springer staff deserve special mention. Welmoed Spahr, Executive Editor, Social and Behavioral Sciences, and Katie Chabalko, Criminology Editor, supported us from the beginning to the end of the project often going much beyond their obligations to ensure the academic quality of the work. Without Saskia Ellis, the project manager, this project would never have been finished, or at least would not have come out in a timely manner. She was a power house in moving the Encyclopedia along, and worked closely with us in bringing this major project to completion. To the literally hundreds of people who worked on this project we thank you all, and hope that you are very pleased with the scope and quality of Springer s Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. May 2013 Gerben Bruinsma Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR) (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) & VU University Amsterdam (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) David Weisburd Department of Criminology, Law and Society, George Mason University (Fairfax, VA, USA) & Faculty of Law, The Hebrew University (Jerusalem, Israel)

9 Editors-in-Chief Gerben Bruinsma Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR), Amsterdam, The Netherlands VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Professor Dr. Gerben Bruinsma is, since 1999, director of the Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR) in Amsterdam, a national research institute of the National Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). He is also, since 2009, professor of environmental criminology at VU University Amsterdam. In the past he has held positions as professor of criminology at Twente University and Leiden University. He studied sociology and criminology at Utrecht University and finished his doctoral dissertation Crime as a Social Process: A Test of the Differential Association Theory in the Version of K-D- Opp at the Radboud University Nijmegen. In the 1990s he co-founded the International Police Institute at Twente University. He was president of the Dutch Society of Criminology and one of the founding fathers of the European Society of Criminology, editor or editorial board member of various journals, and has held a great number of advisory and board positions in the field of police and criminal justice. In 2009, he received the Freda Adler Distinguished International Scholar Award of the Division of International Criminology of the American Society of Criminology (ASC). He has researched and published on juvenile delinquency, organised crime, spatial distributions of crime, police theory, and methodological issues. He has published more than 100 articles, 30 books, and 60 book chapters. His current interests are geographical, theoretical, and historical criminology. ix

10 x Editors-in-Chief David Weisburd Department of Criminology, Law and Society, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA Faculty of Law, The Hebrew University, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel David Weisburd is Distinguished Professor of Criminology, Law and Society at George Mason University (and Director of its Center for Evidence Based Crime Policy) and Walter E. Meyer Professor of Law and Criminal Justice at The Hebrew University, Faculty of Law in Jerusalem. He also serves as Senior Fellow at the Police Foundation in Washington, DC and is Chair of its Research Advisory Committee. Professor Weisburd is an elected Fellow of the American Society of Criminology and of the Academy of Experimental Criminology. He is a member of the Science Advisory Board of the Office of Justice Programs (USA), the Steering Committee of the Campbell Crime and Justice Group, the Harvard Executive Session in Policing, and the Committee on Law and Justice of the National Research Council (National Academy of Sciences, USA). Professor Weisburd is one of the leading international researchers in crime and justice. He is author or editor of more than 20 books and more than 100 scientific articles that cover a wide range of criminal justice research topics, including crime at place, violent crime, white collar crime, policing, illicit markets, criminal justice statistics, and social deviance. Professor Weisburd is editor of the Journal of Experimental Criminology and sits on many journal editorial boards, including Evaluation Review, the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, and the Journal of Quantitative Criminology. He is the 2008 recipient of the Joan McCord Award from the Academy of Experimental Criminology, the 2010 recipient of the Stockholm Prize in Criminology, and the 2011 recipient of the Klachky Prize for the Advancement of the Frontiers of Science. In 2011, he was chosen by a committee of the Israeli Academy of the Sciences and Humanities as a recipient of the Minister s Prize for Outstanding Immigrant Scientists.

11 Associate Editors Karen L. Amendola Police Foundation, Washington, DC, USA Subject Area: Psychology of Law Arjan A. J. Blokland Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR), Amsterdam, The Netherlands Department of Criminology and Criminal Law, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands Subject Area: Data, Methods, and Statistics Gwladys Gilliéron Distance Learning University Switzerland, Brig, Switzerland Subject Area: Social Interventions and Prevention Martin Killias KRC Killias Research & Consulting SA, Lenzburg, Switzerland Subject Area: Social Interventions and Prevention Cynthia Lum Department of Criminology, Law and Society, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA Subject Area: Crime Places and Situations Doris L. MacKenzie The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA Subject Area: Corrections and Criminal Justice Supervision in the Community Stephen D. Mastrofski George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA Subject Area: Police and Law Enforcement Daniel S. Nagin Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Subject Area: Data, Methods and Statistics Peter Neyroud University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Subject Area: Forensic and Investigative Psychology Alex R. Piquero Department of Criminology, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, USA Subject Area: Crimes, Criminals and Victims Leslie Sebba Institute of Criminology, Faculty of Law, The Hebrew University, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel Subject Area: Courts, Sentencing and the Judicial System Sally S. Simpson Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA Subject Area: Explanations for Criminal Behavior xi

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13 Area Editors Michael G. Aamodt DCI Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC, USA Subject Area: Psychology and Policing Robert Agnew Department of Sociology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA Subject Area: Strain Theories Mimi Ajzenstadt Rothberg International School, The Hebrew University, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel Subject Area: Archival and Historical Methods Karen L. Amendola Police Foundation, Washington, DC, USA Subject Area: Detection of Deception Martin A. Andresen School of Criminology, Institute for Canadian Urban Research Studies, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada Subject Area: Predictive Models and Geographic Profiling Robert Apel School of Criminal Justice, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA Subject Area: Quasi-experimental Methods Gaylene S. Armstrong College of Criminal Justice, Correctional Management Institute of Texas Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX, USA Subject Area: Prisons and Jails Including Correctional Management Nachman Ben-Yehuda Department of Sociology and Anthropology, The Hebrew University, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel Subject Area: Labeling Theories Michael L. Benson School of Criminal Justice, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA Subject Area: White Collar Catrien Bijleveld Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement, NSCR, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Subject Area: Multivariate Analyses xiii

14 xiv Area Editors Ingrid A. Binswanger Division of General Internal Medicine and Division of Substance Dependence, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, CO, USA Subject Area: Health and Corrections/Medical Issues Daniel Birks ARC Center of Excellence in Policing and Security, CEPS, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia Subject Area: Simulation Models Donna M. Bishop School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Subject Area: Juvenile Crime Erhard Blankenburg Emeritus Professor, Faculty of Law, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Subject Area: Legal Change, Regulation, and Compliance Kate J. Bowers Department of Security and Crime Science, Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science, University College London, London, UK Subject Area: Crime Specialization and Concentrations Robert Brame Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA Subject Area: Criminal Careers and Selection Models Marjie Britz College of Business and Behavioural Science, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Subject Area: New Horizons for Forensics Gerben Bruinsma Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR), Amsterdam, The Netherlands VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Subject Area: Organized Crime Catherine Burton Department of Criminal Justice, The Citadel, Charleston, SC, USA Subject Area: New Horizons for Forensics Julia L. Carrano School of Public Affairs, American University, Washington, DC, USA Subject Area: Wrongful Convictions Janet Chan Faculty of Law, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Subject Area: Technology and Policing Steven M. Chermak School of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA National Consortium for the Studies of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) Subject Area: Media

15 Area Editors xv Heith Copes University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Subject Area: Property Crime Gary Cordner Department of Criminal Justice, Kutztown University, Kutztown, PA, USA Subject Area: Specialized Police Functions Robert D. Crutchfield University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Subject Area: Disorganization Michael R. Davis Centre for Forensic Behavioural Science, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Subject Area: Forensic Psychology Matthew DeMichelle Justice Center for Research, Department of Sociology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA Subject Area: Comparative Corrections James M. Doyle Independent Researcher, Carney & Bassil, Boston, MA, USA Subject Area: History of Psychology and Law Frieder D unkel Faculty of Law, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany Subject Area: Alternative/Community Sanctions Laura Dugan Department of Criminology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA Subject Area: History of Methods and Statistics Jennifer Dysart Department of Psychology, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York, NY, USA Subject Area: Eyewitnesses Henk Elffers Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR), Amsterdam, The Netherlands Subject Area: Simulation Models Lee Ellis Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Malaysia Subject Area: Biosocial Theoretical Robin Engel School of Criminal Justice, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA Subject Area: Police Discretion and its Control Horst Entorf Department of Economics and Business Administration, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany Subject Area: General Deterrence & General Prevention David P. Farrington Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Subject Area: Psychological Theories

16 xvi Area Editors James O. Finckenauer School of Criminal Justice, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA Subject Area: Comparative Definitions James Frank School of Criminal Justice, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA Subject Area: Criminal Investigations David O. Friedrichs Department of Sociology/Criminal Justice, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA, USA Subject Area: Political-State Crime Lior Gideon Department of Law, Police Science and Criminal Justice Administration, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York, NY, USA Subject Area: History of Corrections and Punishment Charlotte E. Gill Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA Subject Area: Probation and Parole Denise C. Gottfredson Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA Subject Area: School-based Prevention Jack R. Greene School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Subject Area: Police Management and Leadership Matthew Hall School of Law, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Subject Area: Victims in Criminal Procedure Roger A. Hanson National Center for State Courts, Williamsburg, VA, USA Subject Area: Culture and Organisation of the Courts Nathan Harris Regulatory Institutions Network, Australian National University, Acton, ACT, Australia Subject Area: Shaming, Defiance, Procedural Justice Badi Hasisi Institute of Criminology, Faculty of Law, The Hebrew University, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel Subject Area: Policing Terrorism and Homeland Security Julie Hibdon Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, USA Subject Area: Geographic Study of Crime Joshua C. Hinkle Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA Subject Area: Social and Physical Disorder Tony Hoskin Criminology Program, The University of Texas of the Permian Basin, Odessa, TX, USA Subject Area: Biosocial Theoretical

17 Area Editors xvii Shane D. Johnson Department of Security and Crime Science, University College London, London, UK Subject Area: Crime Specialization and Concentrations Gerry Johnstone Law School, University of Hull, Hull, UK Subject Area: Restorative Justice Darrick Jolliffe School of Law, University of Greenwich, London, UK Subject Area: Early Prevention and Interventions in Families Martin Killias KRC Killias Research & Consulting SA, Lenzburg, Switzerland Subject Area: Evidence Based Policy David Klinger Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA Subject Area: Police Organization and Culture Christopher S. Koper Department of Criminology, Law and Society, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA Subject Area: Police Strategies and Practices Marvin Krohn Department of Sociology and Criminology and Law, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Subject Area: Self-control Theories Candace Kruttschnitt Centre for Criminology and Sociolegal Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Subject Area: Feminist Theories Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovic School of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA Subject Area: Police Abuse of Authority Gary LaFree National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START), University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA Subject Area: Terrorism Tapio Lappi-Sepp al a National Research Institute of Legal Policy, Helsinki, Finland Subject Area: Incapacitation Brian Lawton Criminology, Law and Society, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA Subject Area: Criminology of Crime Places/History and Context of Crime and Specific Crimes, Specific Places Michael Levi Centre for Crime, Law and Justice at Cardiff School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK Subject Area: Explanations for White-collar and Corporate Crime

18 xviii Area Editors Rolf Loeber Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Subject Area: Longitudinal Designs Cynthia Lum Department of Criminology, Law and Society, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA Subject Area: Units of Analysis Patrick Lussier Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada Subject Area: Sex Offenders Ineke Haen Marshall Department of Sociology & Anthropology and School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Subject Area: Self-report Methodology Matt Matravers Morrell Centre for Toleration, University of York, York, UK Subject Area: Sentencing Philosophy Rob I. Mawby University of South Wales, Newport, South Wales, UK Department of Natural Sciences, University of Gloucestershire, Cheltenham, UK Subject Area: Comparative and International Policing Lorraine Mazerolle The Institute for Social Science Research, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, Australia Subject Area: Third Party Policing Paul Mazerolle Arts, Education, and Law, Griffith University, Griffith, QLD, Australia Subject Area: Specialization Jean McGloin Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA Subject Area: Co-offending Tracey L. Meares Yale Law School, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA Subject Area: Law and the Police Guus Meershoek Department of Management and Governance, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands Police Academy, Apeldoorn, The Netherlands Subject Area: Police History Robert Meier School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA Subject Area: Moral Crimes Ruth M. Morgan Security and Crime Science, University College London, London, UK Subject Area: Identification

19 Area Editors xix Daniel S. Nagin Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Subject Area: Systematic Observation and Visual Representation Roger B. Parks Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, USA Subject Area: Police Performance Stephan Parmentier Leuven Institute of Criminology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Subject Area: International Criminal Justice Raymond Paternoster Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA Subject Area: Rational Choice/Deterrance and Developmental Statistical Methods Ken Pease Jill Dando Institute, University College London, London, UK Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK Subject Area: History of Social Interventions and Prevention Anthony Petrosino Learning Innovations, WestEd, Woburn, MA, USA Subject Area: Experimental Methods Alex R. Piquero Department of Criminology, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, USA Subject Area: Violence Paul Ponsaers Faculty of Law, Research Group SVA, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Subject Area: Police and Community Paul Roberts School of Law, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Subject Area: Forensics and the Criminal Trial Process Dennis Rosenbaum Department of Criminal Justice, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Subject Area: Police Legitimacy Dawn L. Rothe Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA Subject Area: Political-state Crime David B. Rottman National Center for State Courts, Williamsburg, VA, USA Subject Area: Alternative Courts and Procedures Wenona Rymond-Richmond Department of Sociology, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA Subject Area: Violations Human Rights Martin D. Schwartz George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Subject Area: Critical Criminology

20 xx Area Editors Leslie Sebba Institute of Criminology, Faculty of Law, The Hebrew University, Mt. Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel Subject Area: Sentencing and the Judicial System - Miscellaneous topics Sally S. Simpson Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA Subject Area: Social Learning and History of Criminological Theory and Routine Activity Theory Alette Smeulers Department of Criminal Law, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands Subject Area: International Criminal Justice Nigel South Department of Sociology, University of Essex, Colchester, Essex, UK Subject Area: Environmental-green Cyrus Tata Law School, Strathclyde University, Glasgow, Scotland, UK Subject Area: Sentencing Processes Faye S. Taxman Criminology, Law and Society, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA Subject Area: Rehabilitation, Recidivism, and What Works and Health and Corrections/Medical Issues Terrance J. Taylor Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA Subject Area: Juvenile Gangs William J. Tilstone Centre for Forensic Science, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, UK Subject Area: History and Evolution and Forensic Science George Tita Department of Criminology, Law and Society, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA Subject Area: Network Analysis Michael Townsley School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Subject Area: Geographical Information System and Spatial Statistics Andromachi Tseloni School of Social Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK Subject Area: Victimization Jan J. Van Dijk Human Security and Safety International Victimology Institute, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands Subject Area: Victimization Survey Vere M. van Koppen VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Subject Area: Organized Crime

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