supply-chain management (scm)

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1 7 supply-chai maagemet (scm) 7. 1 Theory: SCM ad logistics Learig outcomes Lear about the theory of supply-chai maagemet. Use collocatios coected with supply-chai maagemet. Desig a supply chai. Itroductio The supply chai describes the suppliers, storage facilities, retailers ad modes of trasport which are all ivolved i gettig the product from its origial source to the ed user. 1 Look at the photos showig part of the supply chai of coffee. 1 Who are the people ivolved i the supply chai? 2 What stages does a coffee bea go through to get to the customer? 3 The supply chai is also coected with the flow of iformatio. What iformatio do you thik that the differet people i the supply chai eed? Laguage focus: People ivolved i the supply chai 1 Match the people who ca be ivolved i the supply chai with the correct defiitio. 1 maufacturers a shops which sell the fiished product 2 wholesalers b the producers of the fiished product 3 suppliers c people who buy the fiished product 4 retailers d orgaisatios who sell the fiished product via the Iteret 5 e-tailers e compaies which sell the fiished product to differet shops 6 ed users / cosumers f compaies offerig the raw material or partly fiished goods to other compaies 2 Use the vocabulary above to describe people you idetified i the supply chai for coffee. Example: The farmer is a supplier to the coffee compaies. Listeig 1: The supply chai ad its fuctios 1.37 Busiess view Professor Oleg Zaiki works at the Warsaw School of Computer Sciece, Polad. He has writte extesively o Computer Sciece ad Supply Chai Maagemet. 1 What do you thik the fuctios of a supply chai are? Look at the slide o page 65 from Professor Oleg Zaiki s lecture. What do you thik he will say? 64 7 supply-chai maagemet (scm) ISBN:

2 Fuctios of a supply chai Receivig ad 1 customer requests New product 2 Marketig Productio 3 Distributio Fiace Customer 4 Each stage i the supply chai is coected through the 5 of materials, the products, iformatio ad fuds. These flows ofte occur i 6 directios. 2 Liste ad complete the first part of Professor Oleg Zaiki s lecture. 3 What do you thik Professor Oleg Zaiki meas whe he says that iformatio i the supply chai flows i both directios? Ca you thik of some examples of this i the supply chai for coffee? Trasferable skill: Noticig ad learig collocatios Ay laguage cotais may collocatios (words which are ofte used together). Whe you lear ew vocabulary, it is a good idea to lear the whole collocatio, e.g. make a decisio ot to make ad a decisio separately. This helps you to commuicate more fluetly. Whe you talk about the supply chai, there are a umber of collocatios which are useful because they are ofte used i this cotext. Complete the verb ou collocatios usig these verbs. The meaig of the verbs is give i brackets. cofigure raise icur allocate set hadle maximise geerate 1 the overall value (make the most of) 2 the supply chai surplus (icrease) 3 reveue (create) 4 costs (cause) 5 resources (assig) 6 orders (deal with) 7 a date / the mode ad schedule of delivery (fix) 8 the supply chai (coordiate) Listeig 2: Goals of the supply chai 1.38 Before you liste, try to aswer the followig questios. The liste ad check. 1 What is the mai purpose of the supply chai? 2 Why do decisios about the supply chai have such a big impact o how successful compaies are? Listeig 3: Decisio-makig phases of SCM Professor Oleg Zaiki talks about the three key decisiomakig phases of supply-chai maagemet. Liste ad complete the slides below. 1 Supply-chai strategy / desig decisio log term ad very expesive Decisios about: how to 1 the supply chai how to cofigure the supply chai how 2 will be allocated what 3 each stage will ivolve 2 Supply-chai plaig 1 3 moths to a year Goal of plaig: to 2 the supply-chai surplus As a result of the pla, compaies defie a set of 3 that 4 operatios follow. 3 Supply-chai operatios time frame is 1 or daily durig this phase decisios are made about a idividual 2 Goals of supply-chai operatios: to deal with 3 orders to allocate productio resources to meet 4 orders to 5 whe a order is to be filled decide the mode ad 6 of delivery 2 Work i pairs. Close your book ad tell your parter what you ca remember about supply-chai strategy, supply-chai plaig ad operatios. While you liste to your parter, liste for some of the key vocabulary from the slides i exercise 1 ad give your parter feedback. 7 supply-chai maagemet (scm) 65 ISBN:

3 3 Thik about the goals ad fuctios of a supply chai. Here is a simple diagram of a supply chai for clothig export i Hog Kog. I pairs, discuss the followig questios, usig some of the vocabulary you heard Professor Oleg Zaiki use. Hog Kog Clothig Export Fabric ad accessory suppliers Clothig maufacturers Govermet agecies Buyig offices Sourcig agets Retailers Overseas markets Cosumers Are there ay other importat decisios to make that are particular to your coutry or the eighbourig coutries? Remember that your goal is to maximise the supply-chai surplus. What issues will you eed to thik about to make sure this happes? Stage 2 Draw a diagram to illustrate your supply chai. Show it to aother group ad talk them through the supply chai that you have desiged. Before you talk about it, look agai at the collocatios you leart i Trasferable skill ad prepare to use some of them i your descriptio. Forwarders ad carriers Flow of iformatio Flow of merchadise 1 What resources eed to be allocated at the start of the project? 2 What are some of the processes at each stage of the supply chai for the Hog Kog maufacturer? 3 How could the compay try to maximise its supply-chai surplus? Itercultural aalysis Oe of the criteria for a successful supply chai is time maagemet; all the participats agree o whe a particular process should be complete. It is importat to keep to this deadlie or there will be delays i other parts of the supply chai. I some cultures, people see time / appoitmets / deadlies as flexible; i other cultures, it is importat to always be puctual. This ca be a itercultural problem. Have you had ay experiece of this? How ca this problem be maaged? Output: Makig decisios about a supply-chai strategy Stage 1 Work i small groups. You are resposible for the supply chai of a ew soft drik that will be sold i the coutry you are i ow ad i its eighbourig coutries. Thik about the followig poits: 1 What igrediets will you eed for the soft drik? 2 Where will you buy them ad how will you get them to your productio facility? 3 Where will the productio facility be? 4 What packagig will you eed? Where will you get it from ad how will you get it to the productio facility? 5 Where will you have your warehouses so that the product ca easily be distributed? 6 How will you get the product to the customers? 7 What sort of retail outlet (shops / restaurats / fitess studios) will you target? 66 7 supply-chai maagemet (scm) ISBN:

4 case study 7.2 Practice: The role of the customer i SCM Learig outcomes Lear about a compay s iovative approach to SCM. Use zero, first ad secod coditioals. Discuss the iteral ad exteral issues ifluecig SCM. Profile: IKEA IKEA sells more furiture ad products for the home such as lamps ad photo frames tha ay other compay of this type i the world. It operates i more tha 38 differet coutries. It was the first compay to sell flatpack furiture o a wide scale. Flat-pack furiture is packed i smaller, flat packs that take up less space ad it ca be take home by the customer without a delivery va. The customer must the put the furiture together themselves. This meas that IKEA ca keep prices lower as there are lower costs for storage space ad distributio. Itroductio As you ca see from the compay profile of IKEA, the customer is much more part of the supply chai tha i the past the customer is ot just the ed user; they play a role i the chai by assemblig, collectig ad deliverig the product. 1 What are the advatages of this for the customer? 2 What are the advatages for the compay? 3 Would you prefer to pay more for a product, e.g. a bed, which is delivered to your house ad put together by the compay, or pay less ad trasport ad assemble the bed yourself? Readig 1: Itroductio to IKEA s supply chai 1 You are goig to read a text about IKEA s supply chai. What do you kow about IKEA? Have you ever bought aythig there? 2 IKEA tries to operate i a sustaiable way. What do you thik sustaiable meas? Read the first part of the article ad check Busiesses have to thik about the log-term effects of providig the goods ad services that cosumers wat. Orgaisatios try to operate i a sustaiable way. This meas that they supply goods i a way that is of beefit to both customers ad the eviromet. Customers do ot always kow where goods have come from or the stages through which they pass before they are ready for sale. Oe of the ways i which IKEA tries to iclude the customer i its supply chai is by beig ope about how it operates; the compay makes iformatio about its supply chai available o its website. I the iformatio about its supply chai, IKEA has divided it ito three stages: raw materials (the primary sector) maufacturig (the secodary sector). distributio ad retailig services (the tertiary sector). 3 Now discuss the followig questios. 1 How importat do you thik it is for compaies to be ope about their supply chai? 2 What iformatio do you expect the compay to give about the differet sectors? 7 supply-chai maagemet (scm) 67 ISBN:

5 1Readig 2: IKEA ad the primary sector Critical aalysis maagig orgaisatios 1 Read this text about IKEA ad the primary sector of the ecoomy. Note dow the key words or phrases. 5.1 Theory: Orgaisatioal structures Primary sector IKEA works closely with its primary sector suppliers to make sure that it receives raw materials from sustaiable sources. IKEA tries to miimise the impact of productio o the eviromet. For this, it uses a tool to measure the evirometal impact of products. This looks at resources, productio, use ad recyclig for each product. Aroud half of IKEA s products are made of wood which is a good source of material as it is recyclable ad reewable. Other productio processes which help to support sustaiability iclude: makig tables from recycled plastic, makig rugs from off-cuts, desigig products which take up less space whe they are trasported. IKEA works with suppliers to reduce waste or use waste products i further maufacture. To help, it has a Code of Coduct called the IKEA Way of Purchasig Home Furishig Products (IWAY). 2 Work i pairs. Usig your otes, tell your parter about IKEA ad the primary sector. Your parter ca look at the text ad tell you aythig you have missed. Readig 3: IKEA ad the secodary ad tertiary sectors 1 Work i pairs. Studet A: read about the secodary sector o page 137. Studet B: read about the tertiary sector o page Complete the table below with otes about the sector you have read about. Maufacturig i the secodary sector Source: The Times 100, Buildig a sustaiable supply chai Distributio ad retailig i the tertiary sector 3 Tell your parter about the sector of the ecoomy that you read about. Use your parter s iformatio to make otes o the sector you have ot read about. How importat is it for you to buy products from compaies that follow a code of coduct like IKEA? Which of the followig would chage your decisio to buy a product eve if it was much cheaper? if the compay used child labour if the maufacturer used wood resources which were ot sustaiable if the compay was pollutig the eviromet Do you thik that some compaies claim to be gree eve whe they are ot? Laguage focus 1: Verbs to describe the supply chai 1 Some verbs are useful whe talkig about supply chais. Complete the seteces usig the correct form of these verbs. reduce collect supply assemble deliver 1 With more olie purchases fewer customers go to the shop to the goods themselves. 2 Some compaies try to goods i a way that beefits both the cosumer ad the eviromet. 3 I saved some moey whe I bought flat-pack furiture, but it did t save me time. It took me all day to it. 4 Oe of the objectives of the supply chai is to the amout of waste. 5 We should be able to the goods to your office i the ext 24 hours. 2 Use some of the verbs above to describe the supply chai for somethig you wear or use. Laguage focus 2: Usig coditioals 1 Match the seteces about IKEA with the correct meaig. 1 If a employee wats to cycle to work, we provide them with a bicycle. 2 If oe of our suppliers used child labour, we would ot work with them agai. 3 We will deliver a piece of furiture for you (for a extra charge) if you caot collect it yourself. a This setece talks about a evet which is probable. b This setece talks about somethig which is geerally true. c This setece talks about a situatio which is ot probable. Note that the if clause ca come first or secod i a coditioal setece supply-chai maagemet (scm) ISBN:

6 case study 2 Look at the seteces i exercise 1 agai ad complete the 5.2 rules about Practice: the form of Mergers each type of coditioal. ad acquisitios sub-clause mai clause zero coditioal if + tese tese (geeral Learig truths) outcomes first coditioal if + tese tese (probable evets) secod coditioal if + tese coditioal (ulikely evets) form (would + ifiitive) 3 Look at the form of the secod coditioal. We use the past simple i the sub-clause to show that this evet is ot likely to happe. How do you talk about ulikely evets i your laguage? Do you use a past tese or the coditioal form? 4 Look at the followig seteces. The uderlied words ca all be used with coditioal seteces. The aswer the questio. Whe we go ito productio, we ll make a bit of moey out of it. You ca trasfer the moey yourself provided that you have access to the Iteret. We will cotiue usig the same supplier uless somethig goes wrog ad they do t deliver o time. It s importat to isure your warehouses i case somethig goes wrog. We will be happy to use their products provided that they do t use child labour. If large employers put more pressure o their supply chais, we would see a umber of improvemets. 1 What is the differece betwee whe ad if 1 Use to show that you kow somethig will happe, e.g. the meetig starts 2 Use to show you are ot certai that somethig will happe, e.g. the meetig starts o time 5 Match cojuctios 1 3 with the correct meaig. 1 i case a has the same meaig as except if 2 uless b has the same meaig as oly if 3 provided that c meas that you do somethig so that you are ready for a situatio i the future 6 Complete the seteces with i case, uless, or provided that. 1 We will give you the cotract you follow our Health ad Safety rules. 2 The meetig with the suppliers will be i Lodo you wat to ivite them to come here. 3 We will oly order 20 ow the product does t sell very well. 6 Now complete these seteces with your ow ideas. 1 I ll orgaise the ext meetig with the supplier provided that 2 Uless we get this order to the customer o time, 3 If we used this supplier with their warehouses 500 km away, 4 We will get isurace for the warehouse i case Itercultural aalysis Recyclig is ow a importat part of the supply chai. I some coutries cosumers are paid to recycle, e.g. i some supermarkets, if they use the same plastic bags agai, they get a small reductio i the price of their goods; but i other coutries they must pay if they do ot recycle, e.g. they pay for household rubbish disposal by the kilo. What is the situatio i your coutry? What do you thik is the best solutio to make people recycle? What would you do if you were i charge i your coutry? Why do you thik differet coutries have differet recyclig policies? Output: Makig chages to the supply chai Work i pairs. You work for a furiture compay ad eed to make several decisios at each stage of the supply chai. Stage 1 Studet A: look at the iformatio o page 144. Studet B: look at the iformatio o page 139. Whe you are ready, discuss what decisios you will make at each stage. You should try ad come to a decisio. Stage 2 Now work with aother pair ad tell them what decisios you have made ad why. I your group try ad reach a agreemet o what the best decisios are. 7 supply-chai maagemet (scm) 69 ISBN:

7 7.3 Skills: Negotiatig skills Learig outcomes Use key laguage for egotiatios. Lear skills to participate effectively i egotiatios. Negotiate a logistics problem. Itroductio Busiess view Negotiatio is a basic meas of gettig what you wat from others. It is back-ad-forth commuicatio desiged to reach a agreemet whe you ad the other side have some iterests that are shared ad others that are opposed. Roger Fisher ad William Ury, Gettig to Yes 1 Accordig to Fisher ad Ury, everyoe egotiates. Whe was the last time you egotiated? What was it about, ad what was the result? 2 Below is a list of the differet stages that a egotiatio usually goes through. Number the stages i the order you thik they happe from 1 to 6. Do ay of them take place before the egotiatio? Exchage iformatio Make proposals ad bargai Decide how much you are prepared to compromise Establish a relatioship Come to a agreemet Decide what you wat to achieve Listeig 1: Exchagig iformatio Before you liste, discuss why the issues below ca lead to problems for compaies i their supply chai. The first oe has bee doe for you. Example: Havig a lot of ivetory If you have a lot of ivetory, you will waste moey o storage. 1 A lot of customers returig goods 2 Receivig three small orders istead of oe large oe for the same delivery address 3 Sellig products made usig child labour 4 Delays i receivig a order 2 Liste to a egotiatio betwee a represetative from a British pharmaceutical compay, Nick, ad a represetative from their ew Germa supplier, Stefa, ad aswer the followig questios. 1 Which of the situatios listed i exercise 1 (1 4) are they discussig? 2 What does Nick propose to do about the situatio? 3 Why does Stefa ot like this idea? 4 Tick ( ) the questios Nick asks to fid out the iformatio he eeds. a You mea they re all o differet time lies? b You mea at the momet you ve probably got three packig orders? c It s probably all from the same bulk, yeah? d Is it all from the same bulk? Listeig 2: Persuadig Liste to the argumets Nick uses to persuade Stefa that his proposal is a good idea ad aswer the questios. 1 How does he say that both compaies would beefit? a Nick s compay would have fewer orders to deal with, ad Stefa s compay would save moey. b Nick s compay would get a better uit price ad Stefa s compay would have fewer orders to process. c Both compaies would save time. 2 Why does t Stefa wat to chage the way i which the orders are processed? 70 7 supply-chai maagemet (scm) ISBN:

8 2 Look agai at the six stages of a egotiatio listed i the Itroductio. At which stage(s) is the egotiatio betwee Nick ad Stefa? Laguage focus: The laguage of egotiatios 1 Nick asks a lot of questios to fid out the iformatio he eeds to kow about Stefa s situatio. Look at two of the questios from the egotiatio. 1 The questio is, assumig it s the same delivery address, ca we combie ay of those orders? 2 You mea at the momet you ve probably got three packig orders? Which of the questios does Nick use to check iformatio? Which questio does he use to fid out ew iformatio? 2 Imagie you are Nick, ad rewrite the questios below. First decide if you are checkig iformatio or fidig out ew iformatio. Use: You mea or The questio is? Example: Are all the orders from the same bulk? You mea all the orders are from the same bulk? 1 Do you have to cacel a order if you wat to combie two? 2 Are the orders o differet time lies? 3 Have the orders all got differet umbers? 4 Is there a stadard procedure for hadlig the orders? 5 Ca you icrease the first order to two thousad ad cacel the ext two? 3 I order to explai why he is ot happy with the idea of combiig orders, Stefa says: So, if we have to combie them, that meas we have to cacel oe order. This makes a lot of work i terms of the schedulig process. He uses a coditioal form usig if, ad the explais the effect this will have for his compay by sayig that meas. Imagie you are Stefa. Clarify your positio i a similar way o each of the followig poits. Example: Extra work we wo t get our orders out o time Well, if we have extra work, that meas we wo t get our orders out o time. 1 Extra work employ more temporary staff 2 A additioal twelve thousad packs a extra day s work 3 Icrease the workload of the team extra costs for us 4 Cacel a order cacel the whole schedulig pla 4 Nick tries to persuade Stefa to agree to his proposal by showig he uderstads that it will create more work, but the poitig out that both sides will beefit from his proposal: Nick: I terms of what that meas, yes, it meas extra work up frot. Stefa: Yes. Nick: But we will beefit from a better uit price. You would beefit from ot havig three differet order umbers goig through the system. Imagie you are Nick. Try to persuade Stefa by showig you uderstad each of his poits from exercise 3, ad the show how both of you will beefit. Use the ideas below to help you. Example: Stefa: Well, if we have extra work, that meas we wo t get our orders out o time. Nick: Yes, it may mea some delays at first with orders. But we will have more flexibility i maagig our orders, ad you will keep a importat customer happy. Beefit to customer (Nick) Beefit to supplier (Stefa) 1 simplify our orders reduce delivery costs 2 deal with fewer deliveries process fewer orders 3 save moey log term i purchasig 4 reduce the amout of paperwork Output: Logistics meetig save moey log term i productio reduce the amout of paperwork Ageda for Mothy Meetig betwee AAA ad Gia 1 Review previous moth's logistics actios a Distributio b Export packs c Next supply i Chia ad New Zealad OK ii Chile ad Turkey to be discussed 2 Review performace from previous moth a Perfect orders: 7 out of 14 b Customer complaits: 0 c Recalls: 0 3 Ay other busiess 4 Next moth's meetig a Veue? Time? Stage 1 Work i two groups. Group A: you work for Gia Pharma Corp. Look at the ageda above ad tur to page 137. Group B: you work for AAA Corp. Look at the ageda above ad tur to page 140 ad look at the list of poits you wat to discuss at a logistics meetig. Stage 2 You are goig to prepare for a logistics meetig. Look at the Laguage focus ad the audio script o page 155, ad thik about how you will: fid out ad check iformatio, explai ad clarify your positio, try to persuade your egotiatio parters by cocedig a poit ad showig how both sides will beefit. Stage 3 Work i smaller groups with oe or two studets from Group A ad oe or two studets from Group B. AAA Corp will chair the meetig. Have the egotiatio ad try to come to agreemet o the mai poits. 7 supply-chai maagemet (scm) 71 ISBN:

9 8 Quality maagemet 8.1 Theory: Kaize Learig outcomes Uderstad the cocept of kaize. Use key vocabulary coected with quality maagemet. Aalyse problems i a kaize system. Itroductio Discuss the followig questios. Thik about a task you have to do i your studies or i your job, e.g. makig a presetatio. How do you prepare for it? Have you ever had a problem with a product or service? What happeed? Did you decide ot to use the compay agai? Have you ever bee especially happy about a product or service? Did you tell ayoe about your experiece? Satisfied customers tell three frieds, agry customers tell 3,000, Pete Blackshaw, co-fouder of the Word-of-Mouth marketig associatio. Do you agree? What does this tell you about the way people feel towards quality? What impact ca this attitude have o busiesses? Readig: Uderstadig the basics of kaize 1 Read the followig extracts which summarise the mai poits about kaize. The look quickly at the article ad decide where they go. a The kaize philosophy is to do it better, make it better, improve it eve if it is t broke, b always improvig productivity, safety ad effectiveess while reducig waste c It is a cocept that is applied i every aspect of a perso s life. d this leads to fewer workers quittig their jobs e Everyoe is ecouraged to come up with small suggestios for improvemet o a regular basis. Kai Chage Ze Good Kaize is a system of cotiuous improvemet i quality, techology, processes, compay culture, productivity, safety ad leadership. Kaize is a system that ivolves every employee from 5 upper maagemet to the cleaig crew. 1 This is ot a oce-a-moth or oce-a-year activity it is cotiuous. I Japaese compaies, such as Toyota ad Cao, a total of 60 to 70 suggestios per employee per year are writte dow, shared ad implemeted. It s ot uusual for these compaies to implemet 90% of these suggestios. Kaize is based o makig little chages o a regular basis: 2. These small improvemets result i improved productivity, higher quality, better safety, savigs for the compay ad faster delivery. Kaize focuses o makig chages aywhere that improvemets ca be made. Wester philosophy may be summarised as, if it is t broke, do t fix it. 3, because if we do t, we ca t compete with those who do. Kaize i Japa is a system of improvemet that icludes both home ad busiess life. Kaize eve icludes social activities. 4 To support the higher stadards, kaize also ivolves providig the traiig, materials ad supervisio that are eeded for employees. Employees i kaize compaies ofte feel happier ad fid their work easier; 5. Source: What is Kaize? article by Steve Hudgik, Iteret Marketig Maager, Graphic Products Quality maagemet ISBN:

10 2 Read the article agai ad decide if these statemets are true or false. Correct the oes which are false. 1 Ideas for improvemet i kaize compaies oly come from top maagemet. 2 A few of the ideas from employees are put ito practice. 3 Small improvemets ca have big results. 4 Kaize compaies try to improve eve if the compay is doig well. 5 Kaize ca chage the way people behave outside of work as well as i work. 6 Employees i kaize compaies ca expect to have a lot of traiig. 7 Employees i kaize compaies probably have little cotact with their maagers. 3 Look at these ideas about kaize from the article ad match them with the examples below. 1 Kaize ca icrease productivity. 2 Kaize ca save moey. 3 Small improvemets should result i a log-term chage. 4 Kaize ca have a impact o a employee s social life. 5 Kaize ivolves a lot of traiig. 6 Kaize ca improve safety. a If your desk is messy, you should t just tidy it. You should thik of a filig system so you do t make it messy agai. b A employee at Cao i Tokyo put wheels o a bucket so that parts could be passed aroud the factory without workers leavig their work statio. c Employees at kaize compaies are expected to joi i at compay picics. d At British Rail, employees were give a ew uiform with a leather belt every year. Oe employee suggested they had a ew belt every other year. This saved the compay 10,000. e Employees at British Rail Maiteace foud that some of their safety masks were ot protectig their eyes eough, so they iveted a lightweight mask that protected their eyes better. f Cao s employees take part i a life-log educatio programme. Laguage focus 1: Key vocabulary for quality maagemet 1 Uderlie the correct meaig of the verbs from the article. 1 ivolve a complicate b iclude 2 come up with a arrive b thik of 3 implemet a put ito practice b equip 4 result i a lead to b have 5 provide a make available b have 2 Complete the text with the correct form of four of the verbs from exercise 1. We had a problem i our office because people did t clear up meetig areas at the ed of meetigs. This meat that the people at the ext meetig had to clea it first before their meetig. So oe employee 1 a idea. It 2 everyoe i the meetig eve the top maagemet removig their dirty cups ad paper after the meetig. This 3 clea meetig areas ad sice the idea 4, there has bee less coflict i the office. Itercultural aalysis Look at some statemets about kaize below. I kaize compaies, everybody is expected to atted social evets. Everybody is expected to follow the ideas of kaize. However, there has to be a lot of cotrol from top maagemet. Huma Resources is ofte see as the most importat departmet i kaize compaies. Ca you thik of ay problems that the above examples might lead to i your compay or the work culture i your coutry? Do you thik that some people might fid these ideas difficult to follow? Why? Laguage focus 2: Usig the preset perfect ad preset perfect cotiuous 1 Which seteces below talk about activities that are complete? a We ve bee talkig about how to improve the process for three years ad we still do t have a solutio. b She has bee lookig for office space to ret for a week. c I have had three calls already today about the ew product. d My computer s bee havig problems with the ew software. 2 Which seteces above use the preset perfect simple ad which use the preset perfect cotiuous? 3 Complete the rules about the preset perfect simple ad preset perfect cotiuous. Whe we talk about completed actios, whe the result is importat or whe we are iterested i the amout (how may / how much), we use the 1 tese. Whe we talk about a actio which is still i progress, whe we are iterested i the process (ot the result) or whe we wat to emphasise how log somethig took, we use the 2 tese. 8 Quality maagemet 73 ISBN:

11 4 Complete these seteces with the preset perfect simple or cotiuous form of the verbs i brackets. 1 How may orders (go out) so far this moth? 2 How log (we / work) with this supplier? 3 He (talk about) this problem all week but he still (ot fid) a solutio. 4 Our orgaisatio (produce) software trouble-shootig solutios sice 2003 ad so far we (complete) early 80 projects successfully. 5 (you / see) this complaiig about our call cetre? That s the fifteeth oe we (had) this week! 6 I (look) at the report about quality maagemet systems at our subsidiary. It seems that they (use) this system sice last Jauary ad they (have) a cosiderable reductio i customer complaits. Output: Applyig kaize Stage 1 Work i small groups. You work for the same orgaisatio ad are members of the team with resposibility for quality i office / admiistratio procedures. The followig pictures show the situatios which employees ad maagemet are uhappy about. Thik about why the problem has bee happeig, how the problem has come about ad what solutio you could suggest. Give reasos ad extra iformatio where it is eeded. Remember that the philosophy of kaize is to fid log-term solutios ad the solutio is a process. Stage 2 Talk about your solutios to aother group. Which oes do you thik are the best? Are there ay which you could use i your place of work or studies? 74 8 Quality maagemet ISBN:

12 case study 8.2 Practice: Kaize i practice Learig outcomes Talk about the practical implicatios of usig kaize. Idetify ad use likig words i spoke ad writte text. Solve a problem usig kaize. Profile: Isuzu Isuzu is a global maufacturer of commercial vehicles ad diesel egies. It has 47 plats i 21 coutries. The plat at Fujisawa ear Tokyo employs 6,353 people ad builds small, medium ad large trucks as well as diesel egie compoets. Isuzu started usig kaize i The compay philosophy is job + kaize = idepedet operator. Recet kaize developmets iclude streamliig the complex process of the supply of parts to the productio lie. Itroductio 1 At Isuzu, oe major aspect of kaize is that all workers at all levels are expected to make suggestios for improvemet. How would you feel about workig for a compay that expected you to come up with ideas? 2 Teamwork is a fudametal idea of kaize. Would you like to work i a orgaisatio where teamwork is importat? What are the advatages ad disadvatages of teamwork to the orgaisatio ad to you, the employee? Listeig 1: Defiig kaize at Isuzu 2.02 You are goig to liste to a iterview with Daiichiro Sakamoto, from the Fujisawa plat of Isuzu. 1 Before you liste, tick ( ) the words you would expect to hear i a defiitio of kaize. chagig cotiuous quality efficiecy operatio motivatio 2 Liste ad complete the text with words from the list above. Kaize is ofte uderstood as a procedure i improvemet ad 1. Kaize is about 2 thigs for the better shorteig operatio time, improvig quality, improvig the 3 eviromet, they are all kaize. The idea behid it is that the curret state is ot satisfactory, ad it is ecessary to improve cost ad ma-hour efficiecy, takig *ergoomics ad safety ito accout. Cosequetly, this leads to a icrease i 4. It is beeficial for both operators ad maagemet. *ergoomics ou [U] the scietific study of people ad their workig coditios, especially doe i order to improve effectiveess. 8 Quality maagemet 75 ISBN:

13 1Listeig 2: How does Isuzu use the kaize cocept? Learig outcomes 2.03 maagig orgaisatios 1 I the ext extract Daiichiro Sakamoto describes how his compay exploits the idea of kaize. Choose the best edig (a c) for each of the seteces ad the liste ad see which oe he metios The mai Theory: reaso Isuzu Orgaisatioal does ot have a framework structures for its kaize activities is that a there is plety of motivatio to improve. b there is plety of competitio amogst the workers to improve. c successful kaize comes from its volutary ature people wat to improve. 2 Isuzu supports ad ecourages kaize activities by a givig everybody who has a idea a day off. b allowig the judges ad maagemet to make the improvemets. c havig judges ad maagemet visit ad observe the sites for improvemet. 3 The problems that eed to be solved are chose by a Daiichiro Sakamoto. b the teams o the productio lie. c the maagemet team. 2 What do you thik of the idea of havig a competitio for the best kaize idea? Would this work i the orgaisatios that you kow? What do you thik would be a good prize? 3 Who do you thik should choose the problems to look at, the factory workers or the maagemet? Why? Trasferable skill: Paraphrasig 2.04 It is a useful skill to be able to rephrase ideas usig differet vocabulary. 1 You have just listeed to Daiichiro Sakamoto, talkig about how kaize suggestios are spread throughout the compay. What ca you remember about this? Work i pairs. Use the followig words to paraphrase what you heard. team competitio prize maagers Now liste to the extract ad see if you forgot aythig. 4 Read this short text. Fid syoyms i the text for the words ad phrase below. O top of these beefits to the compay, employees workig i kaize-based compaies geerally fid work to be easier ad more ejoyable resultig i higher employee morale ad job satisfactio, ad lower turover of persoel. 1 advatages 2 orgaisatios 3 staff 4 o the whole 5 a happier workforce 5 Rewrite the text, chagig as much as you ca but keepig the origial meaig. Listeig 3: How a kaize project has helped Isuzu to improve quality 2.05 I the ext part of the iterview, Daiichiro Sakamoto describes a way i which kaize has led to a improvemet o the productio lie. He talks about the use of kits (specific sets of parts) ad the effect of usig these. 1 While you liste, look at the diagram below. Before beefits Kit Delivery System After 2 Look at the audio script o page 156. Look at how the iterviewer paraphrases what Daiichiro Sakamoto said about how the competitio system works. Why do you thik he does this? 3 Whe do you eed to paraphrase what someoe says i a work / study cotext? Kit delivery itroductio effect Reductio i errors made i selectig parts Reductio i amout of time spet walkig Fewer parts = easier to check Easy to see where further improvemets i the process ca be made 76 8 Quality maagemet ISBN:

14 case study 2 Liste agai ad make otes i the table. 5.2 Practice: Mergers ad acquisitios Learig outcomes Past Preset Critical aalysis The improvemets made at Isuzu with the kit system were measurable. Thik about your area of work or studies; how could improvemets there be measured? Is it always possible to measure improvemet? Is it always ecessary? Why/Why ot? Laguage focus: Usig likig words 1 Look at this extract from Listeig 2 ad uderlie the words that are used to lik ideas. we do t have to because there is a lot of motivatio, but maily the reaso is that there is a lot of mutual competitio 2 Uderlie the likig words i the followig seteces ad ote their positio i the setece. 1 I additio to that, we also ru competitios. 2 It was quite expesive ad so the maagemet did t like the idea much. 3 It was a major achievemet ot oly for Mr Sachez, but also for the whole of his departmet. 4 Aderso says he wo t be payig his bill ad furthermore he wo t be doig busiess with us agai. 5 The whole report is badly writte ad moreover it is iaccurate i every detail. 3 Look at the words you uderlied i exercise 2. Match them with the followig uses. addig iformatio or argumets cosequece focusig Note: Both furthermore ad moreover are formal ad mostly used i writte laguage. 4 Rewrite this paragraph usig words from exercise 2 to lik the ideas together. All ew employees receive detailed traiig. Each traiee has a qualified istructor from the departmet i which the ew employee will work. The employee ad istructor evaluate all traiig. 5 Look at these seteces ad complete the rules below. Use therefore, because ad cosequetly to complete the gaps. 1 We were uable to get eough fudig ad therefore had to abado the project. 2 We are goig to itroduce a ew system because it is goig to save us a lot of time. 3 We ivested too much moey at the start of the project ad cosequetly did t have eough fuds at the ed. ad are used to show a logical cosequece why somethig has happeed is used to give a reaso for doig somethig Note: therefore ad cosequetly are mostly used i writte, formal Eglish. Output: Solvig problems i a kaize system Work i groups of four. You work for a electroics compay. Two of you represet the employees i the compay ad two of you represet the Huma Resources departmet. You are goig to hold a meetig to discuss the situatio at your compay sice kaize was itroduced. Stage 1 Employees: look at page 137. Huma Resource represetatives: look at page 140 to help you prepare for the meetig. Stage 2 Hold the meetig. 7 supply-chai 8 Quality maagemet maagemet (scm) 77 ISBN:

15 8.3 Skills: Maagig ad participatig i meetigs Learig outcomes Chair a meetig effectively. Use appropriate laguage for formal ad iformal meetigs. Participate i a meetig by iterruptig ad makig cotributios. Itroductio I was sittig i oe of the committee meetigs ad listeig to the discussio. Suddely I thought that the meetig was missig a essetial poit ad I started to pla a itervetio. It took a few miutes to prepare myself, especially to fid the right Eglish words, etc., ad suddely I realised that the discussio had moved o to aother subject. A participat i a iteratioal meetig of a Europea professioal orgaisatio Look at the quote above ad discuss these questios i pairs. 1 Have you had a experiece like this i a meetig? 2 What other problems might you have i a meetig i a foreig laguage? What about a meetig i your ow laguage? 3 What could you do to take a more active part? 4 How could the perso chairig the meetig help? Listeig 1: Maagig participatio 2.06 You are goig to hear the begiig of a meetig i the Sales Departmet of Pa Foam, a British maufacturig compay which makes ad sells foam rubber for differet products. I the first part Chris, the maagig director ad chair of the meetig, ad Julie, a sales executive, are discussig ew orders ad ew cotacts. Liste to the first part of the meetig. Are the followig statemets true or false? 1 Play Time have placed a ew order with Pa Foam. 2 Filey are payig for the seat foam they have ordered. 3 The cotact at Promise Furiture had heard of Pa Foam before. 4 Hery Treeside maufacture childre s products. 5 First Schoolig prefer more expesive products tha Pa Foam maufacture. Laguage focus 1: Itroducig, summarisig ad sequecig 1 I Listeig 1 you heard Chris, the chair. He is the oe who cotrols the meetig. What laguage does he use to do the followig? Liste agai ad make otes Itroduce the ageda item by begiig with a positive summary 2 Give a time frame 3 Ivite Julie to report about her divisio 4 Liste actively ad give Julie feedback durig her report 5 Summarise her report ad ivite the ext speaker to cotribute 2 Look at the audio script for Listeig 1 o page 157 ad uderlie the exact laguage Chris uses to complete the poits i exercise 1. 3 Look at the audio script agai ad aswer the questios. 1 Whe Julie talks about the ew cotacts, what laguage does she use to order the mai poits? 2 How does she show that she has fiished speakig ad wats to summarise what she has said? 4 What other laguage ca you thik of to sequece what you wat to say? What other laguage ca you use to summarise a cotributio? Listeig 2: Iterruptig ad makig a cotributio 2.07 Later i the meetig, Julie talks about a ew Germa cotact, who maufactures laptop cases. They are iterested i orderig foam from Pa Foam for padded laptop cases. I this part, you will also hear Eddie, a sales admiistrator Quality maagemet ISBN:

16 1 Liste ad aswer the questios. 1 What material does the Germa compay use to maufacture its laptop cases? 2 What is Julie worried about? 3 What does she thik should be doe about it? 4 What does Eddie say happes curretly regardig brochures i other laguages? 5 How do they decide to make the brochures available i differet laguages? 2 Both Chris ad Eddie iterrupt Julie to say somethig. Why do they iterrupt, ad what do they say so they ca get a tur to speak? Liste agai ad make otes below. Chris Reaso for iterruptio: Gettig a tur: Eddie Reaso for iterruptio: Gettig a tur: 3 Do you kow of ay other ways you ca iterrupt i order to get a tur durig a meetig? 4 What actio poit does Chris put forward at the ed of the discussio? Who is the actio poit for, ad what does Chris say? Itercultural aalysis I the Pa Foam meetig, the speakers iterrupt each other frequetly, because they wat to make a cotributio to the discussio. How do you feel about iterruptig somebody i a meetig? How do you feel whe you are iterrupted? Ca you thik of ay situatios whe you should ot iterrupt the speaker? I the culture i which you work or study, how do people feel about iterruptig somebody i a meetig? Laguage focus 2: Usig explicit laguage 1 I the meetig you listeed to, the speakers do the followig thigs to help them maage the participatio ad tur-takig. They usually do these thigs i a very iformal ad direct way, usig few words. Here are some examples of laguage you ca use to do this i a direct way. Which oes are oly used by the chair? 1 Itroduce a ageda item: OK, let s start with 2 Ivite someoe to speak: You re ext. 3 Itroduce (ad sequece) a cotributio: Next 4 Summarise a cotributio: OK, great! 5 Iterrupt: I I thik What else could you say? Add to the list above. 2 Match the iformal/direct meetig strategies with loger (explicit) strategies. Direct strategies Loger (explicit) strategies 1 OK, let s start with a Thaks very much, Soya, for that report. We ve got some promisig developmets there. 2 You re ext. b Could I just say somethig? 3 Next c Thaks, everybody, for takig the time for the meetig today. First of all 4 OK, great! d So, Mario, could you go through last moth s sales figures, please? 5 I I thik e The secod thig I wated to metio 3 Whe do you thik it is better to use loger (explicit) strategies rather tha direct strategies i a meetig? Output: Maagig ad participatig i a meetig Stage 1 Look at the statemets below ad mark the poit that is closest to your opiio. 1 The retiremet age i my coutry should be lower. Agree strogly Disagree strogly 2 Offices should try to work without paper. Agree strogly Disagree strogly 3 Smokig should be baed i the workplace. Agree strogly Disagree strogly 4 Compaies should give traiig ad support to people they make uemployed. Agree strogly Disagree strogly Stage 2 Discuss your views o these topics with other people i the class. Ca you chage aybody s opiio? Stage 3 Work i groups of three. Decide together which orgaisatio you work i. Together you are goig to discuss the statemets i Stage 1. Take turs playig the role of chair ad the role of participats. The chair: thik how you will itroduce each topic ad how you will ask other studets to give their opiios. The participats: thik about how to order your opiios. What are you goig to say ad how will you iterrupt each other o poits you disagree with? Stage 4 Have a meetig to discuss the statemets i Stage 1 usig your role ad ideas from Stage 3. Which ideas will you put ito practice? Watch sequece 4 o the DVD to fid out more about maagig operatios. 8 Quality maagemet 79 ISBN:

17 Writig 4: Writig group s Learig outcomes Discuss how to write appropriate s to groups of people. Lear how to orgaise iformatio i s. Write a to a group of people. Itroductio Discuss the followig questios. Do you ever write s to a group of people? Do you ever receive s that have bee writte to a whole group of people? How do you feel whe you receive a from a fried, who has set the to a whole group of frieds? If you receive official s that have bee set to a group of people, how do you decide if you will read it or ot? What do you thik are the mai differeces i sedig a to a idividual ad to a group of people? Laguage focus 1: The dos ad do ts of writig group s 1 Look at this list of tips for writig group s ad decide if they are dos or do ts. 1 use acroyms ad abbreviatios 2 give the details before the mai poit 3 iclude a clear subject lie 4 be polite eve if the message is firm or strict 5 write all the iformatio i oe paragraph 6 give key iformatio at the begiig 7 use bullet poits 8 use log complicated seteces 9 iclude more detailed iformatio i a separate attachmet 10 if you have icluded a attachmet, metio it at the ed 2 Read the below. Use the list of dos ad do ts to decide how you could improve it. Subject: Yesterday s meetig We had a very useful meetig yesterday, i which we braistormed ideas for ew products for Alpie Vistas. As we discussed, we are lookig specifically for ideas that would geerate (sigificat) moey. Erika has very kidly collated a list of the topics we discussed, ad as you ca see the list cotais very short summaries of each of the ideas that came up yesterday. I ve asked the people who proposed them to provide a more detailed (max oe page of A4) cocept for their ideas. Could you please iclude what the product is (cotet), what form it is i (prit, audio, olie, etc.), who it is aimed at, how ofte it will appear (if relevat), what the paymet/busiess model is. Ca I ask you to please look at the ideas ad feel free to add to them, adapt them, expad them or come up with completely differet oes, ad to sed your ideas to me as soo as possible. James PS: The list is attached 3 Rewrite the usig the list of dos ad do ts. 4 Look at a example aswer o page 138. What are the similarities ad differeces with the that you wrote? 80 Writig 4: Writig group s ISBN:

18 Laguage focus 2: Structurig iformatio Whe you write a letter or , it is importat to structure iformatio to make it easy for people to read ad uderstad the message. You should ask yourself the followig questios. Who is it for? What is the message? Why are you writig (What is the purpose)? Read the set by the ew head of a departmet. 1 Aswer the questios: Who? / What? / Why? 2 The is orgaised ito paragraphs. What key iformatio does each paragraph cotai? Dear Colleagues, This is to let you kow that o 1 September I started officially as Head of the Huma Resources Departmet. I look forward to workig with you i what promises to be a excitig yet also a challegig time. I hope to familiarise myself with all staff as soo as possible I will try to achieve this through a series of small group meetigs i the ext few moths. These meetigs will be iformal ad will give me a opportuity to uderstad your cocers ad aspiratios for the compay better. My office is located o the groud floor util further otice. Sally Owe, who acts as my PA, is located i Room G2. I ca be cotacted through her. Her telephoe extesio is 2358, ad her is Thak you for makig me feel welcome! (Pity about the weather ad the coffee but I am workig o the coffee!!) Margaret Aderso Output: Writig a to the departmet Stage 1 You work i the Logistics Departmet of a multiatioal compay. Work i two groups. Group A: look at the iformatio o page 141. Group B: look at the iformatio o page 144. Follow the istructios. As you write your , remember to cosider the questios Who? / What? / Why? Stage 2 Give your to someoe from the other group ad read the that they give you. You will otice that there is a problem with the dates ad times i the two s. Ufortuately, the head of the departmet is out of the office o holiday for four days ad has asked ot to be cotacted durig that time. Discuss how you will deal with this problem. Stage 3 Look agai at the that you got from the other group. Did it follow the advice i the dos ad do ts list? What did you like about the way this was writte? What do you thik they could improve o? Give the back to the other perso ad give them some feedback. Liste to what they have to say about your . Stage 4 If you have time, write a explaiig what you will do about the problem you foud i stage 2. Writig 4: Writig group s 81 ISBN:

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