Technologieanpassung für Südostasien

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1 Technologieanpassung für Südostasien Prof. Dr. Ing. Christoph Menke, JGSEE und HS Trier Informationsworkshop: Solarthermie in Industrie und Gewerbe in Thailand: Potentiale für deutsche Unternehmen Dienstag, 05. März 2013, GIZ-Repräsentanz - Berlin

2 Table of Content Technology Adaptation for South East Asia Key Issues for Technology Adaptation Requirements for Technology Adaptation Buffer storage and heat exchangers Stagnation behavior Water and Air Quality Supply Chain for Solar Thermal Industry Local Content Break Down of Costs for Systems Recommendations

3 Key Issues for a Technology Adaptation Investment Costs of a typical European Solar Thermal Systems are too high! Are legionella bacteria in the water an issue in Thai Hotels? Solar Thermal System Concepts from Europe don't fit! Buffer Storages and Hot water storage with heat exchanger Heat Exchangers in solar loop Stagnation Systems need to be adopted to local conditions and expectations (life time) Water quality is varying widely and leads to calcination and lime scale Environmental conditions are harsh and systems need good envir. protection Knowledge of solar thermal system planning is only partly existing Many local installers don t have the right vocational training (like supply engineering)

4 Requirements for Technology Adaptation - 1 Key Question: Are buffer storage and heat exchangers required? 1. Is Legionella an issue in the Thai hotels sector? There are several reports about legionella in Thai hotels in the web Royal Decree 865/2003 on the prevention and control of legionella bacteria => Then we need to look at a Legionella prophylaxis in solar systems That requires a buffer storage for hotels, restaurants and especially for hospitals!

5 Issue: Legionella prophylaxis DVGW W551 and W552 Large-scale DHW systems are subjected to detailed guidelines to ensure water hygiene and especially legionella prophylaxis Large-scale DHW systems are defined as: systems with volumes of hot water storage tanks filled with potable water exceeding 400 liters or systems with volumes in the hot water piping between storage tank and furthest draw-off point exceeding three liters These systems are subjected to different regulations, e.g. hot water storage tanks must be heated to a minimum of 60 degrees Celsius once a day In order to avoid negative influences through the required guidelines to the solar yield, buffer storages are installed to reduce the volume of potable water that needs to be stored in tanks

6 Solution: Buffer system with pre-heating

7 Solution: Buffer system with integrated auxiliary heater

8 Requirements for Technology Adaptation Are Heat Exchanger required for the Solar Loop? Depends on local water quality especially lime scale and calcification status Most systems don t use heat exchanger Some systems are cleaned from time to time. We assume, that in many solar systems are major calcination problems => Analyse local water quality, treat water for solar loop or use heat exchanger in primary loop! Only long time system monitoring to establish the solar yield, can tell the answer!

9 System Monitoring of Student Dormitory Trier-

10 Requirements for Technology Adaptation Is Stagnation an issue? Measurements at solar systems in Thailand show problems of stagnation and steam blowing-off Most systems are not designed to cope with stagnation issue Stagnation leads to thermal stress and early break downs => It is suggested to have a close look to the temperatures in the collector loop and design for stagnation situations (emptying behavior)

11 Emptying Behavior check valve

12 Emptying Behavior Collectors connection and geometry

13 Local conditions are different: water and air quality Air Pollution (dust) is partly high and requires regular cleaning of collector area Solubles in water are high, lead to blocking of heat exchangers and sludge in storage tanks => Prepare for cleaning of collectors and water treatment Detailed monitoring of system performance is not common

14 Regular Cleaning is often required due to air pollution Source: K Nitirat, DEDE

15 Supply Chain of Solar Thermal Industry Source Prasitpianchai, S Solar Heat in Agro Industrial Process Final Report. Bangkok, Deutsche Gesellschaft für international Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

16 Percentage of local contents in solar thermal system parts Source Prasitpianchai, S Solar Heat in Agro Industrial Process Final Report. Bangkok, Deutsche Gesellschaft für international Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

17 Cost breakdown for a solar hot water system Base: Typical System with 80 m2 collector area, tank 4,000 liter In industrial systems collector costs can be up to 70% of total costs Costs for valves, fittings, control equip. are comparable high, due to import of small quantities. Source Prasitpianchai, S Solar Heat in Agro Industrial Process Final Report. Bangkok, Deutsche Gesellschaft für international Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

18 Recommendations Good framework conditions, but market still needs to be developed further through good, reliable, but still simple solar thermal systems! German technology standard needs to be adopted to reduce costs But still produce solar heat reliable under Thai environmental conditions, which are quite challenging (water quality, humidity, rain, temperature stress, etc.) Companies need to find their own technical standard in the absence of a national standard for system design, materials that are appropriate and available in Thailand Monitoring, maintenance and a service concept for after sales need to be established, as it does not exist so far

19 Thank you for your kind attention! Prof. Dr.-Ing. Christoph Menke Hochschule Trier / Trier University of Applied Sciences Energietechnik / Energy Technology D Trier c/o The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE) King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi Bangkok 10140, THAILAND

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