1 Revised submission to EOS The Hawaii-2 Observatory (H2O) Butler, R. 1, A. D. Chave 2, F. K. Duennebier 3, D. R. Yoerger 2, R. Petitt 2, D. Harris 3, F. B. Wooding 2, A. D. Bowen 2, J. Bailey 2, J. Jolly 3, E. Hobart 2, J. A. Hildebrand 4, A. H. Dodeman 5 Beneath 5,000 meters of water midway between Hawaii and California, the Hawaii-2 Observatory (H2O) rests on the seafloor (Figure1). The dream of a deepocean scientific observatory is a reality. Telemetry and power comes via a retired telephone cable Hawaii-2 donated by AT&T to the IRIS Consortium for the benefit of the scientific community. H2O is the first Global Seismographic Network (GSN) station on the seafloor, and with a suite of wet-mateable connectors on a junction box (j-box), offers marine scientists a new opportunity to deploy and operate remote instrumentation in the middle of the ocean. Although Earth is mostly covered by ocean, nearly all of the long-term (> year) geophysical time series have been collected on land. The near-total absence of long-term geophysical data from the seafloor starkly contrasts with the century-long record of land-based seismic and geomagnetic observations. Deployment of instrumentation in the ocean and on and below the seafloor has been limited by the availability of ships, battery capacity, corrosion problems, and data storage 1 Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), 1200 New York Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005; 2 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawaii, 1680 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA MARGUS Company, Inc., Suite 202B, 40 Brunswick Avenue, Edison, NJ 08817
2 2 technology. The re-use of retired undersea telephone cables offers the scientific community the opportunity to install equipment for long-term studies by bringing electrical power to the seafloor and by providing a means for two-way communication in real time. The scientific driver for H2O was primarily seismology, but there are new opportunities for geomagnetism, tsunami studies, biology, and physical oceanography among other fields. Seismology s need for good global coverage has been the impetus for the IRIS Global Seismographic Network. Many GSN stations are sited on islands. However, islands are not in general representative samples of the oceans and vast areas of the oceans are without islands. The Hawaii-2 Observatory fills one of these important gaps in the northeast Pacific and will provide important control in studies of earthquake sources in Hawaii, the western United States, and Alaska. Furthermore, since the data are recorded in real-time on Oahu via the Hawaii-2 cable and made immediately available to the seismological community via the IRIS Data Management System, data from H2O can be incorporated into epicenter and focal mechanism determinations made within tens-of-minutes following an earthquake. Figure 2 shows H2O seismic data from a California earthquake. Tsunamis generated by large earthquakes with epicenters from the Gulf of Alaska to Central America will be recorded at H2O 30 minutes to 2 hours prior to their arrival in the Hawaiian Islands. The H2O data may eventually be incorporated with operational data for the tsunami warning networks. The structure of the Earth s mantle can be strongly constrained by studies of seismic waveforms. Seismic rays turning and reflecting in the upper mantle illuminate and constrain the mantle structure. Located between the seismicity in California and Hawaii, the H2O site will yield the first direct evidence of the nature and variability
3 3 of the 400 km discontinuity beneath the northeastern Pacific. Furthermore, the extensive seismicity in the western United States will provide coverage of deeper structure in the upper mantle as well. The data from H2O will enhance existing data sets of multiply reflected body waves such as ScSn, SS, SSS, PcP, etc., which sample the Earth between earthquake source and receiver, by broadening GSN coverage with unique, new paths and reflection bounce points. Finally, the observation of shear-wave splitting at H2O will be diagnostic of anisotropy in the mantle beneath the site. Seismic data from H2O will enhance our understanding of elastic and anelastic structure and anisotropy in the lithosphere and asthenosphere of the northeast Pacific. High-frequency Pn and Sn waves, which propagate in the older, western Pacific lithosphere but heretofore have not been observed in the younger, northeast Pacific, may be observable at H2O from Hawaii and California earthquakes. Analyses of long-period (>15 sec) surface wave recorded at H2O will yield true, pure-path oceanic data for studies and will afford a perspective of the wave propagation without the complications of ocean continent boundary effects or island effects that have implicitly been part of all previous studies. In global surface wave tomographic studies, the H2O site will substantially enhance the coverage of the eastern Pacific. For geomagnetism and other marine sciences, the H2O site offers a new platform for making long-term, scientific measurements in a deep-ocean setting without constraints imposed by low-power, internally-recording, temporary deployments. The H2O site offers the same advantage to geomagnetism as for seismology improved global geographic distribution of geomagnetic observatories.
4 4 In 1987, Shozaburo Nagumo of the University of Tokyo approached the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) to collaborate on re-using the Trans-Pacific Cable-1 (TPC-1) that was soon to be retired from telephone service as newer fiber-optic cables came online [Nagumo et al, 1981]. Recognizing the opportunity for permanent stations on the seafloor, in 1991 a section of TPC-1 from Guam to Japan was transferred from AT&T and Japan s KDD to IRIS and the University of Tokyo. With National Science Foundation (NSF) funding to IRIS for the work at the cable terminus on Guam in 1992, the Japanese spliced a shortperiod seismic package into TPC km south of Tokyo in 1996 [U.S Cable Steering Committee, 1992; Kasahara et al, 1998]. With the success and experience in re-using TPC-1, U.S. efforts focused on the Hawaii-2 cable (Figure 1) as the best, deep-ocean location to improve global coverage and provide for regional studies near the United States. Three enhancements were sought and achieved in re-using Hawaii-2 relative to TPC-1: a conventional, large oceanographic vessel was used instead of a specialized, commercial cable ship, a junction box connected to the cable with underwater wet-mateable connectors gave the capability to add and change scientific instruments, and a broadband seismometer was buried beneath the seafloor to meet GSN standards. With the donation of the Hawaii-2 Cable, IRIS obtained NSF funding for the H2O project in The Hawaii-2 Observatory was installed in September 1998, and revisited for maintenance and repair in September 1999, by the R/V Thomas G. Thompson and remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Jason. The Hawaii-2 submarine telephone cable system (HAW-2) uses vacuum tube SD cable technology developed by AT&T around This is a second-generation
5 5 seafloor telecommunications system also used in TPC-1 and numerous other civilian and military cables around the world. The deep-water SD cable is an armorless coaxial cable, about 3-cm diameter, with an internal strength member. Power is supplied (about 3300 volts with a constant system current of 370 ma) to the cable center conductor from the Makaha cable station. Repeaters are spaced at 20 nm intervals along HAW-2. The technical standards applied to SD repeater construction were very stringent, and in more than 30 years of service on numerous SD cable systems, no repeater has ever failed. Although the SD repeaters were designed for a 25 year service life, there is little question but that these repeaters, and hence the HAW-2 cable, will be usable for at least twice that interval. For example, an AT&T SD repeater retrieved from the seafloor after more than 25 years of service and sent to Bell Labs for check out passed all of the tests required for its initial delivery. From the outset, it was deemed necessary to design a seafloor installation that minimizes the cost of instrument connection and which provides a simple mechanical and electronic interface for many scientific users. The approach uses a seafloor junction box (Figure 3) into which scientific users can simply plug their instruments using standard deep submergence assets, and which provides a standard digital communications interface as well as DC power. The HAW-2 cable itself is terminated at a small frame with a wet-mateable connector to which the main junction box is linked by a short (~30 m) tether cable. All links between the components use wet-mateable underwater connectors. This allowed the HAW-2 cable and j-box to be lowered separately to the seafloor during installation, and permits the j-box to be retrieved, repaired, and re-deployed without recovering the cable.
6 6 The junction box houses the power system, communications and control interface, and connectors. All wet components of the H2O system use titanium alloys and plastic, thus avoiding corrosion problems. The j-box has eight ROV-compatible, wet-mateable connectors situated well clear of the seafloor for easy access by a generic ROV. Each connector provides an RS-422 communications interface and 48-volt power for external instruments. The system is terminated by a sea ground deployed far enough from the j-box to eliminate corrosion concerns. The electronics system for the H2O junction box was designed to meet a number of criteria: make efficient use of the available bandwidth on HAW-2, accommodate both low and high data rate users, provide a digital interface between plug-in instruments and the j-box, protect HAW-2 and the j-box from interference or damage by users, provide accurate time and a down-link capability to control j-box and user instrument functions, use commercial hardware whenever possible to minimize engineering costs, use high-reliability design principles with fail-safes and fallbacks in case of partial failures. About 400 watts are available to power both the j-box electronics and user instruments. The power converter accommodates changes in load by extracting a fixed amount of power from the constant-current SD system for the j-box or instruments, dissipating the remainder as heat. The communications system consists of an FDM interface and a set of five PC104 computers, each connected to four high-speed telephone modems. Each of the computer/modem stacks provides a full-duplex serial connection of up to 115 KBPS, which can be routed to any of the connectors. The data arriving from instruments are packetized, time stamped, and distributed among four modems. Time is synchronized to a GPS time standard at the shore station. Seven individual modems are also available to users with more modest
7 7 data rate requirements. The digital communications system requires about 270 of the available 400 khz, leaving the remaining spectrum for future expansion of the junction box. Scientific instruments are currently using two of the eight ports on the H2O system. A multi-sensor seismo-acoustic (ULF) package designed and built at the University of Hawaii occupies the first port. A set of 4 Benthos hydrophones in series occupies the second port. Both systems are housed in titanium. The Ocean Drilling Program has scheduled the drill ship to visit the H2O site in late 2001 to drill a borehole into basement at the site, for the emplacement of a broadband borehole seismometer. The ULF sensor system consists of two sections (Figure 4). Connected by cable to the j-box, the Acoustic Sensor Package (ASP) sits on the seafloor, housing most of the digital electronics, power conditioning, pressure sensors (a broadband Cox- Webb differential pressure gauge and crystal hydrophone), a thermal sensor, and 2- component current meter. The Ground Motion Sensor Package (GMSP) is deployed 6 meters from the ASP and contains the seismic sensors plus a compass, thermal sensors, and a sensor stage that can be leveled by command from shore. The sensor stage contains tilt meters, a set of Guralp CMG-3ESP broadband seismometers, and three orthogonal 4.5 Hz geophones. Sensor calibration and coupling tests may be performed on command. By burying the GMSP in the sediment 0.5 m beneath the seafloor and isolated from bottom currents, good seismic noise conditions and coupling to the ocean floor are achieved. The ULF System digitizes seismic and acoustic channels at up to 240 samples/sec with 16-bit resolution, and 32 samples/sec on the environmental and calibration
8 8 channels. The Guralp seismometers, which are the primary GSN sensors at H2O, the geophones and the differential pressure gauge are sampled at both high and low gains, effectively increasing the dynamic range to 24 bits. The Benthos hydrophone system is sampled at 2,000 samples/sec with 16-bit resolution. All sensors are under remote-operator control from the surface e.g., sample rates and other parameters may be changed, and software may be remotely downloaded. All data from H2O flows up the cable to the Makaha Cable Station (space leased by IRIS from AT&T) and is transmitted to a data collection center at the University of Hawaii. H2O j-box and sensor system functions and state of health can be controlled and monitored directly via the Frame link to UH and the Internet. Data flows via the Internet to the IRIS Data Management Center in Seattle and directly to users. Installation and maintenance of H2O makes use of conventional oceanographic assets. Starting from an initial bathymetric survey and a cable track based on 1960 s navigational accuracy, the HAW-2 cable was located using the ROV Jason. From the selected observatory location, Jason then traversed 5,000 m along the cable toward California, and cut it. Returning to location, the cable was recovered with a grapnel attached to R/V Thompson s trawl wire. HAW-2 was then pulled up to the ship, with 5,000 m of cable draped over each edge of the grapnel hook. After testing, the cut section was dropped, and the continuous section to Makaha was spliced to the cable termination frame. With power and telemetry from Makaha, the H2O j-box electronics were equalized to SD repeater specifications, and then end-to-end tested with the ULF sensor package all coordinated with a shore team at Makaha.
9 9 While beginning to lower the termination frame attached to HAW-2 from the ship, a chain broke and the entire unit fell to the bottom. Fortune smiled, for it landed upright and undamaged, about 2 km from the intended site. The j-box was lowered on the trawl wire to the site using the ship s dynamic positioning system and acoustic transponder navigation. ROV Jason plugged the system together. The j-box failed initially after 12 hours, and was unplugged and retrieved by the Jason ROV system. Repaired on site, the j-box was returned and reconnected two days later. The ULF system was then lowered using a buoyancy package, maneuvered to H2O by Jason and plugged in. After Jason buried the seismic sensor in the seafloor, GSN and other data began to flow to Makaha. After two months operation, a failure in a water current meter corrupted the seismic data, necessitating a maintenance visit. During this cruise the Jason ROV system unplugged and retrieved the ULF system for repair and the j-box for upgrade. The systems were then re-deployed and plugged in, as before. An additional hydrophone was also deployed. Using passive positioning at the end of the ship s trawl wire, the j-box can be relocated within a few meters of its previous position. The H2O project was created and coordinated within the IRIS Consortium with funding from the U.S. National Science foundation. The junction box communications system was developed and built by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). The seismo-acoustic sensor package and j-box power supply were developed and built by the University of Hawaii (UH). The re-engineering of the cable station power system and cable splicing were accomplished by Margus, Inc. WHOI and Margus performed the cable recovery, and WHOI accomplished the re-deployment. Ocean operations were carried out by WHOI and UH using the
10 10 University of Washington R/V Thomas G. Thompson and the WHOI Deep Submergence Laboratory Operations Group ROV Jason. The technology employed for re-using the Hawaii-2 cable can be adapted for other retired cables, including both telephone cables and Navy SOSUS arrays. There are a number of opportunities in the Northern Hemisphere, but not in the southern oceans where islands are few and seismological coverage by the GSN is sparse. There is currently an active effort by our Japanese colleagues in re-using the TPC-2 cable from Guam to Okinawa. However, to achieve truly global coverage with undersea observatories, a combination of cabled, autonomous, tethered-buoy observatories will be required. IRIS, the U.S. Cable Steering Committee, and the National Science Foundation welcome interest in deploying new scientific sensors at the Hawaii-2 Observatory. Interested parties may contact the authors. Further information may be obtained from the H2O web site at Acknowledgements The authors thank the Woods Hole Deep Submergence Laboratory Operations Group for their help and advice in the planning, execution, and repair of the H2O system, which would not have been possible without their expertise and assistance. We also thank the crew of the R/V Thomas G. Thompson for their expert seamanship and assistance. This work was funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation to the IRIS Consortium through Grants OCE , OCE , and Cooperative
11 11 Agreement EAR The Hawaii-2 cable system was donated by AT&T to IRIS Ocean Cable, Inc., for scientific use. SOEST contribution No.. WHOI contribution No.. References Kasahara, J., H. Utada, T. Sato, and H. Kinoshita, Submarine cable OBS using a retired submarine telecommunications cable: GEO-TOC Program, Phys. Earth Plant. Int., 108, , Nagumo, S., H. Tabata, and K. Suzuki, Telluscope Plan A Submarine Cable System for Observing the Earth s Interior, Pacific Telecommunications Conference, U.S. Cable Steering Committee, R. Butler, A. D. Chave, C. S. Cox, C. E. Helsley, J. A. Hildebrand, L. J. Lanzerotti, G. M. Purdy, A. Schultz, Scientific Use of Submarine Telecommunications Cables, EOS Trans. AGU, 73, 97, , 1992.
12 Kauai Hawaii 2 Cable Oahu Molokai Maui Oahu Hawaii AT&T Makaha Cable Station Murray F.Z. H2O Molokai F.Z. Hawaiian Islands 300 Km FRAME link University of Hawaii 1500 Km 50 Km Figure 1. (Left) The Hawaii 2 Observatory at N, W is sited 1750 km east-northeast of Honolulu. The site lies between the Murray and Molokai Fracture Zones at 4979m depth on about 100 m of predominantly terrigeneous, pelagic clay. The oceanic crust is of Eocene age (45 50 m.y.) and is normal but fast spreading with a spreading half rate of 7 cm/y. (Center) The path of the Hawaii 2 Cable runs between Oahu and Kauai, then heads northeast toward California. (Right) The AT&T Makaha Cable Station on western Oahu is connected via a leased 256 KBPS Frame Relay circuit to the University of Hawaii for data transmission to a data collection center and the Internet.
13 Amplitude in Digital Units x 10 4 (Offset) H2O Seismic Data H2 H1 Z Minutes After 0900Z, October 16, 1999 Figure 2. The magnitude 7.0 Hector Mine earthquake on October 16, 1999 in southern California recorded at the H2O site at 2550 km distance. Two orthogonal horizontal and the vertical (Z) components are shown, low-pass filtered at 0.2 Hz. Fortuitously, the H1 component is aligned nearly radially along the great circle from the earthquake, showing the compressional body waves and Raleigh wave similar to the vertical. The transverse H2 component shows shear waves and the Love wave.
14 Figure 3. View of the H2O junction box from ROV Jason during installation on the seafloor. The yellow cable tether connects the junction box to the HAW-2 cable.
15 Figure 4. View of the GSN seismometer from ROV Jason. Using its manipulator arm, the sensor package is being lowered into a caisson set in the seafloor. Cabling runs to a nearby acoustic sensor package that is connected to the H2O junction box.
Near real-time transmission of reduced data from a moored multi-frequency sonar by low bandwidth telemetry Rene A.J. Chave, David D. Lemon, Jan Buermans ASL Environmental Sciences Inc. Victoria BC Canada
Scientific Submarine Cable 2003 Workshop Report, University of Tokyo Scientific Use of Fiber-Optic Submarine Telecommunications Cable Systems Rhett Butler Director, IRIS Ocean Cable 1200 New York Avenue
The Process 1. Go to the website: http://www.sciencecourseware.org 2. Click on: GEOLOGY LABS ONLINE 3. Click on VIRTUAL EARTHQUAKE 4. NEXT click on: NEW: A completely revised version of Virtual Earthquake
Earth and Space Science Semester 2 Exam Review Part 1 Convection -A form of heat transfer. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. - Source of heat is from the
Hot Spots & Plate Tectonics Activity I: Hawaiian Islands Procedures: Use the map and the following information to determine the rate of motion of the Pacific Plate over the Hawaiian hot spot. The volcano
DEOS MOORED BUOY OBSERVATORY DESIGN STUDY R. Detrick, D. Frye, J. Collins, J. Gobat, M. Grosenbaugh, R. Petitt, A. Plueddeman, K. von der Heydt, F. B. Wooding Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods
Unit 13: Earthquakes A. Earthquakes 1. Earthquake vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy 2. Focus The point within Earth where the earthquake starts 3. Epicenter Location on the surface
Earthquakes Earthquakes: Big Ideas Humans cannot eliminate natural hazards but can engage in activities that reduce their impacts by identifying high-risk locations, improving construction methods, and
Did you feel it? That side to side, up and down, ground-shaking motion felt by many Californians every year, not to mention folks all around the world. The shaking motion is referred to as an earthquake,
The Naval Research Laboratory s New Deep-Towed, High-Resolution Seismic System A New Seismic System To Support Detailed Investigations of Marine Sediments to Full Ocean Depths Helmholtz Resonator Source
Cruise report of R/V Kaiyo KY10-03 cruise. Research Theme: Construction and improvement of Seafloor observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis Research proposal by: Yoshiyuki KANEDA (JAMSTEC) Chief
Name: Date: Period: By Jack Erickson and Sylvia Lewandowski Provided by Tasa Graphic Arts, Inc. for The Theory of Plate Tectonics CD-ROM http://www.tasagraphicarts.com/progplate.html 1. The Grand Canyon
NAME EARTH SCIENCE CHAPTER 8 1. A fault is. a. a place on Earth where earthquakes cannot occur b. a fracture in the Earth where movement has occurred c. the place on Earth s surface where structures move
2.3 VELOCITY STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH In the following years, increasingly sophisticated models were developed. It became possible to compute travel time curves for media where velocity varies continously
NEW ROLES FOR UUVS IN INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE, AND RECONNAISSANCE Barbara Fletcher Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center D744 San Diego, CA USA firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT Intelligence, Surveillance,
Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?
Cable System Planning and Permitting: Business and Stakeholder Considerations Submarine Cables in the Sargasso Sea: Legal and Environmental Issues in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction The George Washington
Standards Addressed Lesson 13: Plate Tectonics I Overview Lesson 13 introduces students to geological oceanography by presenting the basic structure of the Earth and the properties of Earth s primary layers.
The Dynamic Crust 1) Virtually everything you need to know about the interior of the earth can be found on page 10 of your reference tables. Take the time to become familiar with page 10 and everything
http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/03edge/background/sargassum/sargassum.html Cable Laying and Repair - Cable Ship Operations Dr. R.J. Rapp, Director, Industry & Marine Liaison, TE SubCom Submarine
MFE659 Lecture 4a EARTHQUAKES & TSUNAMIS Japanese Tsunami Tsunami on the coast of Sumatra The death toll 19,300+. 1 2 Deadly Whirlpool Nuclear Disaster 3 4 Nuclear Disaster Widespread Devistation 5 6 TSUNAMIS
Interactive Plate Tectonics Directions: Go to the following website and complete the questions below. http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/index.html How do scientists learn about the interior
IDS 102 Name Background: Plate Tectonics and Continental drift Geologic Processes, Part 3: Plate Tectonics In 1912 a scientists named Alfred Wegener's suggested that the world s continent were once connected
Mapping the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Mohos across the northern and central Apennine chain through teleseismic receiver functions Giuliana Mele Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Roma, Italy
Data Integration Data integration is the process of combining data of different themes, content, scale or spatial extent, projections, acquisition methods, formats, schema, or even levels of uncertainty,
MORPHOLOGY OF OCEAN FLOOR AND PLATE TECTONICS Chengsung Wang National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan, China Keywords: Morphology of sea floor, continental margins, mid-ocean ridges, deep-sea
Earthquakes and the Earth s Interior San Francisco 1906 Magnitude 7.8 Charleston 1886 California s Notorious San Andreas Fault fault trace Earthquakes are the release of energy stored in rocks. Most earthquakes
Plate Tectonics A Continental Puzzle Drifting Continents In 1910, a meteorologist from Germany named Alfred Wegener (Vay-guh-ner) developed a theory based on many observations. Even though meteorologists
DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows the boundary between two tectonic plates. Which
Computers Are Your Future 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers Are Your Future Chapter 3 Wired and Wireless Communication 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc Slide 2 What You Will Learn... ü The definition of bandwidth
1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. Which statement about the deposition of the sediments best explains why these layers have the curved shape shown? 1) Sediments were
A New Open Cabled Infrastructure in Medsea P.Leon, JF.Drogou, D.Chenot, C.Leveque, H.Martinossi, A.Massol, V.Rigaud, D.Santarelli, P.Valdy IFREMER France C.Gojak, K.Bernardet, Z.Hafidi, Y.Lenault, K.Mahiouz
CHAPTER 4 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What happens when rock is placed under stress?
Application of Subsea Wireless Technology to Environmental Monitoring Amanda Collins Marketing, WFS Technologies Edinburgh, UK email@example.com Abstract This paper will look at how wireless technology
Exam #3 - All numbered questions are given equal weight in the multiple choice part. Multiple Choice Mark only one answer for each question. 1) On a global map of earthquakes, the locations of the earthquakes
DEEP AZIMUTHAL SEISMIC ANISOTROPY IN THE WESTERNANATOLIA AND AEGEAN SUBDUCTION ZONE G. Polat -1 and M.N. Ozel -1 Adress: 1- Boğaziçi University, Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institution,
Earthquakes GE 4150- Natural Hazards Slides and images taken from Dr. Jim Diehl, Jason R. Evans, Joanne M. Scott and Benfiled Greig Hazard Research Centre (C471 Geohazards) Tectonic Earthquakes Seismic
12.2 Features of Plate Tectonics Earth is over 1200 km thick and has four distinct layers. These layers are the crust, mantle (upper and lower), outer core, and inner core. Crust outer solid rock layer
Station 1: Age of ocean floor Seafloor spreading is a process of plate tectonics. New oceanic crust is created as large slabs of the Earth's crust split apart from each other and magma moves up to fill
Solid-earth geology: Plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanoes Explain shape and structure of the ocean basins Explain cycle of oceanic opening and closing Explain many aspects of basic marine geology
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN COMPUTING AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY An international, online, open access, peer reviewed journal Volume 2 Issue 2 April 2013 Research Article ISSN 2277 9140 Copyright
PLATE TECTONICS The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics The lithosphere is divided into plates that move relative to one another, and relative to the earth s asthenosphere. Movement occurs at very slow (cm/yr)
Plate Tectonic Boundaries The Crust (The surface) The thin rigid outermost layer of the Earth is the crust. The thinnest crust (oceanic) is 3 miles and the thickest (continental) is 50 miles. The Mantle
Exploring the Earth s Interior Chapter 21 Does not include complete lecture notes. Probing Earth s interior Most of our knowledge of Earth s interior comes from the study of earthquake waves Travel times
Name: Date: Period: Tectonics The Physical Setting: Earth Science Class Notes: Tectonics I. Continental Drift Continental Drift -! Pangaea -! Alfred Wegener (1915) German and Proposed the theory of! Hypothesized
Earth Science Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Period: August 2013 Due Date: 17 Compared to the oceanic crust, the continental crust is (1) less dense and more basaltic (3) more dense and
The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics Structure of the Earth The Earth is made up of 3 main layers: Core Mantle Crust Mantle Outer core Inner core Crust The Crust This is where we live! The Earth
Chapter 7 Earthquake Hazards Practice Exam and Study Guide 1. Select from the following list, all of the factors that affect the intensity of ground shaking. a. The magnitude of the earthquake b. Rather
MD DSS Multi-mode Sonar System for Seismic Data Acquisition, Sub-bottom Profiling and Side Scan Sonar Surveys Meridata offers geologists, geophysicists, environmental scientists, engineers and hydrographers
Example Answers Name: Date: Class: Finding Epicenters and Measuring Magnitudes Worksheet Objective: To use seismic data and an interactive simulation to triangulate the location and measure the magnitude
TCOM 370 NOTES 99-6 VOICE DIGITIZATION AND VOICE/DATA INTEGRATION (Please read appropriate parts of Section 2.5.2 in book) 1. VOICE DIGITIZATION IN THE PSTN The frequencies contained in telephone-quality
KEY CONCEPT Plates move apart. BEFORE, you learned The continents join and break apart The sea floor provides evidence that tectonic plates move The theory of plate tectonics helps explain how the plates
PLATE TECTONICS EXERCISE (Modified from North Seattle Community College online exercise) Introduction: As discussed in our textbook, the speed at which tectonic plates move has been calculated in several
(0008854) A981653 REV B 4125 system setup and deployment quick start guide OPERATION IN AIR Do not operate the system while the tow fish in air for extended periods. The system may be enabled to transmit
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Long-term Acoustic Real-Time Sensor for Polar Areas (LARA) Holger Klinck, Haru Matsumoto, David K. Mellinger, and Robert
Crossing the Pacific Bathymetry Summary What is really under the salt water in our worldwide oceans? This four-part activity will guide students to explore, investigate, and analyze our mysterious ocean
Cruise Report OSU R/V Oceanus OC1405B Cascadia Initiative Leg 2 May 28 to June 1 Newport, OR Newport OR Matt Fowler Chief Scientist Captain and Crew: R/V Oceanus: Captain: Jeff Crews Chief Engineer: Jonathan
1. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows models of two types of earthquake waves. Model A best represents the motion of earthquake waves called 1) P-waves (compressional
A powerful magnitude-7.2 earthquake shook central and southern Mexico on Friday. The earthquake occurred at a depth of 24 km (15 miles). Its epicenter was in the western state of Guerrero, near the seaside
1 Analysis Report: Tsunami Division The Tohoku Earthquake & East Japan Tsunami 11 th,march 2011 Report Contents: Background & Facts: Japan Tsunami, March 2011 History of the East Japan Tsunami: 869 Jogan
GENERAL SCIENCE LABORATORY 1110L Lab Experiment 9B: Tracking the Hawaiian Islands: How Fast Does the Pacific Plate Move? Background You know that the Earth s crustal plates are always moving, but how fast?
Chapter 4 Plate Tectonics Earth's Interior Earth's surface is constantly changing. Earth looks different today from the way it did millions of years ago. People wonder, "What's inside Earth?" The extreme
INDIAN OCEAN INTERIM TSUNAMI WATCH INFORMATION SERVICE (as of February 2006) Since April 2005, based on discussions that began at the United Nations World Conference on Disaster Reduction (WCDR) held in
View A New Into Earth EarthScope is a bold undertaking to apply modern observational, analytical and telecommunications technologies to investigate the structure and evolution of the North American continent
Chapter Overview CHAPTER 3 Marine Provinces The study of bathymetry charts ocean depths and ocean floor topography. Echo sounding and satellites are efficient bathymetric tools. Most ocean floor features
Earthquakes-page 1 EARTHQUAKES Earthquakes occur along faults, planes of weakness in the crustal rocks. Although earthquakes can occur anywhere, they are most likely along crustal plate boundaries, such
Instrumentation for Monitoring around Marine Renewable Energy Devices 1 Introduction As marine renewable energy has developed, a set of consistent challenges has emerged following attempts to understand
The Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami December 26, 2004 2004 by Dave Robison and Steve Kluge (thanks also to Bryce Hand and Michael Hubenthal) Introduction: The incredible damage and tragic loss of life resulting
NEC s Submarine Cable System December 5, 2008 NEC Corporation Broadband Network Operations Unit Executive General Manager Masamichi Imai 1. Outline of Submarine Cable Systems 2 NEC Corporation 2008 1-1.
Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas Our understanding of Earth is continuously refined. Earth s systems are dynamic; they continually react to changing influences from geological, hydrological, physical, chemical,
298 10.14 INVESTIGATION How Did These Ocean Features and Continental Margins Form? The terrain below contains various features on the seafloor, as well as parts of three continents. Some general observations
Chukchi Edges on board the RV Marcus G. Langseth for the NMFS Open Water Meeting Bernard Coakley Geophysical Institute University of Alaska 8 March 2011 Outline Project Objectives Structure Stratigraphy
TRAVEL TIME RESIDUALS FROM THE NEW AND OLD SEISMIC NETWORKS OF PAKISTAN AND PRELIMINARY HYPOCENTER DETERMINATION Nasir Mahmood MEE07163 Supervisor: Tatsuhiko HARA ABSTRACT The Pakistan Meteorological Department
NDBC s Smart Module Applications National Data Buoy Center Stennis Space Center, MS. Rodney Riley INMARTECH 2014, Corvallis Oregon Smart Module History In 2008, started development to convert (dumb) analog
INITIAL RESULTS AT REDUCING SYSTEMATIC ERRORS FOR SEISMIC EVENT LOCATIONS USING A MODEL INCORPORATING ANISOTROPIC REGIONAL STRUCTURES Gideon P. Smith and Douglas A. Wiens Washington University in St Louis
OS 101 Marine Environment Winter 2006 Ocean Waves I. Some General Considerations about Waves Perhaps the easiest way to think about waves moving across the ocean is to imagine that we are at the edge of
A STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF SURFACE WAVES GENERATED IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS DURING A MAJOR EARTHQUAKE K. Eto ), K. Motoki 2) and K. Seo 3) )Graduate student, Department of Built Environment, Tokyo Institute
HOBO Water Level Logger Standard Operating Procedures Prepared by San Diego Regional Water Quality Control Board Southern California Coastal Water Research Project April 30, 2013 1. Purpose This document
SMART VEHICLE TRACKING SYSTEM Mrs. K.P.Kamble 1 Lecturer 1 Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, YCCE, Nagpur firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT It is amazing to know how simple
Watershed, Soil, and Air United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Technology & Development Program November 2002 2500 0225-2329 MTDC Remote Telemetry System for Particulate Monitoring Andy
Plate Tectonics The unifying concept of the Earth sciences. The outer portion of the Earth is made up of about 20 distinct plates (~ 100 km thick), which move relative to each other This motion is what