SIIAIT AÌ{V S)ì{OAA. ZLÃIIIID CIìOC{ITf. axuiltxrud 'paoluary. ilqfi4v sa 6r0opdo'tqtuy aqa. ssa/l d,qt. aa at up paoluu lg

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1 F ssa/l d,qt axuiltxrud 'paoluary aa at up paoluu lg ZLÃIIIID CIìOC{ITf ilqfi4v sa 6r0opdo'tqtuy aqa SIIAIT AÌ{V S)ì{OAA

2 !it xãpui 6zt ;,re,u,iuy ri si aji-i esoq \ :ãrãif Surag '9 zor slã^ell sjfrpeurg :síì-]on/síl tl ujjplrqc s(rìs,r\ourtery :3ulssaullL sanua.redsue{uelr{v s.pjerllllrd-sueaã :,{\otls JpITS 't Sz.senbrdo-r1 sâtsr{, peãì ot,ttolf :lxãj E ui plro A JtlJ 'z r 8urlr.rr11Jo ãuãrs rr.lr pue,r8o1odo:qruv:jrãtlj Sureg.J '7 T SJN!IJÌ{OC

3 Sz Íucxr,(ru:trdsep-slfâSJ rr{t pue 's;no ueq} speaq ratee:8 pâurnl s!li rrrtlrr rlâtït ot ssurqr ;o a8pa rql tuo{ à\otu r aletldna;d og 'po::nrro r:râ ptq (s:rreujqttu pue,(3<; -lolq Jo sued atuos IIJ,\J cslllsln8url ifurerq:,isd 's:tltlod 'ue ifuorsrq',go1oeqr',iqdosopqd'a;nle:atq) sppg 8ur:oqq8r:u Jo uorsp,\lii âlesrloq.{\ ãqt âìll Sutqtou tng 'Pertr^ü pe:.r,ipoq -,(;c,ra lnoge tsní 'lsuel le sjlels PãIIU1ì âql ur 'pue iuosurl -tv peã-r 'sep 'pna.rg lue8.ro1ç pea.r sla8ue '.sazetl p!el IoITE :ãjojjq ãjrl IEJnrlnJ p:ru.r8 ãql olul 'a:eql pue JJJII ',ie,t slr pâìjo,\\ puq eurldr:slp Jt{J ':eaddesrp uoos lou ill!\-({i-lfltjs -âr IIE jo :1dr:ur.rd âq1,, uetlt ssel Surqrou PUnoJ peli rtl pjreirjp ejuo ssntrts-i.\â-i qrlq.\\ rrr-,iqde;souqlj o1,ilpn -adsr tsoru pue ',r!o1odojqlut or rq8no-rq utslltrnltnjls ]Etll (ãljjjuof, a:uet;odut IEIÌIJJIIJIuI Jo âsujs ãql JLII JO âjuj -rfs f,rll ro 'uoseâj Á,reurq 'satueq}ttu 'ujtuo.{r Suttelnurl 3o sjr.uofjq rã,\ãlttìm'l::ígns slljo JSLIJs srl uttlljlâstrjo JSUãs s.,t3o1odo;qlut Jâllìl ol Jrotu JJtltEJ ãuop sel{ (e:uase.rd rlqrqo:dur ue iq pãrunouue Surlppr-run ujppns E se âluer tr lp;o,u :ado-rd Jql sr ((luâape,,) rusqernljnjls Jo tuã^pe âlìi,sanbado,ta sa$?,rj, paay U úloh TXIII Y NI CITì{OM IIHJ.Z

4 THE WORLD IN Â TEXT not altogether bacl-n'ill be u'ith us, I think' more or less permanenth/. What is most striking, ho*'cter, in aìl of this is that. using the rvord in its uncensorious sense, it u'as an essentiallv rhetorical accomplishment. It was not thc ocld fàcts or the o,,en odder explanations Lér'i-Strauss brought f-orth that made of him (as Susan Sontag, r.vho is in charge of such mattcrs, called him) an intellectual hero.' It x'as the mode of discourse he invented to displav thosc fàcts and frame those explanations. Thc re-analvsis of the Oedipus stor\/ onlv partlv aside' the particular findings of strucfuralist anthropologv have had scarccìv more effect bevond the borders of the cliscipline than those of functionalism, culfure and personalin'srudies, or sociaì evolutionism; quite possiblr', cr'en less. What changed the mind of the age, as none of those ever did' rvas the sense thate-new languagc had appeared in u'hich ever\/- thing from ladies'fashions, as in Roland Barthcs's Le Sys' tèrne d.e ln mod'e, to ncurologr', as in F{ou'ard Gardner's Táe Questfor Mind. cotldbe usefullv discussed'' It was a o'cle of terms (sign, codc, transformation, opposition, exchange, communication, metaphor, meton\rmy) myth,... structure), borrou,ed and rervorked from the lexicons of science and art alike, that defined Lévi-Strauss's enterprise for those whose interest in Australian section systems or Bororo village shapes was at bcst limited. More than anvthing else' he cleared an imaginative space that a generation of characters in search of a play rushed to occupy. Again, I should make it clear, especially in the light of Ì S. Sontag, "The Anthropologist as Hero''' in S. Sorrtag' '4.qaìnst Inte rpretation (Nell York, I9ór), PP. ó9-8i. )R. BartÌres, Le 'Sisìème tte ta wod'e (Patis, rsol); H. Gardncr. The Quest for Mintl: Piaget, Lépi-Strauss, and the Structuralìst L[ovemenf (Nerr'York, t9z3)' z6

5 LZ 'i-u-lrz'eld'(ó-ól' Í N'Poo\\loN [ttrat11{o uotryutiuwl ríj' spâ'ueio8u:-1 Y put ràì)ãfl V ul "'àl]prqj 'vf \\opeqs :Ëu'p1tng.*.iur*i ur \'rrqrs)v Ftt ìh.,l";:;.g lxàr" 'ràì'ìàg ql.rrt Surddr'rp-aso:d lsjroj-ulej snourej 'uou Áq slq teqì rsuss pãzlu8o:ar aql ut lsní tou 'suoxes-olbuv {nl$ip-s1rh pâtooj-]eh ro3 'panë're uâãg sãull]ãulos selì s! '^luo lou PUE lpear ot l1nrulp Ârr SI âq rúql ol q:eo'rddt " "r'""5-i'\r-i ((tirr-lii,, E qtrns 'asrnor Sg Jo^ãnpn "*'p"*t ]::ï,tut ui sat3eterls Surpynq-rxãl ilel,'-o1àdo'qlut Ártu auo (re1:ag t""ry tsrn8uq âql ujo.l; 'ga'u se s?âpl âluos pur 'ru;at 8.rr^o"oql ttq^1" tâirllqersq âlqelrejlul lsolu " Jr1r Jo ãulos olu. lnd st '1;o'n sltl Jo eloq"\\ " "1"' "qi'8or ãrl1 sãl"ulumili lsotu ì"q' tt'o stll pue slxã1 slq Jo lsâug a'4t' s o n b t d o'tl s 2 I s?'t'j't'roq Á1r:txa t;"*-i"'txa1 ssnt:t5 -t't91 'Árole:o plrqod ;o '8utlurcd e.üor{ go.rorr"u"ítntq 'q1 'Á.naod ui si li st ut snor\jltllsfu se y-znuryt^ 't3o1odorçu* -?(l LuoJJ 1x,L1t(l':r:o1âtlJ uro{ âluelsqns 'tu:o1 urojj luãluof, -rr Áes Áaqr 'uoq uo:3 siies âuoâtuos lel^\jo -r"{i;;;ü"'a'tqt ""tt:]"i-::'ïi io; ut t-t-:l.sutt'ulurnlll ÁFeqnr ""od -ad e.sr "ro-'sr ìjo,^a srq,arlltr ãif utlsstlljeg (('JellJ'\\-JOq1ÍÌe' or rue't E st ssntrls-'n91 l'*t"ddt l ttql 'peuaauo)ufl put a,trlet:a.rddt 'a'rrr:eds'rad E qfns tuo:; 'elu [ue lt 'st ]I 'tulq ãieniis or sl 1l lulq asn::e ollou si luâlul *:ï:ï -plro,!\ qlt'tt Sunt;'* ã1ll:ptrtqr oi '1urod aqt '" "o'*os ãprsãq elmb st'saìsarurs snolllqure sâ1 8uu'ra3a'rd'pa; oqtne -s f,tl uolllperl ãqr LII â1il!\ ol lou uie 31as't'ru I ]Eq] l:t'""ï tj^^ttteu'3uo 3r-Á3o1od rrpj âtlylsãnr] 'qì 'a"q"d.ry -ojtltut u, Jql -tõ au-o si ssntjls-t,r?-i,.t'oq"f,, '(1'rra1: "'"' 'pràiâ)ãj ser{ lr t'oát''o" ãlil Jo iqlro'tr 'raqla8orp 'luatu -â,\jitl)? 8t"tt*s t'se ljels Surpu^ers E uioji qeâj âsjnofslp ârlruâ.," ro "ot"ì';;1il' ti:3:: -rqd e se t"qt:p"'* 3o ;iqdosol li ol ^tqllsoq rq8urno t* ll" ure:8o;d qrrtãsãr? se Daíord tsllsjíuf,nrls ât{l pltâ\ol tust:t}deìs pãllrurpt u'\\o Álu IXiII V NI O'IUO'AA!IHI

6 THE WORLD IN A TEXT steamy metaphors, overgrown ri.'ith luxuriant images, and flowered with cxtravagarìt puns ("thoughts" and "pansies," "wavs" and "toicesr" and perhaps, considering the text at hand, even "tropes" and "tropics")-is so easv to get lost in' He is difficult in the deeper and morc serious sense that although, st,vlistic extravagânces aside, his books look like orclinarv anthropological works, evcn at times like rather oldfãshioned ones, Bureau of American Ethnographv monographs reincarnated, thel'are not. Thet'are another gcnre under the sun. To approach Tristes Tropiques r'vith reading habits formed bv experience u'ith We, the Tikopin or Patterns of Cwbwe or even rvith q'hat might seem a better modcl but is reallv a worse one, Tbe Golden Bowgb, is rather like the little old ladv in the Thurber vignette rvho found Macbeth lacking as a detective stor\/ because it n'as clear rvhodunit from quite earìv on. But the main reason for regarding Lóvi-Strauss in a literary wav is not the exegetical one, structuralism made eas\', but that his rvorks, and Tt'istes Tropiques most Particularh', fbrm excellent cases upon u'hich to train such a regard. The innoccnce about tcxt-buildin$ that I ascribed to our profcssion in gerteral in the last chapter certainh' docs not applv to him. Were hc anv mort: selficotlscious' he rn'ould transport to a higher plane. In the rvhole of anthropologv thcre are no rvorks more self:referential-i'vorks that point aíóften to thcmselvcs as artifacts' and deliberatelr', as thcv do to rvhat thev are ostensibll'about-,thantt"ìstes Tt'opiques. It is a classic examplc of the book rvhose subject is in grcat part itself, whose purpose is to displav rvhat, rvere it a novel, rn'e rvoulcl call its fictionalit-v; a painting, its planaritl'; a dancc, its comportment: its existence as a made thing. If one reads, sa,t', Mevcr Fortes's The Tallensi or E. E. Evans-Pritchard's The Nuer. one can and usuallv does feel z8

7 67 Icrros âqr Áq u.&\op pjtiiu si li tn{ 'sdars Suupq 'pa; lsrll sll sâìeru li qrlq,!\ ut 'dtqsunl 'suretuop p:r8o1odo-rqrut Jo PrEp -utls rsoru teql ui Vluatud al Jp e,ualuauu?1? satnpn/4g s27 qtr,r sur8aq ast.rd;elua tsllprndnrts rta-r8 aq1 'euo qsr33rq11 r,tlpttuassa'eq ol pusl s^\ãn JEãuII st 'st,uar,r srql 'p:totuo:d DEJ ui stq 'rusttt-rorslq Jo stujoj 1p or Árr -[]sorì snorrrej srq Sur.raplsuo: 'uorurdo,(ru ut uollejgllsr(lu ârerrqrlãp Jo llq E se Jlasrurq ssntjlg-iàll,{\3i^ E :luâtudole -âp JEJUII E se ti ãâs ol sr 's.rau:atser11 f,ilslfljolslq ol JEITIUTeJ pur eldurs os sruãâs li Jsntfâg cuotlrluof ::oru aqr 'a1oq,t t se ìjo,tr s(sslìerls-l\9t or sâqjeo.rddt lensn o,\u Jqr JO -xa i.ru:ettl e rsní (1eqr1rEIÌIruEJ e doldua o1) rou si ìooq E IerI -8ate:ts os 3o sel8altrls ârlt rno Sutre;1 'ìool lujjã:uip JstllEJ E 'r.usrlellìr)n;rs ot.i1r::.rrpur ÌsEJI le snql pue 'a'tans,o lvt4l ot sa,tt8 teq] ãuo plltlt E a,l?xiul a'l(lnal Jtlt ol uj)el,\fensn saq:eo:dde o^\t ãqt ot asod:rlunoj u!l 3rt\ lillejãuj8 ssal Jertsru aqr rnd or -ro 'f,tntltsuof sged asoqr,urterol pâploj -un,r1eã.rr1.r\ou,iq ãtlt Jo pue dn ti âìetu reqr sr:ed oiìl Jo qloq '1;o,r scssn!jls-l\j'i Jo uolletr:d::tttl pjtpuelsun leq.a\ -ãruos E ot uo spval sanbt.do'ta sa$!',lj ot t1:to:ddt llmq-rxâl -srql-sl-,\\oq t qjns tttll st 'tj-\ã,t\otl'1t:tlr:: tt t"u^.r rrr" JLro,(uE 'arutpqruou p:r8olotualstda plo Jqf qrr^ tr"r1 i, 'q8no.rql ìool ot utu8t;a,ra p:tq,i::,r st lt 'seq ãuo ãluo puv 'tr ]E ìool ol tulq stup^\ aq. lycl srq q8rlo.rqr ìool ol rrperr Jrlt lue,t\ Ìcusãop ssnejls-i^9-j 'UâÂJ pãtlsijnoe 'le pf,luloo 'prpunor8rroj âre srrl\ãp aqr (11a,u se sanbt7olor4l[1y pue aeuanus egsuz1 at ugrlletu rcqr roj pue) sanbtdo,ta sa$x't'j ui 'aáa,(;e'tun ãqt ol tseji ]e 'algtst,rut sscl Jo JJotu IIE JJE sìjeru qsnjq JLll 'slüjs uoll)nlìsuof Jtll 's))t.\jp )LII 'PUo^Jq irrpc-r eqt ol,{\opult\ prsár:r e q8no:qr 3ur1oo1 si euo leql IXãI V NI CT'IìTO.4A:IHI

8 THE WORLD IN A TEXT actualitv of it all: the mind sunk in materialities. Then, the story goes, in "The Structural Studv of Myth" and in Totemisw,it bcgins to shakc frec of this social dross to get more clirecdv at its proper subject, the fbrmal plav of the human intellect. This approach is then codified, svstematized, and turned into a vcritable scicnce, like Marxism, geologt,, or psvchoanalvsis,in La Pensée saupnge; after u'hich it is carried to triumphant culmination in the great four-r'olume record of the mind gamboling frcelv in the fields of its ou'n imager)', Mythologiques. It r.vould takc us too far from our subject to trace out here the dilüculties of this r..iew of Lér'i-Strauss's work as _describing a rise from nature to culturc, bchavior to thought, matter to mind. It is actuallv plausible onh, so long as one doesn't look too closelt, into chronologv or, even morc importantlr., into the intertextual relations that actuallv obtain, indepcndcntlv of scquence, aìnong thc various r.r'orks. Ies Strwctwres élétnentaire.i, r,vith its tracing of logical tran'sformations across vast geographic spaces, stands in manl. 11'nvg closer to Mtthologiques, t.rvo decades further on, than does La Pensée sí1u71&ge,rvitl'r its theoretical cavalr\, charge s, methodological set pieces, and Rfue Gauche quarrels, r.r'hich rvas publishcd onlv a vcar or tu'o earlier than Mythologiques. One of his most recent books, La Voie des mnsques, a sort of tailpiece to the Ml,thologiques, v,as published rn rg,g but conceived in ry41 before his first one. La Vie fanoiliale et sociale des Ind.iens Nnrubihwara. And his u'hole argumcnt is, in bare-bones terms, alreadv there in the thirtt. pages or so of "The Structural Studv of Mrth," r.vritten in the rgjo's. The rest is an cnormous footnote. Because the problems of Whiggism in connection with so.achronic a lr,ritcr as Lér,i-Strauss arc) once one gets dorvn to cases, so obvious (ercn his individual books do not march 3o

9 I' ãtâldtuol) srrllto ui rsroâ\ si ]I '(ssâr8o.rd 3o çíu âql splo,\e tr ìsrji Ìe) lsrg ãtll ucqr s,(u,lt rtuos ui rrdãq si lj 'JâqlIã q:uo.rdde slqr Jo sruelqo.rd âql otul 'e.raq'o3 l.uorr I ' san bt0o1oc1t[w u\ (caroa -vz ol xv,trvuv) ursrprdopilur lueurlãlq8r1ue put (..elel -LIE: s(tunssodo,,,,'sãsuãs ãà$ Jqr lo en8ry âf11,,..'eue s(jjlsju pjiq JI{I,,,,'EpoJ,,,'JJnue,\o,,) ruslfllãqlsât jo a8uelatu e si rl prry a?aanas a?sua1 z7 ur (su,(uolrtu IEtuIue Pue lqunul sautfaut) tst:ltsm8utl-q8rq pue lsixlew-sutjl si 1I 'utsxxuâ7-0j ul (,,rea ol poo8 utqr lâqttsr ìulq] or poo8,, 'p-r8ueqr su8rs aqt qrr.m q8noqt) rslpuorr:ury qs{tlrg si li 'ìro^\ uelsv tstãqtnos-utrltrtsnv ãrìt ui (uetuo,t 1o srjr8 q8no.rqr 8ur -ltlrun[rulor urru) uerssnew si U 'sujn] uollujlle Jo ljâtl,t\ JrÌl se,rlerer.rdo:ddt suii{s tuerun8;e Jqr Jo JIrolãLIr ãqr puv 'srnssr Jo rlnpãqls râzerjlrãllnw/seoã eqr':1.trs-:njlollrq 'srlgruessear pue sâpueutsrp sanbt?olorpíyy 'Á:orsrq Jo!3pI ãrlt prre ir8olotu:tsrde 'a.ruug tlttt\ sllll a?aanus a?sua1 IJ 7' ll uoitezirebint s.u,to;tl-jglllpeìí pue rusluultulãtpl -+o -.rnq spu:dn MsxxuapJ ':lndsrpgo sixe ãloq^\ aqr Surleldsrp {s;:,ro:ìuor drqsurl ìroprnry / u,\\or[-r1lllrpe1 / râurc6 rqt uo sã1êt safialuau.r?l? sarnpnus sa7 'qted srq 3un1ro1q sarsoloepr lirujpeje Jtll Jeqloue JJUE Juo sjjdefs 'asod;nd Jo ãjns plre pultu..;o pjxs 'ssnejls-t,\j1'.i:ors stlìl uj 'lxju âtll urql ':lu:o:r ìrep slqr rs.rg dn 3urrq3r1'tq8qq:.reas Suttelo: a8nq e iql'reqs. -e-r p:r8o1odo:qlut Jo uieuiop Jãqtout Jo âuo uo ezes ]sït -JnllnJls'Sur8ueqrun'luelsuof, aql Sututt.tl qll.tr pâujofuof, Suraq '1.to,tt ql!ã uà\â:o'tr1o aseqd qrea {1:,rts-tnlai'1tads ot os 'rt ãjs ot sl silij 'Sutstuord a.roru eldoad 3o :aqunu e ot pllrjrs s!q ìro,\\ slq or qruordde ;eqtoue'(8upoo:q pue ãlorüjr 'suouelrpatu uei^e JìII rujql puno:e 'Suuenoq 'a1l -rrr tnq 'pue eql le Sutpua pue ãutrrut8eq cqr le SuluurSaq 'sqder8ouotu:ado.rd JìIT srjjíqns ;taqr q8no:ql,illeuolderrp IXgI V NI ('IÌO,T\ :IHJ

10 THE \VORLD IN A TEXT stabilin'in the structuralist program fiom rq+q to t979 is, to put it mildl,r', difficult to establish). The critical point is that, as my failure to mcntion it in describing thcm suggcsts, both approaches have diftìculn' accommodating Tristes Tropiques at all. It seems like a n-rere sport, even an embarrassnìent: â rcflcctive, rather pointless pause in thc long march torvard intcllective purin. in the linear case; a mere personaì exprcssion, an indulgence best overlooked, in the recursive onc. As I have pronounced it the kev u'ork, the center around r.vhich the u,hole pivots, I nccd to take a quite different tack. To rn1'mind, Lévi-Strauss's work is organized ncither linearl,r,. a progress of vieu's. nor quantumh', a series of discontinuous refbrmulations of a fuied and single vls11'; rathe r, it is organized, if you u'ill, centrifugallr'. It is possible, I think, and profitable as well, to look at all of Lér'i-Strauss's urorks, except Tt'istes Ttopir\ues, even those r.vorks rvhich, in publication terms anpva\,, predate it, as partial unpackings of it, developments of particular strains prescntì embrr,onicallv at least and usuallr, much more fullv than that, in this, the most multiplex of his r'vritings. Whetl'rer or not this cosmic cgg vierv of Tt'istes Tr"opique s is the last word on iire subject is sure lv debatable; but not, I should think, until it is first explored. Looking at Tristes Tinpiques in text-building terms as the arch-text out of whicl-r the other texts are, in a logical sense) generated- Stevens's "parakect of parakeets that above the forest of parakeets prevails / a pip of life amid a mort of tails"-can lcad one into a better grasp of Lér.i-Strauss's thought than can seeing it either as an advancing series of etherealizing r.isions or as a static and obsessive iterating thcme. From this perspective the first thing to be said about Tt istes Tt opiqwes, and in some wa\rs the last as u.'e ll, is that it 32

11 It 'r;-oli cld'(1196r' ssrtr{'.lipr:qrut3) t7ault'ua7 ut t1'ú5 ''pa 'ìoàqàs I Ln,.'srnãoJ 1-rut srustnëut-1 :sìuãluãtclq 8rrrsot3,,'uosqolu{ 191 pue cpurqãq,(tu (Pãllrxã(pâroq uo slloq ro31 iparuroddeslp 'pezerut sp,\\ I lrtqr put Surqt e8uejìs sltll /lres I :a-t91q, luâ,\\ J 'a.r;q lua,tr 1 'e:u:8 alqezruso:a:,i.ra'r E ui ìoog Iâ,\EJI e 'e8rssed Sutu:do snorutj Jtll lo IEIUãP ââixãsãj-jljs pue )ruojr ãqr JrrcïsJp pue 'ãsjnof Jo (si li 'a:e1d rstg âqr ui 'Juo le-+ sltll JPIS -ur tno lã3 ot ãurleu8rs,tpll^ sìooq ulqr Jql 'sluatuele luau -odruo:r Jr{l le ìool or,(;tssa:au si li r}sjij ':ert1 pernpo:d sr ttrl,\\ ol ì)eq f,tuol ltqs e,t 'y1e'n'' ' etnpo-rd ol.rerlra8 -ol pauutí IIE Jfuo le sìooq fe;ã,\js :nuailaxxa,rud txel p1o1 -rutlu e 'pt:cds ssal a8en8utl t LII pue ',i1pnstj ãrol-u r1 1nd ol 'sr 11,,',iutiuol:tu,, sili (uollëulqruof llllelu,is Jo JUo IelI -8rp cqr oluo.,'joqdelãlu)) s,uosqole{'uortrutlsqns lirerus*ip -e.red 3o stxt Sopue rq1 SulDrÍo.rd,iq par:nrlsllor Sutueetu :ueod tsiierriroj tlrrzj/utlssn-g p:rd,b-lerpl tie v sanbxdlr.j sa$pu u'ítr-ruprurs 3o rueld ãql prller eti req,u uo ilpttua.t tr-ro pa,ield 'sllrjru3lã âlenulluor Jo,iqt;etetq :rleu8rpe:ed t utr1l rrtller ',btn8nuor aueyd ãqt prlltr uosqolt{ uttuoì{ -;o tcrl^\ Suole,ilpluozr:oq rno paftld 'sluetuel: JtâlJsIpJo uoll -:uníuo: :u:r:tu,is r :.,rq8lot1]-jlãjruof,, jo aseur adó5sop -IJIEì s(ssne.ifs-i^?'i Jo 3n;olEuE lìll1ljl\ E si ìoog JtlI.-.- '1J.\JI JuIüs eqr te SutlsIXJ stxãl 8utt.t3:etut,igenlnu sâullljtuos ue,rl'sutladuo:'3ut.r:n:r:o-oj sl J^ELÌ J,tr reqia 's:e,ie1 cqt,(e,ue sdt-tls ruo se uoitejljliad.radcap Lrr stsrsuol uorlel:rd.r:tur lürlr os ïeqto Jtlt rllcâujq ujp -prq âuo aql 'srxer jo tucue8ue::e qtdap-ol-jlr-]jns 'pltq: -JElJrq E lou si sanbdo"[ s21s!.l ui J,\EI-{ â;\\ }Et{,^r\ loc 'plo,\\ : I lq8r-r rqr,ip:rr:xa rou 'JJ J,lroll 'sl..pâsodluuãdns,, 'tjro[u E JìII Jãtll!J 'ujârlld IIE'.{r,\o ue lno 8ur:q or rrqlo rlit uodn auo pesoduuadns stxâl stjos -]o tuãjâ-+itp :rrnb flr:,\âs 'Jflto te sìooq p.ráàesì IX:IJ Y NI C'IìTO. ô, ghi

12 THE WORLD IN A TEXT onceì in the Amazon... -all rvith the implicit undermcssage: Don't vou wish vou had been there with me or could do tl-re samef An invitation to dreams of adventure and escape, and even a dream itsclf-. Hc can bc as superior as he rvants to be about lantern-slide lcctures, stories about the ship's dog, or descriptions of seagulls srvirling about; but just listen to him on Fort de Francc: When the clocks struck tr.r'o in the afìernoon Fort de France u'as a dcad tou,n. There u'as no sign of life in thc oval-bordered "main square," q'hich u,as planted u'ith paìm-trees ancl overrun u'itìr rampant weeds-a patch of dead ground, onc u'ould have thought, in u'hich somcone left behind a statuc of fosephine Tâscl-rcr de la Pagerie, later Bcauhan-rais. f'fhat is Napolcon's iosephine. of cor.rrsc.] No sooner had thc Tünisian ancl I checkecl into thc c'lesertecl hotel than, still shaken bv thc c\rents of thc morning, lve l-rired a car and set off totvard thc Lazaret. n'ith the intcntion of comfbrting our companions attd, more especialll,. t\\'o voung German \rronlen whcl iracì ìec-l us to bclieve, during the \o\rage out, that thev q.ould be unfaithful to their*husbands just as soon as thev cor.rld get properlv cieaned up. From this point of vicu', the busirress of the Lazaret \vas vct another disappointment to us.' Which is both crude enoueh and suffìcicntlv arch for anv Ìantcrn lecture. Or hear him, evcn, much further onì approacìr the Tlrpi- Karvahib across the mid-amazon plateau : I had left Cuiba in lune, and it r'r.as nou' September. For three months I had rvandered across thc Plateau, camping rvith the Inclians r'r.hile mv animals had a rest, or pushing on interminablv sc. Lór'i-Strauss, A World on the Wane, John Russell, trans. (Neu' \brk. r9ór). p. tr. Althor.rgh Lér'i-Strauss preíèrs the \\'eightmans'translation(tì'iste s Tro' piques,jc:hn and L)oreer-r Weightrnan. trans. lharmonclsu'orth, tsng., rgrol),1n{ i1 is some$'hat morc accuratcl I \\ ilì f'or the most ;ra.rt use the Russe ll, becausc it seems to mc to bring the tone of the Frcnch better into EngÌish. In anv case, I shall alscr give at each citation both the \Veightman refèrence (herc, p. 12,) and that in tlre crriginal \'[/utestropìques[paris. rgis], here, p. r7). 1Á

13 s! '(rit d 'lpuituo i6i't''cl'utrulqblrá\) trl cì '11:'sngo -pe J3,\ãr.r PIlo,!\ (euo illt.rarll lou (Jfloqtr u,\\o slq,(q 'sanbtd -L,tJ sa$llj Lrr lno slulod,iilrya:t:r,(:a,r aq sc rse,u Jq q8noql ujê) r,tzqaut/l u )rssetj lsolule slqr lerlr-pjoâ\ Jt{l JO JsUãs 'snorluapuãl âql lou 'loo: rql ui Jeãln,\-ssãusnollsuoJ PII -os Jo ad,t e ol lunotje sltl sljjuuof, 1I pue 'ìooq ãql sj,\eãl JJ^)u tyz$a,tllut ilqu:rll ]ng lãsâq,t1a.los'ljl).\trl 'ip:eq JrÌÌ io e8eut 3LÌl 'sìjpolrj Jtll JJ,\âlEtl'!\ 'f,sc-'t,itre u1 '8ur1ea,ru,i1aua.rtxt ãq PFÌor'8utlrold -xj rrà\j pue 'SuDcuJEluIJ.l i1tru:e q8noqr'lsuru8e 8uB:e -e-r,(lpesoddns st,r oq âjnrerâlii Iã,\EJI tltujjj Jt{1 t{1iâ\ sanbtd -ttj salsx.,u rfãuuol ttt lcìtueltc tltturâls,is V 'ãjjrl ãurrdope sr ssnt.ns-i^91 'a1'hs JLII put ':pnltlle ãqljo srdíroro-rd :qr ru:ras 'rseqd LIJãrsEã :c1-1e:rrsolojetlfje sltl ui ]scãl le 'xnej -lew.jrplry st a:n8g uljepuetu lissìllj E q:ns LIâ,\ã Jo (IloT JJJãrd jo sen8ole,wl frluculol peu,i1:su:lul Jtll 'o0uo2 nu seliuioç s(jpld :8utqt1o uos slqt qll\\ p3ìrutrdi:od se,t arnl -p-r:r:rlndod uorlust'ru71nt zinaq:llqnde1 prltlj eq1 'artr:d -o.rclde reqr slqr JoJ slujjâjjj r{fujjj âle âjâql ',i1pnl:y 'ã I / uoljtìfl srql u!qr 'JsJO'tt:o '.t:ttlq.rq,i1p;rqplnol ((EJIJfV rsjìjec JJotu Jq ppoàt 'ruol -Ìo uos rluârâ\t-i preqlry LII sjcãà or\[,, Jo ((SJâ]ulltlpE3H âtll õuoury UI-I'\W" e'jãpulr E ol ltljnq rg ol!rre1 Jo lelioos 'SrrtqrÁrara..1o.iurrs;rp ãqr st.\\ ll àljll \\.i-tolt.t.t:t E Jo uollettltulnl JLII.i1:-reu pãiijãâs 'ieqt'selg-qsnq Jo suieuirr pâliâìleiq ãql roj se puv 'dllrel ìrnrts,iqarty pttl âuoãuros erjq.t\ lrtld aqr pjìlttu ttqt sdunrs prãp ãrìt Luo{ pãqsm8uustp aq Ílotrers ppol srueld 8ur,rq reqr,rrp os pue[ E-ãru J]oJãq llortll-t ppo,\\ I-ÌEuuE,\Es ãj':)lsnt âures cql prrâ uo sìãã,\\ JoJ 'ãrnluâ^pb Jo putq.recldn aqr lo3 ruopo-log '8ut -uroru lxâu âql Jrãq] ]ou ãrãâ\ JI tuãql ssllu uâ.\ã plnotls I pue ^elil iruoteut,itu 3o ued tuautu:ed E âlâ,r,ieqr 8uqoe3,iq cìn pepua 1 leql 1ÈITIurr.J os le,i put 'lgured,ilsnono-rtt os saltld eros aru a're8 cpru ãtìl Jo uorlour,i>paí aqr JIIq,'!\uEeW 'puâ ãql ur ol dn ppe IIE plnoà\ 1r IELI,\\ ãllq^\ rlit Jlos,(u 8uryse 'lxau aql ol ]urod ãuo uro{ IXgI Y NI (I'IUO.{\!IHI

14 THE w'orld IN A TEXT mit to and indeed has spent much of his career distancing himsclf from. Second, the book is, hor,r'er,er oddlv looking a oneì an 9t!_l5rgraphr'. A contror,crsial ethnograpl-rv perhaps, and more than a bit ovcr-focusecl; but the a1ììrmed and er{ììrrned posc of thc ethnographcr, likc the disclain-red anci ciisclaimed one of the tourist. nel'er leaves the book. Incleecl it ofìen becomcs, in its shrill insistcncc, a bit thick: An antinom,v, therefore. n'hich u'e have as a profcssion on the onc hancl. and on thc other an arnbiguor.rs cntcrprise. oscillating bctween a mission ancl a refugc. ircaring u'ithiu itself elemcnts of both and r.ct alr.vavs recognizablr,one rather than the othcr. Anthropologv has in all this an especiallr.íàr'ored place. It represents the second trlternative fthat is. the "refuge"] in irs nlost ertrcme form. Thc cthr-rographcr, u'hilc in no u.ise abdicating his ou'n humanitl., strives to krou' and estimate his fellou'mar.r fiom a loftv and distant point ofvantagc: onlv thus can he abstract thcm fiom the contingcncies par-ticular to this or that civilization. The conditions of his lifè irnd u'ork cut him off frorn his ou'n group for lor-rg periods togetl-ìer; and he himself acquires a kind of chronic uprootedness fiom the sheer brutalifl, of the environmental.à.ng., to rvhich he is exl-rosed. Ncvci cau hc fccl himself "at homc" anr.rvhcrc: hc u'ill ahvays be, psr.chologicallr.speaking, an amputated man. Anthropolop,is, n'ith music and mathcmatics, onc of the fè\\'true vocatiorls: and the anthropologist mav become au,arc of it befòre ever he has bccn taught it. -' souls-his The anthropologist, as here, r'enturing u'hcre lesser cafe intellectual friends in Paris; the orchid-elite of French-Quarter São Paolo; his shallolr', noveltt-pursuing Brazilian students; and vou, dcar chemist, philosopher, or art historian, enfoìdcd in t'our laboraton', stucl\', or museum-dare can onh' read about: not go) ancl pcnetrating forms of existencc thcv this note too runs continuoush. :Russell, p. i8 (Weightman. pp. óó-ó7t originel. pp.4ó-+1). 36

15 LZ -Jo ìsorr.jr rrr.\r (Llràúogrrorcl e si ri sp Ìrtutur.Ìs " ur"..,,, ii ]i:t],t::ï:]:ffltiil1:ïi ì1rrq.rr ruo:1 s:stssecl 'z'l'ór se i1:tr sc paqstlqnd :^:;ded uo spllnq uotltlnrul14 s:tnbti -oq sjlsltj, ãrlr 'scãpr s(ssnerrs-l\l'i.1o tu:rudo1.r,rrp eqt or opln8 c st Surpealsru ãq LÌpr uouplqqnd 3o,Sopuo:q:r teqt ìurun8:c.(ru qtt.t autl ut ',igerulyg -ãp tetll ol snosoleue sluãtuãlr IEIILuâqrJoüÈq5 p:rrpolred-1o uoì e l-{r^ilcle}sã,\fllll}llráã pìl1o] ouo sltll IIE t{ll^\ 'lunolle olul LIãìPI ãq osf plnoqs 'ì]rs.ro.iqrpaq rrqrãq.\\ 'steúiiìpü 3o surejíp ãrìj 'sãrueã rleql LII sdn-u,ncu8 pue uãjplll.{j qroq iq pâìo ul sluolsr-ì:) :)qr ',i-ãoloqr,'(tu ul pâjnf]éiuolsnl eql.(sràtllo Jo ilasruo ^q po.\íâsqoiijãq ã,\tq qfrq,!\ sluolsnr âqr IIE Jo,\rolLIe'\LII ue JìEuI tsllru ãuo srql roc ;ãjnrílslrorãr ot Jlqrssod ãq pïnotls ri qllq'r $ãiì 3o,irouada; e uro{ suoileliiqtúoj uíeurr-ãsóõqr ot si op up.ì,ijql IIÊ :úrinpsqíl âieji] râ,\rli (uolsrlìãp Jo stuãruolu uì ro cslueâjp rrâr{1 Lrr ',fu1d ru) s8uraq Lreurnq reql pue pâ}llulryn n]"_::jgtt âseql Jâqunu âq] feql pâlul\uol uip -to I 'SLlJJlS,\s olul tujo-] r\e{l ial,irs leprrrrtd sìi s,it,n1e seli sluolsnr s.âldojd t lo âlqruãsuj oql 8:sznbxd -q,tj szlsx,lj ui ol âlge se,{\ Jq se lljtlslnu E l8âu os ui tusl -lernlrnrts s-lelrdel lnd or rlqe uã3q rãâju setl ssnerls-i^9'j lng 'JUo JâJEãI) e xusxruzojjo JãldELIl tlunoj 3tÌl pue (ãuo ldetuetsás JJo{-u E..t{I,itr^ü -}o dprus ÌEJnllnJlS ât{j,, (sluâlu -rtels lryjâ,\\od a;ou sdeq:ed ãrê sanbxlìtl\qtiw ol ((EPor), Jr{} pue ((âjnuj o,, JrlJ.('sr.uâts,(s otnr rulof íjqr :Jldls JEInlruEd str sie,\\le sëq sl.uolsnr s.eldocd E Jo slqu3suj Jqt,, ',(lâlueu:jrurs os Jo,irntu3l Jãutnb ãql Jo-I pansjnd seq ssnpjls-l\?-j reql rjej ur srsâql Jql (slsâql E seq lxâ] JIqdEJS -ouqlâ âql!âqlou! JâuE Surqr utuep ãuo (âlnleu,rq l.re stxjl qjns se csr r-ìjrrl,!\ 'Jâ,râ,!\oq 'lxal 1a,reJ] Jq] âìiiurì,,',tqdosolrqd IJr8doqs,, Jo llq E sv'sanbxdl"tj szls!.'ij ui sâop Jq se c,itljoqlnc prlurr.lacìxa slr,(uãp plno,t\ oq,{\ pue ).loru pfa$ qlnru lbtll IIr JLrop (âlâtl lorr serl oq^\ ãuoârlros ur q8noua,(1ruu:gru8ls srsosrltodr slr spug pãrurellord pejtr{ pue PrpunoJ rìs,{\ou -rlew lrqt ìro,r\ PIãg Jo ãnblrs,itu rqj 'ìooq rql qsnorqr IXgI Y NI (I'IUO,E\ ãhi

16 THE WORLD IN A TEXT vised br, Mendelier. In this. all customs. u'hether real or merel\' possiblc. rrould be grouped bv tamilies antl all that rroulcl rcntrin for us to do would be to recognize those rvhich societies had, in point of fact, adopted.n Jhird, besides a travelogue and an ethnographr', the book is a philosophical text. It is a philosophical text not simply in thc rnan-in-the-street sense that it is flambor'- antly reflective-the mute-exchanges-of -forgivencss-r'r'ith-acat sort of thing-and full of dark savings-"manism and Buddhism are doing the samc thing, but at different levels." It is a philosophical text in the scholarlr. sense that it adclresses itseìf, and rvith some resolutcnessì to a central issue in Western thought: the natural fbundations of human societ,v. Not onlv does Lér'i-Strauss hope to find Rousseau's Social Contract alive and rvell in deepest {mx7sn-xncl countcr such theories of the origins of socialin' as Freud's primal parricide or FIume's corl\/entionali0'-but ss he tl'rinks that, among the Nambiku'ara, he has actualh'and litcraìlv done so: The evide nce of the Nambikrvara runsì to begin rvith, clean counter to the ancient sociological thcor\,. no\\r temporarilv resr,rrrected b,v thc psvchoanalvsts, according to rvhich the primitive chicf derives from a svmbolic fathcr.... I should like to bc able to shou' horv markedll,, in this regard, contemporarv anthropologl' suppofts the thesis of the eightccnth centurv philosophes. Doubtless Rousseau's schema diffcrs fìom the quasi-contractual relations rvhich obtain bctrveen the chief and his compauions. Rousseau had in mind a quitc different phenomenon-the renunciation bt' the indivicìual of his o\vn autonoffìy in the interests of thc collective rvill. It is nonetheless true. hou'er,er, that Rousseau and his contcmporaries displaved profclund sociological intuition u'hen thet, realized that attitudcs and elements of culture such as are summed up in the words "contract" and "conscnt" are not seconderussell, p. roo (WeightmaÌr, p. 229i originaì, p. r83). 38

17 ót I '(tr! d'prrr8r:o i!r! cl 'unutqãrãm) oó! d'11:rs'^n11rt 'ót-çtt dd '(!rór 'ïo1.\\ân) rr.r,7llil:) {o uìqautd.taiu[ lqj'z7dãj '3 ur..l8e,rcg JúlqãrãJ eq"1,. 'zu:r:rg.) :as ',i1p:rue8 ìro.r s!ssnerr\^-1.\?'i ui Julãtìl srql Lrorronrroa (9!t cl'pur8r:o ifr!l! dd'rrnutq8rarll) go! d'glssnyu, -d"llp rr.lrjo suoudrrlsrp âqi'snouej âre sâstssed JqJ 'leruã3,tla,tnrsod plrnos LrouEc zuerc sâìëlrl )H's nbxdl,í.j s21s!.,[ sçssnejls -I,\t'I Jo râ,!\od plre ssjujjllrq SuDElsE^ãp Jrll qlr,!\ csjolilne JrJrll IEfrpEJ,\\orl JJuEr.u ou i!\$ JJE JJJrll lng 'rsâm-uou ãql r.ro tjbdlur str roj tsq\a Jrl] Jo,\\ou,iq slu:udjlpul Jo JJqunLI snor-ujorrã ue ujjq seq JJJr.lJ 'l:)ej] lslujojjj e :sr sznbxdi"tj sl1s!,tj lxjl -+o rros r{üfr6j eql o1 speâl (urnt ur (srqr puv.ã^ii urj ueuj rplr{,\\ ur (s^es ssl-ìejls-l\?'i 'âuo ':Jp;o lerlos IEuoIl -EJ E (3rurJ pr.re Jreds puo,ijq IEJpr ue Jo srstq âql uo 'pllnq prre uâ\o Jno ruo4 sà\lâsjno qlerãp uej J,\\ 'slrlrr:ros ::t11o 8ur,trou1 r\{,,'iesjoârur'ì pu! IELrJâlâ sr Iãpou s(nejssnoì JSnEJeg ljulsuolâj uts-ì J,!\ qllq,\\ pue 'l)njlsuofãj ol,{\otl pããu ãâ\ q)lq,r\ 'p1.ro,n reql qji JJ,\ârr perì J,\\ rã]]âg '(,,a,tdod,ln\raa Jno,iq pafduo-rd âje ãâ\ rljfi,t\ ol Ítt,rEre 8ut -tsânb Jqr pue JIEIS )\rtrur:d aqr Jo âluâlopur Jrlt uej.{\ljg punor8 JIpplLU eqt,,)..:rdo.rd ;noue ârlou âp?lr^rlje tuul -nt9d EI tâ JIlIturJd let-j(p ejujlopul.l JJ]LTJ rìjrlnu âtsní un,, 'neassnoll tuo;3 SuDonb 'se frrltrloju Jr.{l IIEI,ltou ppo,r\ â.{\ leq.{\ sââs qlrll,!\ 'ljporu Jluasstuu?12x30s s(neâssnoì ;brpqer:edser ol ìreq 8ur:q or S]rr!Â\ c11 '(pc.rors ãre EuTLLI -non s(luu) JO sejpj s.oreld )JJrl,\\,irluno: Jqt pãjâ^ojsip seq âuo 8ur^us ãìi rlq E irurelr e) oatt ux t)enuoj I!IJOS Jqr puno-+ sel{ ãq rtqt ìulir,(1::ru tou sjop ssnerts-r^?-j o,'luasa.rd lou oje Íaqr qrrq.u ur uorlezrur8ro Itnos Jo ruroj E aur8rrur ol elqrssodur sr tr puc 'e-;q pnos Jo slerrjttru Jql ere,iaqt :peuretuteru 'i.rtruud (.reprrurd ur orunh pue) seues-re,\pr Jrâr-lt se 'suorteurr<r3,irr IXgI V NI A'Iì{O.AA:THI

18 THE.wORLD IN A TEXT iclatecl "forrner sat'agcs" spoiling the I'icu' arouncì São PaoÌo; thc diatribes about enìptv beer bottlcs ancl c-liscarded tin cans; and the itttcnse hatred for inclustrial cii'ilization that keeps breaking through: it is umeccssarv to rcquotc tlìem here. Wrat necds to be uotecl is that thet'conncct u'ith a distinctive strand in ninetcenth- and carh' t\\'entieth-cetrtun' reformist tl-rought-thc one perhaps bcst representcd in France br, Flaubert. in Gertnan)'b)'Nietzsche. ancl bv Arnold or Ruskin or Pater in Er-rgland; olìe that rcactcd to much of modcrn lifc lr'ith an cssentiallv acsthetic rcpugnance raisecl, or an\\\'av transportcd, to a lnoral level. Distaste trarìsmogriíìed. Just to shor'r' rhat this is a gcneral themc in Lór'i- Strauss, let mc quote fiom l-ris comn-ìel-ìts or-r Thircl-\lbrlcÌ cities, describing thcm as a u'holc. (Thc passage. revarllpcd and back-translatcd for Indian citics exprcttll', is in fact includcd in Tt istes Tropìques- tl-rough it is onc of the scctions omitted in thc Russcll translation): "Filth, pronriscr'ritr'. clisorcler, phvsical contact; ruins, shacks, cxcrements, mucì; boclr, moisture, animal droppings, urinc, puruìcncc, sccretions, suppuration-çv's11thing tlìat IEuropean] urban lifè is organized to defèr-rd us against, evervthing \\'e loathe, cr,erything \\'e protect oursclves fìon-r at great cost-all thcse $1'-products of co-habitation net'er herc lin the Third World] imposc a lirnit on lurban life's] spread. On thc contrar\', thcsc constitute thc natural setting the tou'n must Ìrave if it is to sun'ivc."12 And the crimc. of'course, is that it is u'e u'ho havc done this, u'hcther out of grecd and pétulnnte actittité or mcrc fits of absentmindedr-rcss and callousncs5-11's 11'ho lrave throu,n, as he sâ1's to-"tt'herc in Trìstes Tropiques, our Ì2I have beer.r unable to rccover the l-ér'i-strauss Pàssegc in English lt appears in \Veightman at P. Ió8; in thc origìnal at P. Il2. 40

19 It,\ta.!)tt'l ptru sítrt.ttç.r.r,r :Mrlru.rtt,t.!ts 0t,tstrqut.\s;;Ï, ti,lì'.ì lit:t!t!patl :ryqesnedsrpnr r\\olr Sr lãrlros wtp lsagaí01 sep urtuls s(pnrqrulì Jo,ie s ot pe.rup e,rrq rldoecì st 'uotlergtrs,itu go tu:xut-redap t -ro luré s.teod c lou sr lros slqtjo saruapuocìsarrol ro,] LÌlruãs eq; 'tq8re.t -rroqt s8uqaa-; prìe srlolol rrãrll r,\ìlq slllârs pue spllnos st lsnf 31as -lr ot rerlnlrd sjnlt,\ spq;rrecìg 'srutlt.iq:1t.rnteu sll Jo àjììtfr-ìjlstl JJLIIJ ulo{,il.rrayduro: sj,\lãsjlìo- elr:cltruerua ol ;e,.'rod Jno utqtl\\ lou sr li lcrll rziieãj plie )lujljâclxã uìltutìtì lno JO suolllpuoj enjl rrlt tdjde ()l rrd)q op pìnoqs ã \ 'suollelllrl pue s{+nqlr ãlqtletu -nuur JO lsol ãql le lo-t ã,\rjls â,\\ qjirì,\\ pultu o:)ìljcl E ol,\liseã -to prru,i1pmb pjuret]ì saydoed ã.\rlru.rrr(ì 'ru:rqt tsurc8e o3 ol qst.t rrjjporu,ìr-ìo ur JãqlEJ sjrt ssãlrpelu :ql lerrl:trd olttt,i1sno:ttttlntrr -rs lnd slldold :r,rttttuucj qlli,\\ tuopsl^\ urro,j t st -+o fuo os put 'slurjt a,rrtrlrpnb ur âurrl pur oeds rrs or] suortralrpc.td Jsãtll ojs I :llj,!\ se rroi]eisrrtjl 3.\I.ulls ol slulod snolle,\ lp q8nouj :rteqdue sr tr lng 'ssjrrpãrqâpul ãql sjojjitu qfns se aso.rd.lqt âjârl,!\ 'lxat q:ue;g Jrlt ut Jãs ol JJIsìlJ si sltlj 'EfrJJury qlnoç rrr gr.ujrllttr ü :J.tnllnl e,rrtrurucj ol s,\\jl\ a$qlqruís Jo uoll -errlddc ue,,'(,i1p:ru:r8 1.ro,t scssnejrs-i^j'i ut ol sn pjttâlt setl'tustlutnpnrqs 01. run1oquíg uto,tg',tprtts pena18:lu stq ur 'Uoog srurc{ r:rr:-; r) txal,(:u:el{ rsrloqu'is pulì e -+o lgart-l.t -qllrp arrnb pur 'st. sanbtdo,ta si$!4l',ipuy puc (quij...- i\jos -Lrãs sr r1 'plrrlod lou sr LUSrlElrpEr srfi 'p:r8o1olq rqr pue p:rs,iqd Jq] qtr,\\ rsn8srp -rrd:rap LrJ,\J ue Jo lìto JsIJ ol sluâãs tsn8srp pnos daap slssnerrs-r,\t-i 's.ul,ks rìil 'âlueu8nde: lnãrllsjt ueqr-papr:8ep r-rr,iaql retlr uttll pâ]eulruop -]o :.re aydoed IELII pjrjjo,r\ JJoru Jeqlúl si oq,\\ '3JIJES rrlo4 rulq srpr,\rp rtrlr s8urql rqt fo ãuo si q:tq,u-a8er alsxp,tlru +o (l)ejl sscl 'ls.rnqtno ue sr sanbdo4 sais!.,ú rsitujojjj E sv 'sjno ur ìreq tr,r\ojr-ll o1 spãâ:) -o;d,tou {:rf!lt 'p1.ro,tr âql Jo tsjj ãr{l sârej Jqr ui qrlg -}o IXSI Y NI CI-ÌXOA\ AHI

20 THE WORLD IN A TEXT to tl-ìe stuclent of languagc \r.'ho knou's the basis, not of the colour of nhenomena. for this varies u'ith each individual. but of thc relation rvhich unites one phenomenon to another anc-l compriscs a limitecl gamut of possi6ilities. These correspondences o1ìèr the scholar ú entirelr. ne* tcrrain, and one *,hich mar.still l-ra'e ricl'r vielcls to offer. If fish can make an aesrheric distinctior] bet$..cen smells in rcrms of light and dark. and bces classify the strcngth of light in tcrms of *'eight-clarkness is hearl to them, and bright tlght ügnt-just so sliould the u'ork of the painter, the poct. and the composer and the mvths and svmbols of prirnitive Mtrr-r appear to us: if not as a superior fbrm of krou'ledgc' rìt xll\' rate iìs thr' most fundamental fbrm of knou'lcdge, anc-l thc onh'onc that rve all have in cotnmon.ìa And he continues in the same vein. one u'hich by M!' thologiqwes ivill be a major theme. "Cities have ofìcn been likened to svmphonics and Poems; anci this comparison seems to me a perfèctlv natlìral onc: thet'are in fact objects of the same natllre... somcthing livcd and somcthing clreamed."'s (Apparentlv these are different cities than the pestilcnt oncs \\/c just sar.r'. furd, in fìct, this bit of lvricism is follorved bt, a criticism of' Braziliar-r to\\'ns) this time fbr being the results of "dccisions of... cngineers and financiers" rather than spontaneous grou'ths, like poems or s\rmphonies-unmelodic. ctut of tuner so to speak: n-rcchanical cacophonies procluced bt' tonc-clcaf "moderns.") Tl'rat Lér'i-StralÌss is concerncd to Place himself ancl his text in drê litcrarv tradition cstablished bv Baudelairc. Mallarmé, fumbaud, and-though, as far as I can cliscover. he ncver nìentions him tn Tt' ist e s Trop i qu e s-espcciallv.-p. roustr is clear from the r.vav he u'rites, from ivhat he rvritcs' and fiorn rvìrat he savs he is concernecl to do: decode, and, in decoding, recover thc por.ver to use the scnsuous imagcr,v of neolithic thought. Tt'istes Tropiques is, in one dimension, a r+russell. pp (\\'eightman, pp U3-.s+ì original. p. rzr). ÌsRusscll, p. rz7 (\\'eightnlan, p. I5+; original' p. Izz). Á1

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