1 Energy governance in a data-driven city: a political economy approach Post Crash City: Environments and Ecologies York 13 December 2013 Jenni Viitanen - University of Manchester Martine Tommis - Manchester City Council
2 IREEN Innovation Roadmap to Energy Efficient Neighbourhoods Aim: to deliver a comprehensive strategy & roadmap for European-scale innovation and take-up in ICT for energyefficiency in neighbourhoods Funding: Coordination Action by DG Connect (Directorate General for Communications Networks, Content and Technology) Partners:
3 Outline 1. Key concepts 2. Greater Manchester case study 3. Conclusions
4 1. Key concepts - outline Sustainable cities and the governance of climate change (Bulkeley) Carbon governance and communities (Walker) Eco-state restructuring and carbon control (While) Roll-back and roll-out neoliberalism (Peck and Tickell) Energy market reforms and efficiency (Eyre) ICTs and environmental sustainability in cities (Viitanen and Kingston)
5 Climate change and cities The urban turn and downloading of responsibilities From sustainability to carbon control The rise of the smart city high tech, low carbon
6 To save everything, click here (Evgeny Morozov)
7 The UK energy market reforms In pre-war Britain, nearly 2/3 of the electricity supply industry and 1/3 of gas supply used to be owned by large municipalities After WW2, global zeitgeist to nationalise key industries (inc. banking and utilities) Post-fordist state turns to neoliberal reforms: the wholesale privatisation and deregulation in 1990s (to encourage market efficiency ) Re-regulation to encourage e.g. demand side management and renewables
8 Meanwhile, in Sweden Large scale energy transition to renewables in the wake of the 1970s oil crisis National legislative framework, action led by municipalities The Nordic Welfare State model created an empowered local government.. But EC regulation is pushing for privatisation across the EU.
9 UK after 2008 The Climate Change Act 2008: an 80% reduction (1990 baseline) in UK greenhouse gases by Localism and decentralisation Institutional void after bonfire of quangos The rise of city-regions The City Deals and carbon governance Home Energy Conservation Act 1995 (updated version comes into force 2013)
10 2. Greater Manchester A curious case study
11 Greater Manchester the emergence of a local carbon city region GM Strategy: a low carbon economy City Deal and Low Carbon Hub GM Climate Change Strategy Implementation Plan outlines progress and sets deliverable aggregate targets for GM Climate Strategy low carbon economy by 2020, cut carbon emissions by 48% GM Energy Plan Connected low carbon energy generation and distribution infrastructure, 3.5 billion investment
12 The Low Carbon Hub Nevermind, Regime theory can explain whether local and extralocal stakeholders Low Carbon Hub Board have coalesced to form clearly recognizable GMCA environmental policy regimes and whether environmental policy decentralization activates preexisting development regimes that have operated locally to promote economic development (Gibbs and Jonas 2000) Government/ City Deal Industry/ private sector Local government and neighbourhoods Universities Local Enterprise Partnership, Chamber of Commerce etc
13 GM Energy Plan It s the economy, stupid GM spent over 5bn on energy in 2010 That is 11% of the region s GVA
14 Main challenges Effective implementation due to the relatively fragmented energy market in the UK (dominated by energy companies). Local authorities do not have powers and duties related to energy. Delivery happens via partnerships, the energy sector incumbents are protected by existing regulation; local government cannot enter the market.
15 What has data got to do with this? Decisions need to be based on evidence and their performance & impact monitored Transparency and understanding of energy performance, consumption and optimisation Digitisation of everything Policy development in strategically critical fields is the reserve of technocratic elites, think tanks, opinion formers, consultants and policy networks in neoliberal state regimes (Peck and Tickell 2002)
16 Building data-driven cities: from top down or bottom up? Top down management: Green Deal and ECO, smart meters and smart grid Bottom up innovations: Local energy eco systems and ecopreneurs Cathedrals vs bazaars (Raymond 1999)
17 Open data?
18 A lot of people used to have databases but it was one of the things that were cut due to the funding cuts. However, the new type of funding that is coming in [Green Deal and ECO] requires local authorities to have the data on stock to back up and justify schemes and expenditure. People really need the data to target it, so there s more interest now in collecting and using detailed data and analysis. The problem is they haven t got the data.
19 local authorities are supposed to be leading, but other people have the data. And even having to buy the EPC, it would cost 10k this year, and next year you d need it again. Then there s other data that we haven t even got access to at all. They re building something else, HEED, which is not available on an address basis to local authorities, and it makes it hard to target things on some vague ward based information, for example.
20 Conclusions In the UK, cities are asked to lead on energy transitions but they have no powers or governance capacities to do so Regulation is a major roadblock Data is central to the operation and planning of low carbon economies power relations are reflected in data governance and ownership Regional capacity and coordination is still relevant for neighbourhoods How should we enable bottom up change? Digitisation is a double-edged sword
21 Roadmap to energy efficiency neighourhoods? Regulation, regulation, regulation Open data, open standards Energy market, local government and innovators
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