1 Plant Physiol. (1991) 96, /91/96/1 93/6/$1./ Received for publication November 6, 199 Accepted March 9, 1991 Homeohydrous (Recalcitrant) Seeds: Dehydration, the State of Water and Viability Characteristics in Landoiphia kirkii N. W. Pammenter, Christina W. Vertucci*, and Patricia Berjak Plant Cell Biology Research Group, Department of Biology, University of Natal, Durban, 41 South Africa (N. W.P., P.B.); and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Seed Storage Laboratory, Fort Collins, Colorado 8523 (C. W.V.) ABSTRACT Differential scanning calorimetry was used to study the relationships among drying rate, desiccation sensitivity, and the properties of water in homeohydrous (recalcitrant) seeds of Landolphia kirkw. Slow drying of intact seeds to axis moisture contents of approximately.9 to.7 gram/gram caused lethal damage, whereas very rapid (flash) drying of excised embryonic axes permitted removal of water to approximately.3 gram/gram. The amount of nonfreeable water in embryonic axes (.28 gram H2/ gram dry mass) did not change with drying rate and was similar to that of desiccation-tolerant seeds. These results suggest that the amount of nonfreeable water per se is not an important factor in desiccation sensitivity. However, flash drying that removed all freeable water damaged embryonic axes. Differences between desiccation-sensitive and -tolerant seeds occur at two levels: (a) tolerant seeds naturally lose freeable water, and sensitive seeds can lose this water without obvious damage only if it is removed very rapidly; (b) tolerant seeds can withstand the loss of a substantial proportion of nonfreeable water, whereas sensitive seeds are damaged if nonfreeable water is removed. In this paper, we address (a) to what extent drying rate can affect the minimum moisture content that homeohydric tissues can survive, (b) whether the rate of water removal affects the thermal properties of water remaining in the tissues, and (c) whether there is a correlation between the thermal properties of water and expression of desiccation sensitivity. If desiccation tolerance is related to the ability of tissue to lose "bound" water without the denaturation of macromolecules, there may be differences in the thermal characteristics of water in axes of homeohydrous seeds flash dried and those dried more slowly. The relationships among dehydration rate, desiccation tolerance, and the state of water were studied using embryonic axes ofthe homeohydric seeds oflandolphia kirkii Dyer. This species is a viny shrub native to Moambique and the inland region of northeastern South Africa. Its large (approximately 1.5 g) endospermic seeds are typical of many other seeds from tropical species in that they are intolerant to chilling and desiccation, the embryonic axis is fully developed when it sheds, and there are no tendencies toward dormancy. If maintained at their original water content, the seed will lose viability in approximately 1 month. Desiccation tolerance of organisms involves, inter alia, the MATERIALS AND METHODS ability to withstand loss of water sorbed to macromolecular structures, particularly the surfaces of membranes, without Seed Collection and Transport irreversible denaturation (3, 4). A current theory, the "water replacement hypothesis," suggests that, in desiccation-tolerant The details of collection and transport of recalcitrant seeds tissues, water closely associated with macromolecular surfaces for experimental use may materially affect results (2). For can be replaced by polyhydroxyl compounds that stabilie the these experiments, intact mature fruits of Landolphia kirkii macromolecules as water is withdrawn (3, 4). This hypothesis were hand harvested in the field and transported, within 48 h implies that such water replacement does not occur in desiccation-sensitive tissue. The fruits are hard coated and contain 15 to 3 seeds to which of collection, in plastic bags by road to Durban, South Africa. Recalcitrant, or "homeohydric" (1), seeds are shed when the sticky fruit pulp adheres. The seeds lose virtually no water the water content is high and when they are desiccation in the intact fruit. On receipt, seeds were removed from the intolerant. A model describing homeohydric seed behavior fruit, cleaned by rubbing with paper towels, briefly surface suggests that the more rapid the rate ofdehydration, the lower sterilied with 1% bleach, dusted with a fungicidal powder, the water content the seeds can tolerate (6). Both experimental and sealed in plastic bags. They were then immediately air (5) and observational (8) evidence support this. Most homeohydric seeds are too large to be dried quickly, but if embry- laboratory in Fort Collins, CO, where they were stored in the freighted in the temperature/pressure-controlled hold to the onic axes are excised, they can be dried rapidly. Isolated axes plastic bags at 25C. The time lag between removal of the subjected to this "flash" drying retain viability to a much seeds from the fruits and receipt in Fort Collins was 5 to 7 d lower water content than axes in intact seeds dried more and between receipt and initiation of experiments never more slowly over silica gels (1). than 7 d. 193
2 1 94 PAMMENTER ET AL. Plant Physiol. Vol. 96, 1991 Drying Treatments Rapid (flash) drying was achieved by passing air at room temperature (approximately 22C) at 9 L/min through four fish-tank air diffusers in parallel evenly spaced on the bottom of a plastic box 1 cm long, 1 cm wide, and 4 cm deep. Excised embryonic axes were placed on a fine-mesh nylon supported 2 cm above the air stones and removed after the required drying time. Axes that were used in subsequent tissue culture were briefly surface sterilied before flash drying. For slow drying, intact seeds were stored in a monolayer 7 cm above a 2-cm deep layer of activated silica gel in a sealed container. The silica gel was replaced when it began to lose the deep blue color of the indicator. Water contents were determined gravimetrically on isolated axes (both flash and slow dried) by enclosing them in aluminum DSC' volatile sample pans, puncturing the lids and heating at 9'C for 24 h. Water contents are expressed as g H2/g dry mass. Viability Assessment Viability of flash-dried axes was assessed by embryo culture. The culture medium was that formulated by Normah et al. (1) for Hevea brasiliensis. A surviving axis expanded, greened, and developed roots in 2 to 4 weeks. Axes that were necrotic or showed no development after 2 to 3 months were scored as nonsurviving. Whole seeds that had been dried over silica gel were set out to germinate in damp vermiculite. In most cases, the germination assay was complete within 2 weeks, by which time radicles of surviving seeds had extended at least 2 cm, and seeds that did not germinate had severe microbial infestation and were mushy. The degree of dehydration damage was also assessed by measuring the rate of leakage of electrolytes from individual axes (11) using a conductivity meter (ASAC-I seed analyer, Neogen Corp.). Conductivity of the soaking water was measured at 5-min intervals for the initial 4 min of soaking. Leakage rate was determined from a linear regression of the leakage on time data. Calorimetry Thermal transitions of water freeing and melting were measured using a Perkin Elmer DSC-4 or DSC-7 with tem- ' Abbreviations: DSC, differential scanning calorimetry; g/g, g H2/g dry mass. peratures calibrated between -95 and 1 56C using methylene chloride and indium standards. Axes dried for different times were sealed in aluminum sample pans and were cooled at 1'C/min to -7'C and then heated at 1'C/min to 2TC. The energy of a thermal transition was determined from the area ofthe peak above or below the baseline. After the thermal transitions were recorded, the pans were punctured and dry weights and water contents determined as described above. Transition enthalpies expressed per unit dry weight of the sample were plotted against sample water content, the intercept on the abscissa giving the water content at which water is nonfreeable under the conditions used here. The temperature of the transitions was determined as the intersection between a line drawn tangential to the steepest part of the peak and the baseline (the onset temperature). RESULTS Flash drying and drying over silica gel resulted in considerably different drying rates (Fig. 1). Within 3 min, flash drying reduced embryonic axis water content from approximately 1.5 to approximately.32 g/g, after which further water loss was slow. It took 3 d of drying intact seeds over silica gel to reduce axis water content to a similar level. The moisture contents at which at least 8% survival was maintained differed for the two drying regimens (Fig. 2). Flash-dried axes showed a decline in survival in culture only after water content had been reduced to <.32 g/g. Seeds dried over silica gel showed only 3% germination at a water content of.75 g/g. Leakage of electrolytes from isolated axes substantiated these observations (Fig. 3). There was a marked increase in leakage rate, indicative of substantial subcellular damage, from flash-dried axes only at water contents of approximately.4 to.3 g/g, and a similar increase in leakage rate was observed from axes of seeds dried over silica gel at.9 to.7 g/g water content. DSC thermograms were used to study some thermal characteristics of water in tissues at different hydration levels (Fig. 4). Although both cooling behavior and heating behavior were measured, only heating thermograms are presented in Figure 4 because the freeing exotherms were usually single sharp peaks that could be described by onset temperature and energy of melt. Tissues at high water contents showed a broad endothermic peak, presumably from melting of ice. Often, a sharp peak centered around C was superimposed on the broad peak. The sharp peak was always present at water contents >.7 g/g but was not observed at water contents g 1.8, I v I A FLASH DRIED B SILICA GEL DRIED Figure 1. Drying time course for embryonic axes of L. kirkii. A, Isolated axes flash dried; B, axes dried in intact seeds stored over silica gels. Note the different time scales for A and B. I 1.2- I-- w.6- a 2 4 TIME (min) * U r n a a I $: IU i < 1- I i TIME (days) 6
3 HOMEOHYDROUS SEEDS: DEHYDRATION, STATE OF WATER, VIABILITY 1 95, 241- o A - FLASH DRIED A9, -J 5 C,) ! - 61 w CD U 24;- B - SILICA GEL DRIED 181- ~~ ~~~~~~*+ 61 *.. $ : n 1r I a I I I Figure 2. Response of desiccation sensitivity of embryonic axes of L. kirkii to drying rate. A, Flash-dried isolated axes; B, axes slowly dried in intact seeds stored over silica gels. 1.6 Figure 3. Rate of electrolyte leakage from embryonic axes of L. kirkil dried at different rates. A, Flash-dried isolated axes; B, axes slowly dried in intact seeds stored over silica gels. <.5 g/g. Neither freeing nor melting transitions were apparent at water contents below approximately.37 and.28 g/g, respectively. Essentially the same patterns were observed for flash-dried axes and axes from seeds dried over silica gel. The onset temperature of the freee (Fig. 5A) occurred between -15 and -55C. At moisture contents between 1.6 and.8 g/g, the onset temperature declined slightly with decreasing water content, as would be expected for a dilute solution of increasing concentration. At water contents <.8 g/g, the onset temperature of the freee declined sharply with decreasing water content. A similar trend was observed for the onset temperature of the broad endothermic peak observed during heating (Fig. SB). However, the onset temperature of the sharp peak did not change with water content. At water contents <1.2 g/g, the enthalpies of the melting and freeing transitions were linearly related to axis water content (Fig. 6). For both transitions, the results from flashdried axes and axes from seeds dried over silica gel were similar (the enthalpy of the melt in axes from seeds dried over silica gel was slightly lower; Table I). The intercepts of the plots on the abscissae give the water contents at which freeable water is no longer present. These values for the melting and freeing transitions were.28 and.37, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the drying treatments. la E cr1 w ga- - w TEMPERATURE (C) Figure 4. Heating DSC thermograms of isolated axes of L. kirkii flash dried for varying times. The figures above each curve give the axis water content. Similar thermograms were obtained from axes that had been slowly dried in intact seeds stored over silica gels.
4 1 96 PAMMENTER ET AL. Plant Physiol. Vol. 96, in -2-3 wj -4 < 11 g -5 w M a- w ' -1' -2' -3' I. o Je% ~ * O s SHARP PEAK * f*i' BROAD PEAK I Figure 5. Temperatures of the onset of the (A) freeing and (B) melting transitions in thermograms of axes of L. kirkii of different water contents. *, isolated axes that were flash dried; O, axes slowly dried in intact seeds stored over silica gels. DISCUSSION A-COOLING B- HEATING We investigated the relationships among rate of drying, dehydration tolerance, and the properties of water in desiccation-sensitive seeds of L. kirkii. The seed material dried at the two rates used in this study showed considerable differences in desiccation sensitivity. Isolated axes were flash dried to water contents of approximately.3 g/g before viability, as assessed by growth on culture medium, declined (Fig. 2) or electrolyte leakage increased markedly (Fig. 3). Loss in viability and increase in electrolyte leakage was observed in seeds dried over silica gel to an axes water content of approximately.75 g/g. From the DSC analyses we can distinguish at least three types of water in the axes of these seeds (Fig. 4): (a) water associated with the sharp peak in melting transitions in axes with moisture contents >.5 g/g, (b) water associated with the broad peak in melting transitions in axes with moisture contents >.3 g/g), and (c) water giving no observable transition in axes with moisture contents <.28 g/g. This last type of water is considered nonfreeable, given the cooling and heating protocols of this experiment. As can be seen from the drying kinetics (Fig. 1), nonfreeable water is not readily lost during either flash drying or dehydration over silica gels. In addition to the three types of water mentioned, there is a discrepancy between the amount of nonfreeable water calculated from freeing and melting transitions. Although this difference may be a result of energy dissipation during an exothermic event (and not measured in a heat-compensated DSC), it also may be relevant to the expression of freeing injury, as has been suggested for orthodox seeds ( 12). Based on measurements of heat capacity and characteristics of water transitions, Vertucci (12) identified five types of water in cotyledons of soybean and pea seeds. There are similarities between the types of water identified in those desiccation-tolerant seeds and in the desiccation-sensitive seeds described here. The water content at which water is nonfreeable and the temperatures of the freee and melt are comparable in the two tissue types. However, the energies of the freee and melt (calculated as the slope of the lines in Fig. 6) are different between the two tissue types. In addition, although the sharp peak was sometimes apparent in the hydrated pea cotyledon, it was a far more prominent feature in the warming thermograms of L. kirkii. Current hypotheses suggest that the level of desiccation tolerance of organisms is related to the amount of bound water present. Three hypotheses have been presented: (a) Desiccation-tolerant organisms have the capacity to substitute sugars or other low mol wt solutes for water on membranes and other structural elements, thereby providing the hydrophilic interactions required for structural stability (3, 4). Because water would be replaced, desiccation-tolerant organisms would have less measurable bound water when in the desiccated state. (b) Desiccation-sensitive organisms have a high ) 2 A - COOLING I- UB - HEATING I 2. :21 U ~ Figure 6. Enthalpies of the (A) freeing and (B) melting transitions as a function of water content in axes of L. kirki. *, isolated axes that were flash dried; O, axes slowly dried in intact seeds stored over silica gels. Lines are the least squares fit of data from flash-dried axes.
5 HOMEOHYDROUS SEEDS: DEHYDRATION, STATE OF WATER, VIABILITY 197 Table I. Parameters Derived from the Plots of Transition Enthalpies versus Water Contents (Fig. 6) Treatment Melt Slope X Intercept Freee Slope X Intercept J/g H2 g/g J/g H2 9/9 Flash dried Silica gel dried degree of subcellular and metabolic structure that can be maintained only at relatively high water contents, implying a high proportion ofbound water (7). (c) Desiccation-intolerant organisms lack the capacity to tightly bind water (13). If the level of nonfreeable water measured here is related to the amount of water associated with macromolecular surfaces, the three hypotheses predict the levels of nonfreeable water that might be expected in desiccation-tolerant and -sensitive organisms. The sensitivity of L. kirkii axes to desiccation differed with drying regimen, and yet the drying treatments had no effect on either the types of water present or the water contents at which the different types could be detected. The water contents at which the melting and freeing transitions become apparent in soybean and pea seed tissue (.22 and.33;.24 and.35 g/g, respectively ) are similar to the water contents at which these transitions become apparent in L. kirkii (.28 and.37 g/g). These data suggest that the desiccation tolerance of seed tissue may not be related to the amount of nonfreeable water. We propose the following relationships among water content, types of water, desiccation sensitivity, and dehydration rate in homeohydric seeds: (a) Homeohydric seeds are normally shed at water contents in excess of.8 g/g and can withstand the loss of water to approximately this level. Water in tissues at this moisture content or greater has three components to the melting endotherm: a sharp peak with onset temperature of C, a broad peak with onset temperature of approximately -8C, and a portion that does not exhibit a peak. (b) When dried slowly, homeohydric seeds do not withstand the loss of water between.8 and.28 g/g without some damage. However, when dried rapidly (flash drying of excised axes), loss of this water can be tolerated, at least in the short term. This is unlikely to be a result of an inherent desiccation tolerance but because water content is reduced to levels inhibiting both metabolic and degenerative processes before these can occur (2). Desiccation-tolerant seeds normally lose this water in an organied manner during maturation drying. Some water in tissues at this moisture level is observed to melt, although the temperature of the transition decreases from -8 to -38 with decreasing moisture content. (c) Loss of nonfreeable water from axes of homeohydric seeds, i.e. that present below.28 g/g, cannot be tolerated, even if it is removed very rapidly. Vertucci (12) established that the moisture content at which water is not observed to freee under the given protocols corresponds to a relative humidity of approximately 92% (equivalent to water potential of MPa). This is similar to the water potential at which mitochondrial electron transport is facilitated (14) and at which membranes are believed to undergo conformational changes (9, 15). We suggest that the removal of nonfreeable water from homeohydrous tissue results in the loss of structural integrity of cell components. However, a substantial proportion of this water is normally lost during maturation drying of desiccation-tolerant seeds without the concomitant loss of integrity. In conclusion, there are several types of water associated with desiccation-sensitive seeds that bear some correspondence to the types of water found in desiccation-tolerant seeds. The proportion of nonfreeable water does not appear to be critical in terms of desiccation tolerance; rather, it is the differing responses to removal of this type of water that distinguishes between desiccation-tolerant and -intolerant seeds. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank George White from the Germplasm Services Laboratory (Agriculture Research Service, Beltsville, MD) for helping us import the seed materials. We would also like to express our gratitude to those at the University of Natal (Durban, South Africa) who collected, prepared, and shipped the materials and who also offered expertise via phone and fax on how to handle materials after they arrived in Fort Collins. Thanks are also due to those at the National Seed Storage Laboratory (Fort Collins, CO) for assistance, particularly with the tissue culture. LITERATURE CITED 1. Berjak P, Farrant JM, Mycock DJ Pammenter NW (199) Recalcitrant (homoiohydrous seeds: the enigma of their desiccation-sensitivity. Seed Sci Technol 18: Berjak P, Farrant JM, Pammenter NW (199) The basis of recalcitrant seed behaviour. Cell biology ofthe homoiohydrous seed condition. In RB Taylorson, ed, Recent Advances in the Development and Germination of Seeds. Plenum Press, New York, pp Clegg JS (1986) The physical properties and metabolic status of Artemia cysts at low water contents: the water-replacement hypothesis. In AC Leopold, ed, Membranes, Metabolism and Dry Organisms. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, pp Crowe JH, Crowe LM (1986) Stabiliation of membranes in anhydrobiotic organisms. In AC Leopold, ed, Membranes, Metabolism and Dry Organisms. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, pp Farrant JM, Berjak P, Pammenter NW (1985) The effect of drying rate on viability retention of recalcitrant propagules of Avicennia marina. S Afr J Bot 51: Farrant JM, Pammenter NW, Berjak P (1986) The increasing desiccation sensitivity of recalcitrant Avicennia marina seeds with storage time. Physiol Plant 67: Farrant JM, Pammenter NW, Berjak P (1988) Recalcitrancea current assessment. Seed Sci Technol 16: Farrant JM, Pammenter NW, Berjak P (1989) Germination associated events and the desiccation sensitivity of recalcitrant seeds: a study on three unrelated species. Planta 178:
6 198 PAMMENTER ET AL. Plant Physiol. Vol. 96, Lis LJ, McAlister M, Fuller N, Rand RP, Parsegian VA (1982) Interactions between neutral phospholipid bilayer membranes. Biophys J 37: Normah MN, Chin HF, Hor YL (1986/7) Desiccation and cryopreservation of embryonic axes of Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. Pertanika 9: Vertucci CW (1989) Relationship between thermal transitions and freeing injury in pea and soybean seeds. Plant Physiol 9: Vertucci CW (199) Calorimetric studies on the state of water in seed tissues. Biophys J 58: Vertucci CW, Leopold AC (1987) The relationship between water binding and desiccation tolerance in tissues. Plant Physiol 85: Vertucci CW, Roos EE (199) Theoretical basis of protocols for seed storage. Plant Physiol 94: Wolfe J (1987) Lateral stresses in membranes at low water potential. Aust J Plant Physiol 14:
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. Objectives Activity 12 To model the process of cooling To use a cooling curve to simulate a forensic scenario to predict the time of death To use technology to find an exponential plot Materials TI-83
Institute For Thermal Processing Specialists NOMENCLATURE FOR STUDIES IN THERMAL PROCESSING Various symbols have been employed to represent measured and derived variables in the applications of thermal
Tree Physiology 23, 1147 1152 2003 Heron Publishing Victoria, Canada Effects of desiccation on the physiology and biochemistry of Quercus alba acorns KRISTINA F. CONNOR 1,2 and SHARON SOWA 3 1 USDA Forest
Dilution: a process in which the concentration (molarity) of a solution is lowered. The amount of solute (atoms, moles, grams, etc.) remains the same, but the volume is increased by adding more solvent.
J Therm Anal Calorim DOI 10.1007/s10973-011-1760-x Building materials thermal conductivity measurement and correlation with heat flow meter, laser flash analysis and TCi Junghoon Cha Jungki Seo Sumin Kim
EXPERIMENT 4: Separation of a Mixture of Solids Read the entire experiment and organize time, materials, and work space before beginning. Remember to review the safety sections and wear goggles when appropriate.
Naue GmbH&Co.KG Quality Control and Quality Assurance Manual For Geomembranes July 2004 V.O TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Quality Assurance and Control 2.1 General 2.2 Quality management acc. to
Name: Chemistry 117 Laboratory University of Massachusetts Boston HEATS OF REACTION LEARNING GOALS 1. Become familiar the technique of calorimetry to measure heats of reaction 2. Become familiar with the
Quick guide: using CTE security straws for cryopreservation of pronuclear stages, embryos and sperm 1. How to prepare straws for pronuclear stages and embryos (use straws with plug, 66.5 mm) Straws are
Unit 27 Heat of Neutralization Calorimetry When reactions occur, energy is always involved. Reactions that absorb energy are called "endothermic" reactions. Reactions that give off energy are called "exothermic"
Experiment: Heat Effects and Calorimetry Heat is a form of energy, sometimes called thermal energy, which can pass spontaneously from an object at a high temperature to an object at a lower temperature.
Lecture No. 3 Moisture content and loss on ignition: The moisture content of raw materials is a very important consideration as it varies between wide limits in the same materials owing to such factors