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1 The emergence of MOOC's: implications for Public Administration Teaching Professor Alex Murdock, Head of Centre of Government and Charity Management,, London South Bank University With Milo Crummie, Head of Management Dept, Business School, London South bank University Contact address and lead author : Abstract Comments are welcome this is a conference draft In a NY Times article 2012 was described as the year of the MOOC. (Pappano 2012). The growth of Massive Online Open access Courses has been a factor in Higher Education in the USA from sometime with leading US Universities such as Stanford and MIT putting much of their teaching online. An experienced practitioner of online education supported the view of the NY Times whilst cautioning that it was still early days for this new format (Kirshner 2012) The speed of development in this new format is however remarkable. Duke University demonstrated that it was possible to develop and launch a first MOOC within three months. This time frame would be challenging for a classroom based course in most university settings (Belanger & Thornton 2013). The growth has led to speculation that they represent a campus tsunami (Dennis 2012) and also suggestions that their value and impact may be overstated. (Boyatt et al 2013) This paper will first explore the nature and characteristics of this phenomena (Gose 2012, Zilinksi 2013). The growth in the USA has recently been reflected in a consortium of UK universities which have been formed to enter the arena. 1 Though there is evidence on considerable development of MOOC s for a range of academic and vocational courses currently there appears little tangible evidence that they have become established in management and in particular in public and not for profit management courses. However distance learning is well established in the management area with providers such as the UK Open University and Heriot Watt University in the MBA market and various providers in the USA. There is also evidence of some MPA developments in Denmark which appear to have an element of self managed learning. This leads to questions as to how MOOC s may function in the public and not for profit management arena. The Bill and Melinda Gates foundation have been exploring the use of such programmes for disadvantaged students and potentially a MOOC may enable educational transfer to less developed countries where public management education would be unattainable without major international ( viz World Bank) investment. There is also suggestions in the literature that MOOC s are being used as a means to promote the academic institution and its programmes - a form 1 See accessed 14 May

2 of test drive experience. In some cases it is seen as a way of maximising the use of star professors but with a minimal outlay of their actual teaching hours (Kolowich 2013). The programmes are not seen as conferring ( at least to any major extent) a university qualification but some see the potential to derive an income stream from the user data. (Young 2012). There is also the potential of MOOC s to serve as initial preparation of students who may move on to qualification programmes ( in much the way that preliminary pre course reading lists have traditionally been used). This could involve aspects of pre course assessment. (Goldschmidt & Greene-Ryan 2013), ( Yin & Kawachi,2013). These factors potentially open up possibilities for MOOC s for public and not for profit HE providers. The lack of a direct income stream may be offset by the potential to promote the provider to a wider range of (fee paying) potential students and may also generate cost savings through pre course preparation for students who join a qualification course. They also might enable the more efficient use of scarce staff resources especially where there are issues of geographic distance. 2

3 Introduction In a NY Times article 2012 was described as the year of the MOOC. (Pappano 2012). The growth of Massive Online Open access Courses (MOOC) has been a factor in Higher Education in the USA from sometime with leading US Universities such as Stanford and MIT putting much of their teaching online. An experienced practitioner of online education supported the view of the NY Times whilst cautioning that it was still early days for this new format (Kirshner 2012). This paper explores the nature of MOOC s and describes what they are and how they sit within the broader context of education. The paper will then go on to explore the history of how they have come about and the ways in which they relate to distance and blended learning. The forms taken by MOOC s will be identified and the various variations will be explored. The paper will utilise recent national reports from the USA and the UK (Universities UK 2013a and 2013b, Allen & Seaman 2013). The paper will then identify the extent to which the model is significant in the development of public and not for profit educational programmes. The question will be posed as to whether these programmes are significantly difference and hence less or more amenable to this form of education. The paper will explore the general advantages and disadvantages of this form of education and examining the nature of public and not for profit management education will assess the extent to which the MOOC has relevance for these programmes. Taking into consideration the possibilities and need for innovation to what extent might the MOOC format be adapted for public administration and not for profit management programmes? Finally the paper will examine the implications for providers of public and not for profit management education. There are pedagogical implications of an inverted pyramid whereby the lecture and broad dissemination of knowledge becomes virtual but the interaction between students as self-learners using social media becomes more important. The Development of the MOOC The concept of online or distant education has a long history and indeed the MOOC can be seen as not necessarily an original innovation but rather as the continuation of educational development keeping pace with technological development. It is in some respects a proxy for the evolution of communication. As the face to face communication and then hand written copies of manuscripts preceded the print book which in turn saw the evolution of electronic media so education saw the development of the direct lecture or face to face delivery of knowledge overtaken by print and electronic media. Distance learning in its original form was probably shaped by the emergence of a regular and economic postal service. This enabled students to both receive learning material without direct attendance at an educational institution and to also respond 3

4 through providing written assignments to demonstrate their understanding of the knowledge thus acquired. This form of learning is still very much present enabling students in situations where geographic separation is a major factor and where there is no availability of other forms of communication or the cost is prohibitive. In Australia the long distances and often low population density meant that school education through correspondence course has a history dating back to 1914 (Rumble, 1989). In places such as Africa such correspondence based programmes saw considerable growth from the 1960 s and still represent a key means of education provision. Though specifically orientated providers such as the Rapid Results College figure in this form of postal provision it is also offered by leading university providers such as Cambridge and London Universities. ( Ojo and Olakulehin 2006). Thus the apocryphal letter to the Charles Atlas Bodybuilding Correspondence course from a customer inquiring when they will receive their muscles does not obscure the reality that this form of distance learning has a wellestablished and reputable heritage. The evolution of radio communication enabled education to become more interactive and particularly in countries like Australia this quickly became incorporated into educational provision (Keegan 1980). Australian Universities possibly were able to develop their distance learning expertise as a consequence of this and in 1996 major Ambulance provider in the UK contracted out paramedic training to Charles Sturt University in Australia university which was able to offer this on a distance learning basis. 2 The notion that professional training in emergency medicine can be provided via the internet possibly came as a surprise to the UK universities which had been offering attendance only programmes. Laurie Caple, the CEO, of the Northumbria Ambulance service commented in his subsequent autobiography that he had approached local UK universities they had expressed no interest in running courses for ambulance drivers. He noted that the time differences between the UK and Australia actually represented an advantage as when the UK students were accessing materials was typically late at night when Australian University staff would be at their desks and able to respond almost immediately to academic queries from students. 3 No discussion of the background of distance learning can ignore the importance of the UK Open University. Whilst this represented traditional registration of students for courses ( with an attendant fee structure) the reality of the Open University was of open access through the TV broadcast network to all who wished to engage with the broadcast aspects. Typically these programmes would often be broadcast in the late night or early morning slots when commercial programmes found a minimal audience. Perhaps in some ways this is reminiscent of the open lecture format which was found in many universities whereby lectures were open to all regardless of student status or university affiliation. This model is still found in some 2 See Accessed 20 Aug Google e-book:- Lawrence Caple (2004) From Ambulances to Almonds Trafford Publishing, Health & Fitness pages 4

5 Universities where physical access is not restricted ( often through the means of swipe card technology an irony of technological evolution?) The most significant communication evolution in distance learning which probably presaged the MOOC in its current forms is the development of the internet. This has enabled a variety of print, oral and visual communication to take place and thus for students to communicate in groups and with each other. In a recent review of online Educational Delivery Models Hill provided a rather complex but nevertheless informative diagram ( Exhibit 1). Hill suggests in the diagram that there are two dimensions of course design and course delivery. (Hill 2012:86 ) Perhaps of equal significance is Hill s assertion that public discussion has become in a false dichotomy between traditional and online which ignores the blended or hybrid approaches. We will return to this later in the paper. (Hill op cit). However at this point it is worth noting the complexity of models depicted by Hill. The implication is that MOOC s sit in a diverse environment with possibly porous or ill-defined boundaries. Figure 1 ABOUT HERE Hill identifies ( writing from a US perspective) the MOOC as evolving in with open online courses taught at Utah State University and Regina University. The 5

6 term was first used to refer to a Connectivism and Common Knowledge course. 4 Brown asserts that the first true MOOC was at the University of Manitoba organised by Stephen Downes and George Siemens in 2008 which attracted 2,200 participants. (Brown 2013) The background of MOOC s is not simply through the concept of technological evolution though. They can also be seen as part of an evolutionary chain which enables education to be opened up to those who are neither able to directly engage in the traditional classroom form of attendance nor able to afford the fees which are expected from attending students or perhaps may not meet the formal entry requirements. A perhaps rather sweeping statement in a recent UK rport distinguishes them from conventional online distance programmes by the absence or highly limited nature of personalised academic support and guidance for students (Universities UK 2013a: 6) Three key Issues around MOOCs Completion rate The key criticisms of MOOC s is that the large headline numbers of students who express an interest shakes down to a very small proportion who actually complete. Brown (2013) notes that accurate data is hard to ascertain and most have completion rates of lwess than 10% (Kolowich 2013). As most the MOOC s are relatively short cycle courses ( typically a module of a course) then the completion rates of a student seeking to complete a full degree via this route would be commensurately even smaller. However the large numbers ( and the relatively low additional cost from higher numbers) has also to be factored in. If just 1% of an initial cohort of 100,000 students complete that still represents 100 students. Assuming a completion rate of 50% for classroom based students that would be the equivalent of recruiting (and teaching) 200 students for a class based provision. Scaleability There is a significant misconception about the reduced staff cost associated with online learning. A long standing monitoring exercise in the USA has strongly suggested this is not necessarily the case. (Allen& Seaman 2013). The authors using a major survey over 10 year report that: The theory was that faculty could teachfar more students by taking advantage of the new technology. However before the advent of MOOCs the prototypical online course in the US higher education over the past decade has not been structured to provide large increases in efficiency. Most online courses are very similar in design to existing face to face courses. ( Allen and Seaman 2013:22) 4 Downes, S. (2012). The rise of MOOCs. Stephen s Web. Accessed 10 Aug 2013 but link uncertain 6

7 Allen and Seaman found that over 6 years (from ) the views of academic leader had strengthened (from 40.7% to 44.6%) that it required MORE faculty time to teach an online course than a face to face course. This US finding is disturbing to any institution contemplating moving to online learning as a efficiency target. It also implies that academics are creatures of habit and sek perhaps to simply reproduce the practices of face to face teaching in an online context. Possibly an academic equivalent of pushing a newly acquired bicycle instead of riding it as walking is the accustomed means of locomotion? Commercial viability The affordability of MOOC s has been raised. If the material is made freely available ( a sort of academic freeware) then the issue of most web based provision becomes relevant. How can you recover the set up and operational cost from something which is provided for free? If you are going to charge then will that simply cause the customer base to disappear overnight? How can charges be applied to students who are located in far flung parts of the world where there is no easy means to transfer cash? Brown (2013) suggested the following alternative business models:- 1. Free and open to all but not for academic credit 2. Free but additional support on a fee basis 3. Free but pay for certification 4. Free tuition but pay for exams 5. Fee paying when part of a larger fee paying programme 6. Not for credit but can be counted as accredited prior learning when leaner applies for fee paying course Allen and Seaman (2013) have suggested that only the larger and better resourced institutions in the USA are able to launch and sustain significant online courses. There is the possibility of a range of models to generate income..drawn significantly from other on line provision such as and social media. A base level service is provided for free but if the user wants more then they have to pay for it. In effect the free offer pulls the customer through the door (metaphorically) and enables the institution to gain income through selling other aspect of the product. There is also a view that MOOCs and online open provision are in effect a form of advertising of the institution or the development of higher brand recognition. For internationally driven universities this could be a critical factor as online provision enables the university to reach students all over the world. In a highly competitive setting even the top ranked universities may regard MOOC s as a cost effective form of promoting their image and showcasing their product. 7

8 Forms taken by MOOC s The literature has identified two basic forms of MOOC which have been designated by authers and researchers as cmooc and xmooc. The difference between the two lies in the educational approach and the way they are organised. The Universities UK (2013a) report referred to previously differentiates them as follows (UniversitiesUK 2013a :6) cmooc These are courses based more closely on the original connectivist distributed peer learning model. Courses are usually developed by academics through open source web platforms. xmooc These are courses typically structured around more conventional lecture formats and are increasingly delivered through proprietary learning management platforms with contractual relationships with institutions and academics. It is suggested that the latter format is tending to dominate in particular because they are seen to possess a more monetarisable form. However the two forms ( following Hill 2012) are increasingly seen as having blurred boundaries with hybrid forms emerging. MOOC s have developed rapidly since 2008 and there are a number of US and UK consortiums and providers which will be now outlined in turn: Coursera This was founded by Stanford University and launched in It has about 3 million registered users (March 2013) and has partnerships with some 69 universities including universities in Europe. It offers over 300 courses with the largest number in computer science but including 23 Business and Management courses Its strategy is to develop through non exclusive and flexible partnership agreements with high ranking universities. The quality review is not centralised and it is expanding quickly with programmes in French and Spanish The finance comes from Venture Capital and amounts to some $22Million with equity investment from some university partners. There is an income/profit share model and the partners can access the course portfolio for internal courses at no charge Certificates for completion can be awarded and there are monitored examinations in association with a private partner. It is developing online and validated assessment 8

9 edx The platform was founded by Harvard and MIT and the first courses started in Oct It has 12 members in a consortium including European universities. It currently offers some 33 courses in a range of subject including social sciences, law and health. It has seen a somewhat slow level of course development with (as with Coursera) the focus being on high reputation research intensive universities. There is a centralised quality control and Harvard and MIT exercise governing board control. However there is flexibility for individual partners to develop courses outside the core brand. There is a focus on learning innovation and integration with on campus delivery. The business model is a not-for-profit enterprise owned and funded by MIT and Harvard with $60 Million investment. There is additional trust support ( Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation). There are options for partner equity investment with different mechanisms for revenue sharing. There are certificate of completion with monitored examinations using the same private partner as Coursera Future learn This platform is set up by the UK Open University with partnerships with 21 UK universities and also including major not for profits such as the British Library, the British Council and the British Museum which offer access to digitised resources. The aim is to engage learner in a flexible and entertaining way. The strategy is heavily linked to the expertise of the Open University and reach students world wide. Courses are yet to start but are expected late in The model is described variously as a private company owned by the Open University or by the Universities UK report as a not for profit. 5 The partners have no upfront costs but rather are expected to contribute in kind to course development. Certificates of Completion are expected issued by the Future Learn entity ( ie not by the universities themselves). Monitored exams may be developed Udacity Set up[ by Prof Thrun at Stanford University offering 22 courses all with a computing or technology focus. Courses started in 2011 and was a great success in terms of numbers attracting 160,000 students from 190 countries ( Brown 2013). 5 see Accessed 20 Aug

10 Udacity works with individual faculty and tech firms including Google ( where THrun has an association) and Microsoft. The focus is on innovation in course interface and there is no current intention to extend the model to other disciplines It is a for-profit venture with venture capital funding with estimated outside funding of about $21 million. Certificates of Completion from Udacity are available and monitored exams are provided through the same organisation as Coursera and edx. Validated online assessment methods are being developed. Significance for Public Administration and NFP programmes The potential application of the MOOC model to Public Administration and Not for Profit education will be explored in part through reference to work already undertaken by the lead author. See Table 1 ( Murdock and Oldfield 2010, Murdock, Parra and Tekula 2012) INSERT TABLE 1 ABOUT HERE Table 1: Overall Comparisons of Aspects of MBA/MPA/ MAand NfP masters MA in MBA MPA Management Institutional background Almost entirely Business School Mixed: Public Policy/Politics Business Schools NfP Masters Mixed: Community and Social studies Students Cross sector but mostly private sector often seeking career change Almost entirely public sector seeking promotion and development in sector Significant professionalism (nurses, teachers etc.) Cross Sector and usually without work experience. Sometimes directly from First degree Almost entirely nfpsector Wide diversity of student backgrounds. Teachers Business discipline Sector focused Business discipline Sector focused Career point Promoted as mid career or executive but growing use as entry qualification (USA model) Seen as Mid Career qualification both in UK and many European countries Seen as career entry or development into management from Professional Qualifications Usually a mid career qualification but sometimes an entry qualification Teaching Syllabus Typically pillar generics (Finance, HR etc) with Strategy and electives Sector focused with orientation on political science and governance/adminis trative law Sometimes derived from DMS top up Also as alternate to MBA/MPA Sector focused. Focus on e.g. fundraising and governance Typical employing organisations Internationalism Mixture, but private business Typically international (Students may come from other countries and then go to work internationally) Large public bodies Typically national (students usually come from /go to public organisations in country of MPA programme Mixture Mixed with some international students Paradigm Managerial Public value Managerial Small medium NPOs Largely national (students come from /go to nfp organisations in country of programme but may work internationally) Value/mission driven 10

11 The format used by Murdock (2010 and 2012) to compare the management education programmes is relevant to consider the applicability of the Massive Open Access Online Format. We will examine each category in turn and evaluate whether a MOOC would be a suitable vehicle. Students The nature of the students is sector specific for these programmes. The Not for Profit students possibly come from a wider diversity of background ( representing the wide diversity of the not for profit sector which encompasses both very commercial social enterprise type organisations and totally voluntary organisations which may have no income generation focus. The public sector students are more likely to be professionals ( nurses, social workers etc). The MOOC model is already found in Business related settings ( Coursera) and distance /blended learning is well established in MBA programmes. The move towards a MOOC form in courses in this area is possibly easier than in the traditional public sector arena. However the experience of Northumbria Ambulance ( referred to previously) suggest that where the issue is vocational/technical education then the MOOC format could work well. (Belanger and Thornton 2013) The success of MOOC s in technical areas such as electricity, basic science and computer science is perhaps indicative of the potential for this model to extend into area of public/nfp where the focus is upon vocational knowledge which is generally agreed and which can be packaged in an online format. Teachers In the Public and NFP sector the teachers tend to be more sector focussed. The sector in this case might be relatively narrowly defined. A key aspect of MOOC s is the ability to reach across very large potential audiences in different cultures and countries. Could an online public sector course be made relevant to attract students from 190 countries as achieved by the Udacity computer science course? The principles of computer science are commonly accepted. Are the principles of public law and public administration? Where Not for profits are concerned there are very significant differences in the role and regulation of not for profits in different countries. Whilst there may be some common ground in areas such as basic management and governance of civil society organisations the legal environment varies dramatically from country to country. Even in the UK there are significant differences between England and Scotland. A MOOC seeking to communicate common learning across a wide range of countries may struggle with such differences. Career Point The mid career focus of many public management and not for profit programmes probably does not represent a problem for MOOC s. Indeed the pressures of time and family which such students may encounter are typically well addressed by learning which can be accessed at a time, place and pace which the student would prefer. 11

12 However the career ambitions of such students raises the perceived need that such students have to enhance and broaden their work network though a mid career programme. This also applied to MBA and other mid career management students. The network and interpersonal communication of classroom based ( or residential ) learning is arguably greater than that of learning accessed privately. However the potential of MOOC s to bring people together through social meida should not be exaggerated. In a 1960 novel Nevil Shute describes how an individual who has never travelled and leads an apparently very restricted life as the editor of a small circulation magazine is able to make a very complicated journey to a remote pacific atoll simply through utilising the mailing list of magazine subscribers. 6 The ability to network through social media should not be underestimated and social media such as twitter, facebook, linked in and SKYPE has evolved dramatically.mooc s to a large extent can exploit this development in online communication. Teaching Syllabus The teaching syllabus for public administration and not for profit programmes tends to differ from the more universal structures found in MBA and straightforward management programmes.. Organisations such as AMBA and EQUIS have to a significant extent enables a degree of communality of syllabus and MBA s studied in one country will often enable the student to seek work in another country with the knowledge base being enhanced by the international experience. To an extent this model is developing in the public sector context with accreditation of programmes. EAPAA has made some progress in developing an international model of accreditation but the proportion of MPA programmes in Europe which are currently accredited represents a relatively small proportion. The accreditation models applying to MBA s have had a longer start, perhaps. 7 The nature of the syllabus ( and often the language of instruction) tends to be country specific and this would represent a challenge for a MOOC seeking to bridge across a wide range of countries. However it is conceivable that aspects of the syllabus could be amenable to a MOOC approach ( for example teaching about the nature of the European Community and its constituent parts). Where not for profits are concerned there could be significant possibilities drawing on the common needs of many civil society organisations regardless of country of locations ( for example basic financial management and techniques of effective fundraising and risk assessment) Typical Employer The nature of employing organisations presents some interesting contrasts. Most public management students do not seek to change country or even necessarily to work internationally. The majority of public servants are employed in their own country of residence and there may be limited international transferability of the professional skills that they possess. Courses in International Business through their very ethos imply that the learning might enable transfer across national and country 6 The Novel is Trustee from the Toolroom published See 12

13 boundaries. Not for Profit employers are a mixture - though most are small and relatively localised the international NGO sector is large and probably values international experience and learning. To what extent would a MOOC ( based in the USA?) be relevant and attractive to public management employers located in Europe with no particular ambitions or interests outside of their own country of location? The Northumbria Ambulance example referred to previously involved generally accepted technical training which was as relevant from an Australian context as from a local university. Would the local authority have negotiated a distance learning course on local government and public policy from a University in another country? Therefore it can be again argued that whilst generally accepted technical skills ( such as budgeting, for example) could readily be accessible via a MOOC there are limitations on the extent to which public management education can be provided to a very broad spectrum of students in different countries without local contextualisation. The not for profit context is arguably different as there are a large number of NGO s which are international in nature. The dispersed employees and costs of travel to bring such employees from distant locales to a home country education setting would make a MOOC an attractive means to provide training and education at an affordable cost. Internationalisation The internationalisation question has been explored above. There is a significant difference between the typical MPA student and a proportion of the not for profit students. However it is probably true of both categories that they are much more likely to work in a national and even a local setting. A MOOC which does not recognise the importance of a national context may not reach the size of audience which would render the set up costs economic. On the other hand a purely nationally based MOOC may also not reach a large enough audience ( unless in a country with a very large potential population such as the USA or China) Paradigm The paradigm represents a particularly interesting challenge. In Table 1 we set out the different (typical) paradigms for each mode of course. The MBA and Management Masters both (naturally) have a managerial paradigm. This paradigm is generally accepted and is commonly held across different programmes in different countries ( with some acknowledgement of cultural differences). The focus of the MPA is described as public value which may vary between countries. Also the question may be asked as to how public value is transmitted through an online teaching mechanism. Clearly MOOC s might rise to the challenge but the lack of one to one contact and personal interaction could represent a problem. The position of not for profit organisations which are presented as mission or values driven presents a similar challenge. Values and mission are concepts which are not easily acquired without personal exposure and interaction. The Salvation Army communicates remotely but the religious common base of the uniformed core of the organisation represents a strong underlying value consensus. 13

14 Possible directions for MOOC in Public Administration and not for Profit The emergence of MOOC s is well established with consortia both operating and setting up business in both the UK and in the USA. Perhaps significantly these consortia include leading universities and appear to be well resourced. The two formats described have been largely represented by the xmooc model but the Future Learn format led by the Open University may take a format which is closer to the cmooc model. Is this possibly significant for the evolution of MOOC s for public administration and not for profit organisations in the UK? If such programmes are evolved ass open source and have an anglo centric approach might this represent a potential for aspects of the MOOC approach to reach across to the public and not for profit arena in both the Uk and the old and new commonwealth settings? The engagement of the British Library and the British Council and the British museum present a powerful coalition of knowledge stakeholders and organisations well able to facilitate entry into English speak environments. The actual university partners include those which undoubtedly possess the expertise to furnish open access courses in public management and possibly in the not for profit sector as well. The consortium includes some leading universities in Ireland and Australia. The Futurelearn platform thus represents a significant potential to access the public management and not for profit arena through aspects of their online provision. The cost of doing this would have been too great for any one or two of the partners but taken collectively it represents a major possibility. However there is no indication as to whether the provision would lead to the award of qualifications. The other platforms have clear mechanisms for the award of certificate and also for some form of monitored assessment including online assessment. The old adage about part time Open University tutors as being regular academics who worked for the OU in order to acquire the material for usage on their own university courses may come back through Futurelearn. If the material is open source then it may become standard usage for a range of other universities. The US models are significant because of their incorporation of high reputation European partners. The level of investment is high and in at least one case (Coursera) there is a clear move into the business and management arena. Though the award of US based completion certificates (which are not directly from the participating universities) may not represent a major inducement to European public and not for profit managers the potential for European university partners to develop online provision which does have relevant accreditation is already there. In respect of technical education ( in areas such a computer competence) the reality is already there. It may well be that UK and European Universities involved in public and not for profit education will simply regard this as not relevant. It is something for technical education providers to respond to and worry about. However once students have become accustomed and accepting of online MOOC type education 14

15 for technical skills then they may well become more open to managerial and professional education being offered that way. Conclusions This paper possibly represents the first attempt to explore the nature and implications of the MOOC phenomena for public administration and not for profit management university education. The current situation would seem to be that the immediate case for such programmes being delivered through a MOOC format is weak but there is little doubt that this new form of pedagogy is well established and likely to grow. The presence of leading and very well resourced universities in this arena has to be taken seriously It is likely that MOOC s will initially make their appearance in the public and not for profit sector through more vocationally based provision. There are significant barriers to a large scale adoption of MOOC s for Masters level professional programmes. However there are almost certainly aspects of public and not for profit education which could be amenable to a MOOC format and universities would be well advised to watch developments carefully. References Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2013). Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the United States. Sloan Consortium. PO Box 1238, Newburyport, MA Anderson, T. (Ed.). (2008). The theory and practice of online learning. Athabasca University Press. Belanger, Y., & Thornton, J. (2013). Bioelectricity: A Quantitative Approach Duke University s First MOOC. Boyatt, R. C., Joy, M. S., Rocks, C. L., & Sinclair, J. E. (2013). What (use) is a MOOC?. Brown, S. Back to the future with MOOCs?. ICICTE 2013 proceedings Carey, K (2013) MOOCs, robots and the Secret of Life 5 June _of_life accessed 20 Aug 2013 Dennis, M. (2012). The Impact of MOOCs on Higher Education. College and University, 88(2), Goldschmidt, K., & Greene-Ryan, J. (2013). A" MINI MOOC": OUTCOMES OF A GATEWAY INTRODUCTORY COURSE FOR ONLINE LEARNERS. INTED

16 Proceedings, Gose, B. (2012). 4 Massive Open Online Courses and How They Work. Chronicle of Higher Education Hill, P. (2012). Online Educational Delivery Models: A Descriptive View.Educause Review, 47(6), Keegan, D. J. (1980). On defining distance education. Distance education, 1(1), Kirschner, A. (2012). A Pioneer in Online Education Tries a MOOC. Chronicle of Higher Education. Kolowich, S. (2013). The Professors behind the MOOC Hype. Chronicle of Higher Education. Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (2011). Distance education: A systems view of online learning. CengageBrain. Com Murdock (2010) The Public Management Masters in the broader management education environment European Group on Public Administration, Toulouse, France Sept With Chrissie Oldfield Murdock, A (2012) Responding to Challenge : Comparing and contrasting selected non profit university programmes and pedagogy in the USA and Europe (2012) Paper to ARNOVA conference, Indianapolis USA Nov 2012 with Parra, C and Tekula, R et al submitted to NISPACee Journal of Public Administration and Policy Nicoara, E (2013) The impact of massive online open courses in academic environments paper to 9 th International Scientific Conference on elearning and software for education Bucharest April 2013 Ojo, D. O., & Olakulehin, F. K. (2006). Attitudes and perceptions of students to open and distance learning in Nigeria. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 7(1). Pappano, L. (2012). The Year of the MOOC. The New York Times, 4. Rovai, A. P., & Jordan, H. (2004). Blended learning and sense of community: A comparative analysis with traditional and fully online graduate courses. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 5(2). Rumble, G. (1989). The role of distance education in national and international development: An overview. Distance Education, 10(1), Universities UK ( 2013a) Massive open online courses: Higher education s digital moment 16

17 almoment.aspx#.uh9v0tk1hre accessed 20 Aug 2013 Universities UK ( 2013b) Open and online Learning: making the most of MOOC s and other models Conference 16 May 2013 Conference Report available at: Yin, S., & Kawachi, P. (2013). Improving open access through prior learning assessment. Open Praxis, 5(1), Young, J. R. (2012). Providers of Free MOOC's Now Charge Employers for Access to Student Data. Chronicle of Higher Education. Zilinski, L. (2013). Review of Massive List of MOOC Resources, Lit and Literati. Public Services Quarterly, 9(1). 17

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