Integrating global talent. International graduates as a resource for growth and competitiveness. Report for the Danish Industry Foundation

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1 September 2012 Integrating global talent International graduates as a resource for growth and competitiveness Report for the Danish Industry Foundation

2 For information on obtaining additional copies, permission to reprint or translate this work, and all other correspondence, please contact: DAMVAD A/S Badstuestræde 20 DK-1209 Copenhagen K Tel damvad.com Copyright 2012, DAMVAD & DTU Management 2 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

3 Indhold 1 Executive summary 6 2 Background A resource for growth and competitiveness: International graduates from Danish universities The purpose of the study What can companies gain from hiring international graduates? What are the challenges of integrating global talent? The role of universities and graduates A framework for understanding the integration of international talent Studying the integration of global talent: a note on methodology Outline of the report 17 3 The graduate perspective from education to job Main findings The majority of graduates are still living and working in Denmark Graduates are motivated to work in Denmark because they find it offers professional and personal development Living and working in Denmark is a temporary choice for many international graduates Many graduates left due to a lack of job opportunities The majority of the graduates who left have a successful career Helping graduates get a job is essential if we want to keep them in Denmark A network is important when looking for a job Student jobs and internships ease the transition from education to job Lack of languages skills is a barrier to getting a job Graduates can do a lot to ensure a successful transition from education to job 31 4 The company perspective challenges of diversity Main results Many benefits of hiring international graduates International graduates are mostly happy about working in Denmark, but also experience obstacles Companies have started managing for diversity but there is still some way to go Specific initiatives to integrate global talent Usefulness of integration initiatives What can companies do to integrate better? 44 5 The university perspective bridging study and working life Main results DTU s and ASB s approaches to integration of international graduates into the labour market International graduates place an emphasis on introduction to the Danish labour market 50 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 3

4 5.4 Graduates experience a gap between the study life and the labour market Room for improvement of international graduates use of services The need for a strategic approach 56 6 Literature 57 Appendix 1: Methodology Survey Qualitative interviews Tracing analysis 63 Appendix 2: List of persons interviewed 64 4 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

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6 1 Executive summary Danish society is facing major demographic challenges in relation to ensuring future growth and competitiveness. The challenges relate to an ageing population and an expected shortage of highly educated labour within specific fields. Over the last 10 years this has led to an increasing focus in the political system, as well as in business life, on attracting highly educated professionals from abroad. Up until recently, however, most of the discussion has bypassed international students already studying in Denmark. From the number of international students finishing a master s degree more than quadrupled and more than 7,500 international students completed a full master s degree at a university in Denmark. Yet, a recent study on the employment of international graduates conducted by the Danish Agency for International Education shows that more than half of the international students leave Denmark after graduation. This report is an analysis of the benefits, barriers and challenges of integrating international graduates who have completed a full master s degree at a university in Denmark. The study is designed as a case study of two universities at the forefront of internationalisation, The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and Aarhus School of Business (since 2011 a part of School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University). It investigates the integration of international graduates as a complex interplay between them, business life in Denmark and universities. The study builds on a review of international research in relevant academic fields, a comprehensive survey with international graduates of both universities from the years , in-depth qualitative interviews with graduates, Danish companies and participating universities and a tracing analysis of the careers of international graduates, who have left Denmark. Why focus on international graduates? The study identifies three main reasons why companies should focus on international graduates. Benefits include: 1. Access to a larger pool of professionals with sought-after skills. 2. Access to new growth markets as international graduates bring insight and cultural sensitivity from their home countries as well as knowledge of the host country, which can be utilised actively to market products to their home countries. 3. Increased innovation, better problem solving and organisational flexibility as teams of employees with different perspectives, backgrounds and mindsets bring a greater variety of resources and intellect to decision-making processes. Many graduates stay and work, but the choice is temporary 70 % of the international graduates from the two universities in the period we are studying are still living and working in Denmark. They appreciate Danish society for being democratic, efficient and characterised by a good work-life balance. The Danish style of working with a great deal of empowerment for employees is also described as a positive factor, as well as work assignments that are interesting and offer personal and professional development. A main result, however, is that for most international graduates the choice to live and work in Denmark is temporary. More than half of the international graduates living in Denmark indicate that they might move to their home country or another 6 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

7 country in the future. We also find that Denmark loses competencies and a lot of the graduates who leave Denmark do have a successful career abroad. This underlines the importance of initiatives to retain graduates in Denmark. Challenges of integrating international graduates The study identifies two challenges for international graduates. Firstly, finding a job is more difficult for graduates with an international background than for Danish graduates. Among the main challenges are a lack of a network and relevant job experience. The study shows that many international graduates actually leave Denmark due to difficulties of getting a job. Secondly, regarding broader issues of integration, we find that although work life and life in Denmark generally is described as attractive by international graduates, integration into the workplace is not always smooth and effortless. Challenges of diversity Previous research has highlighted the importance of companies managing for diversity when employing an international work force. The study shows that the companies interviewed are preparing to manage for diversity. Still, almost half of international graduates have experienced cultural and linguistic barriers at their workplace. Most barriers relate to social integration and barriers include being excluded from work-related tasks because other team members insist on speaking Danish, feelings of social isolation due to the reservedness of Danes, too much cultural subtext taken for granted when communicating etc. In addition to this, almost a third of graduates describe their managers as being only moderately competent in dealing with culturally diverse employees. Bridging study and university life With regard to the role of universities, previous research has noted that international graduates, even in countries with a longer tradition of receiving students from other countries such as Canada or Australia, face a number of challenges, ranging from challenges during studying to problems of becoming employed after graduating. In previous research, it is suggested that universities need to take a more proactive role towards international graduates. This picture is generally confirmed for Denmark by the study. The services for international graduates of the two universities studied have improved substantially in recent years and we find that this is generally acknowledged by international graduates. Still, graduates describe a contrast between the study experience at DTU and ASB and the labour market, as the study environment at both universities is very international, whereas working life afterwards, even at large companies, is described by many as very Danish. Also, study life is described as being sharply divided between Danish and international students in group-related work, etc. At the same time, almost all graduates from DTU and ASB find it important that the university provide an introduction to the labour market. And results show that from a graduate s point of view there still is room for improving services, e.g. in relation to assistance with building networks. How can integration improve? The study has led to a number of ideas for improving the integration of international graduates. INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 7

8 From the company side: Be aware of the value of international graduates. This also includes making contact with internationals while they are studying. Make openness a cultural value in the organisation e.g. openness to language as a practical communication problem. Remember that decisions and communication have cultural components and take time to explain and make communication transparent. From the university side: Build a more international study environment. More information about and marketing of services for international students. More realistic information about the job market in Denmark before and after students are recruited. Help international students build networks and get in touch with companies, e.g. by marketing international graduates to companies. From the international graduate side: Take Danish classes. Learning even a little Danish will help in the job-search after graduation as well as facilitate social integration. Be proactive. Finding a job in Denmark eventually falls back on the student s or graduate s own initiative. Therefore, it is important to use all possibilities to build and use networks, e.g. offered by alumni organisations, career fairs and other events hosted by the university. Use the services provided by the university, because results show that a number of graduates are unaware of the existing services. it would be fruitful to investigate in order to secure an evidence-base for policy in this area. First of all, there is a need for a thorough investigation on the basis of data from Statistics Denmark of the careers of international graduates, i.e. the sectors they work in, which types of companies hire them, their career paths, wages earned, job functions, etc. These are questions left unanswered by existing studies that focus, on a very aggregate level, and omits some of the more interesting data (SiU 2011, FBE 2009). This study would shed light on the economic role international graduates play in the Danish economy. Another interesting study should investigate the role of international graduates who return to their home countries or move to other countries for Danish export and export policy. Are returnees more aware of Denmark as a trade partner? Are they more open than others to engage in collaboration with Danish companies? And how can Danish companies use the network of returning graduates when entering new markets? Further issues to probe Since there has been relatively little research in a Danish context up to now, the study has an explorative character. There are several issues that have only been touched on in this report, but which 8 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

9 2 Background Over the past 10 years there has been a political focus on recruiting highly educated people to meet demands for skilled labour in the Danish labour market. This focus has only grown stronger after the current government came into office in Its strategy towards 2020 emphasises that Denmark needs to be better at attracting and retaining highly educated people from abroad in order to secure economic growth (The Danish Government 2012). The focus on attracting highly educated people to Denmark is also found in business life, where issues like the impact of the tax system, immigration laws and green card schemes are often discussed. Recently, 18 of the largest Danish and international companies based in Denmark, including A.P. Moeller-Maersk, Carlsberg, Lego and Siemens, have undertaken a joint initiative to further the recruitment of skilled global professionals in Denmark and to make working life easier for internationals in Denmark. For Danish society and the business community in Denmark, there are many obvious benefits of recruiting highly educated global professionals. Due to an ageing population, Denmark will face a demographic challenge in a few years and a larger labour force will be needed to secure growth and prosperity in the future. Highly educated global professionals can contribute to growth through specialised expertise or by securing Danish companies access to markets abroad. New empirical research shows that exports to foreign employees native markets increase by 1.7 % for each foreign employee a company hires (Hiller 2011). Furthermore, empirical evidence shows that firms hiring highly educated people become more productive (pay higher wages) and increase their exports of goods and services (Malchow-Møller et al. 2011). Another motivation has to do with the value of creativity and diversity. In research on diversity it is often argued that companies and nations that are better at and more effective at integrating international talent within their human resources and industrial operations will have a competitive advantage through, for example, excelling in problem-solving and innovation. 2.1 A resource for growth and competitiveness: International graduates from Danish universities Until recently, most of the discussion in Denmark has focused on attracting global professionals already working in other countries, and thereby bypassing international students in Denmark studying for full degrees at Danish universities. Over the last decade the number of international graduates finishing master s degree at a Danish university has more than quadrupled. In 2000, 272 international students finished a master s degree at a Danish university, whereas in 2009 the equivalent number was 1,302. In total, 7,579 international students completed a master s programme in Denmark from 2000 to 2009 (SiU 2011:1). Yet, a recent study on the employment of international graduates conducted by the Danish Agency for International Education shows that only 50 % of the international students who graduated between 2003 and 2007 remained in Denmark one year after their graduation. After two years this number dropped to 44 % and after three years only 39 % remained in Denmark (SiU 2011:3). The Minister for Science, Innovation and Higher Education, Morten Østergaard, has recently emphasised that there are a number of barriers to attracting and retaining international students. Some are linked to legislation, others to the Danish brand on the global market for education, and yet others INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 9

10 to Danish culture and the degree of internationalisation in Danish society in relation to language, communication and integration. In the autumn of 2012, the Ministry of Higher Education will present a new internationalisation strategy that will address the above-mentioned issues. 2.2 The purpose of the study The current study investigates international graduates from Danish universities as a resource for growth and competitiveness. Even though it is safe to assume that some of the international graduates who leave Denmark never intended to stay after completing their master s degree, the figures mentioned above also indicate that there is a much greater potential for the integration of international graduates into the Danish labour market than is the case today. The basic proposition of the study is that if more international graduates can be retained in Denmark, even for only for a shorter period of time, this will have positive benefits for all: Danish society (productivity, growth, taxes), businesses (competitiveness) and the graduates themselves (international experience, benefits of living in Danish society). graduation. Thematically, the study will be focused around full degree students, having completed a master s programme in Denmark at a Danish university, because these students have better possibilities of being integrated into Danish labour market than exchange students who only stay for a shorter period of time. A guiding idea behind the study is that Danish companies and educational institutions, as well as international students themselves, play an important role in securing better and more sustainable integration of international graduates into the Danish labour market in the future. The remainder of the chapter will be spent on developing a framework for understanding and investigating the theme of study and developing relevant research questions to be focused on in the study. The framework will be developed through a literature review of what is known about the integration of global talent from previous research. As our theme is interdisciplinary, the review draws on several academic fields, such as management studies, educational studies and innovation studies. Retaining international graduates would in particular make sense in a societal perspective, as Denmark is making quite an investment in educating international graduates. Although tuition fees have been introduced for students from countries outside of EU in 2006, university education in Denmark is free for EU citizens. And the number of international students studying in Denmark is much higher than the number of Danish students studying abroad (SiU 2010). Thus, the main research question of the study is whether and how international students can be better integrated within Danish companies after We start out by investigating what previous research has highlighted as the impacts of hiring international graduates. 2.3 What can companies gain from hiring international graduates? In many developed countries, international students and graduates have been identified as an interesting resource due to labour market shortages and anticipated demographic challenges. Subsequently, international students and graduates have gained increasing attention from researchers. 10 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

11 Drawing in particular on the fields of diversity management and innovation studies, the literature suggests that there are many benefits related to integration of international graduates into the labour market and hence having a more culturally diverse work-force. Among these are access to a larger pool of talented workers, but also benefits connected to access to new markets and benefits involving innovation, creativity and problem-solving (Konrad 2006; Nelson 2004 Yang & Konrad 2011, Jackson & Alvarez 1992, Cox & Blake 1991, Wiers-Jenssen 2008). case of international graduates, they bring insight and cultural sensitivity from their home countries as well as knowledge of the host country, which can be utilised actively to market products to their home countries. Following this line of thought, a culturally diverse organisation is thought to be more effective at selling to relatively new and diverse customer groups or populations. It is thought that organisations with a diverse set of employees will have access to better information on how to reach yet untapped/unexplored and unfamiliar markets (Konrad 2006). Different authors have different ways of categorising and presenting the benefits of a more diverse workforce from hiring international graduates, even if it can be argued that the benefits they describe are more or less the same. We follow Cox & Blake (1991), who identify five major arguments for having a more diverse workforce. These include: Better resource acquisition One of the benefits of having a more diverse work force, e.g. through the employment of international graduates, is that it gives companies access to a larger pool of talented workers (Cox and Blake 1991). Apart from the international graduates themselves, it is also suggested that having a more diverse organisation will help to attract other talented people from all demographic and cultural groups, as they will be attracted to those organisations that can appreciate the value and individual distinctiveness they bring to the workplace (Konrad 2006). Increased possibilities for marketing The marketing argument refers to the notion that diversity in the workplace provides companies with an international outlook and market knowledge that are essential when navigating in different markets and different cultures (Cox and Blake 1991). In the More creative organisations Companies that are good at integrating and retaining a diverse work force, e.g. through international graduates, will have access to a diversity of perspectives, thus increasing creativity and innovation (Cox and Blake 1991; Nelson 2004; Kochan 2003; Lam & Lundvall 2007). A number of studies identify a positive correlation between the creative interactions of human diversity (with respect to age, gender, race, ethnicity, profession, norms, values, perceptions, culture, etc.) within a closed proximity (e.g. a team or organisation) and an enhanced capability of a firm to innovate (Kochan 2003; Rogers 2003; Parker 2003; Tidd et al. 2001). Better problem-solving Creating culturally diverse organisations, e.g. through the recruitment of international graduates, is also argued to enhance the capacity of companies for problem-solving (Cox & Blake 1991; Konrad 2006). Teams of workers with different perspectives, backgrounds, beliefs and viewpoints bring a greater variety of resources and intellect to decision-making process; hence potentially producing better decisions through a wider range of perspectives and more critical analysis of issues. INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 11

12 More flexible systems Last but not least, it is argued that the recruitment of an international workforce enhances organisational flexibility, making the system less determinant, less standardised and therefore more fluid. The increased fluidity creates a greater flexibility to react to environmental changes (Cox and Blake 1991). 2.4 What are the challenges of integrating global talent? As highlighted above, there are many benefits for companies related to the integration of international graduates. However, studies within the field of diversity management also show that there are many challenges when recruiting a more diverse workforce and that it in many ways affects the way companies must be managed (Cox and Blake 1991; Konrad 2006; Chavez & Weisinger 2008). The challenges related to the integration of a culturally diverse workforce and building good working relationships between different cultural groups include psychological and organisational barriers. The psychological barriers to diversity are rooted in social identities that make people prefer to work with people who are perceived to be like rather than different from themselves, as well prejudices and stereotyping about members of other social and cultural groups. Organisational barriers include traditional HRM systems, which value homogeneity and make retention and career building difficult for members of cultural minority groups. Studies have shown that members who are demographically different from most of their co-workers are more likely to feel disconnected from the workplace and leave it earlier (Konrad 2006). Thus if integration of international graduates into the Danish labour market is to occur successfully and be sustainable, Danish companies will need to adapt their organisational cultures and management practices (Chavez & Weisinger, 2008). Among other things, this entails establishing a relational culture that cherishes uniqueness and differences (Chavez & Weisinger, 2008), a corporate strategy emphasising the importance of multiple perspectives (Chavez &Weisinger, 2008; Cox & Blake, 1991), enabling cross-cultural team-work (Jabbour & Santos, 2008), full integration of members of minority culture groups into the formal organisation as well as the informal networks (Cox & Blake, 1991) and HR activities that consistently support cultural diversity (e.g. incentive systems, promotion systems, and recruitment procedures) (Cox & Blake, 1991). Research also shows however that many organisations deal with the diversity issue quite superficially by implementing different kinds of diversity management programs even though diversity is a multifaceted, multi-phased change effort that takes several years to become fully integrated into the business processes of any organisation. Furthermore, it is claimed by some researchers that despite huge investments having been made in diversity training programmes, most of these fail to achieve their desired outcomes. Instead of viewing diversity as a training issue, it is advocated that diversity be a long-term, relational approach and emphasis be on an attitudinal and cultural transformation requiring managers to break the barriers by moving away from managing diversity toward managing for diversity in order to fully capitalise on the unique perspectives of a diverse workforce (Wong 2008, Chazez and Weisinger2008). Thus, it is suggested that those organisations that plan to implement a diversity management programme should keep in mind the following three things: first, they must have committed leaders 12 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

13 who believe in the value of diversity and who understand that outcomes may be difficult to measure; second, diversity initiatives must be directly linked to the organisation s goals and objectives; and third, diversity is a journey, so organisations should be prepared to stay committed for a long period of time before expecting to reap the full benefits of diversity (Wong 2008). 2.5 The role of universities and graduates However, previous research also suggests that the responsibility for handling difficulties of integrating international graduates is not the responsibility of companies alone. Rather, it also draws attention to the role of universities in host countries and the actions of international graduates themselves. In the field of educational studies, a number of issues concerning international students have been researched, even though the field is still in its infancy and a lot of subjects are still unexplored (Härzel 2010). One main result is that even in English-speaking countries with a strong position (Australia) or relatively strong position (Canada) on the international market for education, the integration of international students and graduates present a number of challenges. Challenges during studying In Canada, studies have found international students struggling with various academic challenges, including a lack of university support and varying forms of social challenges that include lack of opportunities for integration into the community and discrimination (Kamara & Gambold 2011). A comparable study of international students in Australia found that many of the interviewed international students had experienced problems of loneliness and social isolation (Sawir et al. (2008). The international students experience both personal loneliness because of the loss of contact with families, social loneliness because of the loss of networks and connections in the local community and cultural loneliness triggered by the absence of the preferred cultural and/or linguistic environment. Thus, identifying a same-culture network becomes crucial for international students. Yet same-culture networks are not an adequate solution and also lead to new challenges, e.g. a lack of networks among local students and a lack of social integration. It is suggested that universities should play a role in creating stronger bonds between international and local students, helping international students to remake their own cultural maps on their own terms. Universities can contribute to this by creating formal structures where informal interaction between international and local students can happen. Suggestions for formal structures include international student support programs (e.g., peer mentoring, discussion groups, excursions), student housing that promotes integration, policy direction regarding the integration of international students in courses (e.g., through course assignments and class activities), physical spaces (e.g., residence, cafeteria, library, student centre), and overall student programming (e.g., orientation events, clubs and organisations, volunteer opportunities) (Sawir 2008, Dunn & Oliver 2011). In the literature, it is recommend that universities pursue a phase model approach to offer a smooth and well-integrated step-by-step facilitation to help international students overcome these challenges throughout their student journey both on and off the campus, in particular suggesting that universities take proactive action to tackle some of the challenges they know international graduates will face as regards social and professional integration (Kamara and Gambold 2011). INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 13

14 The role of universities has also been discussed in the literature in terms of facilitating the integration of international students into the new learning environment; both through classroom curricular activities and extra-curricular interactions. Among other things, it has been suggested that educational institutions should devote more focus to the interaction between international and local students during classes, perhaps helped by guidelines from the university administration regarding internationalisation within classrooms. It is also pointed out that the entire range of university policies and practices should reflect awareness of the importance of promoting interaction between international and domestic students. Other suggestions include intercultural awareness training for members of university community, as educators need to be interculturally competent and skilled in helping students develop positive relationships with their culturally diverse peers (Härtel 2008, Dunn & Oliver 2011, Kamara & Gambold (2011). Barriers to integration in the labour market Studies have also identified that international graduates who have studied in developed economies face a number of barriers for the integration in the labour market. Barriers include language barriers, lack of network, bureaucracy related to residence permits, discrimination and limited career options (Jones 2010; Kamara & Gambold 2011; James & Otsuka 2007). A recent study of international graduates transition to the labour market in Finland by Shumilova & Cai (2011) pointed to a number of factors as influential to the employment opportunities of international graduates, such as the initial motivation behind moving to the host country, skills developed during studies abroad, such as cross-cultural skills and language proficiently in English and especially in the host country s language, the work experience prior to studies in the host country or gained during studies, job searching techniques and access to information on employment through networks and the availability and quality of student and career services The study stresses the universities role, but it also emphasises that the transition from education is not purely an institutional achievement, but also depends on the international graduates effort, e.g. through learning the local language and developing a network. Discriminatory practices in the labour market represent yet another hurdle for international graduates (Kamara & Gambold 2011; James & Otsuka 2007). Within the Australian context again, some studies also highlight the existence of social, racial or class-based discrimination related issues in employability after the graduate studies; one such study (James, K. and Otsuka, S., 2007) identifies the fact that Chinese students (even the highachieving graduates) faced such problems in Australia and thus feel marginalised in the society. In that particular case, the main reasons were identified as their lack of Australian working experience, lack of knowledge of Australian culture, and lack of Australian English. Thus even sufficiently knowing English at a professional level was not considered enough to accommodate those Chinese students in the local market. In the Canadian context, a recent study in the Greater Toronto Area found that Canadian applicants who differed only by their names had substantially different call back rates: those with English-sounding names received 40 % more interview requests than applicants with Chinese, Indian or Pakistani names (Kamara & Gambold 2011). 14 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

15 2.6 A framework for understanding the integration of international talent The review of relevant literature has shown that the integration of international graduates is not a one-sided relationship, but rather that it depends on an interplay between graduates, companies and universities. This insight will guide our study of the integration of international graduates and has been visualised in figure 1. Throughout the study we will investigate the role of each of the three parties involved in the interplay and how they work together in order to facilitate the integration of global talent. In addition, our review of previous research has pointed to a number of factors that will be interesting to investigate. This has led us to formulate the following research questions: tegration into the Danish labour market? What causes international graduates to leave Denmark? And what do we lose in terms of competencies, etc.? From the perspective of companies: What benefits do companies obtain from employing international graduates? How do companies attract, recruit and retain international graduates? What barriers exist to integration of international graduates? From the perspective of universities: How does studying for a full degree at a Danish university prepare graduates for working life in Denmark? How can educational institutions facilitate the transition to the labour market? From the perspective of international graduates: What motivates international graduates to work in Denmark? What barriers and opportunities do international graduates experience in relation to their in- These research questions will be theoretical foci in our empirical study of the integration of international graduates from Danish universities. Each perspective will be investigated in its own chapter in the following analysis.. FIGURE 1 A framework for understanding the integration of global talent Source: DAMVAD 2012 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 15

16 2.7 Studying the integration of global talent: a note on methodology The study is designed as a case study of two Danish universities and international graduates from their M.Sc. programmes. admitted at DTU at ASB had an international background (see also SiU 2010 for a comparison of Danish Universities as regards number of international full degree students). The case study method The universities are: The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) The Aarhus School of Business (ASB), (since January 2011 a part of School of Social Sciences and Business, Aarhus University). The two universities are chosen because they have been some of the frontrunners of the internationalisation of education in Denmark. At DTU and ASB, almost all master programmes are taught in English and both universities have a large number of international students (SiU, 2010). Furthermore DTU and ASB are some of the Danish universities with the highest proportion of international students at graduate level. In the study year 2010/11 29 % and 37 % respectively of new graduate students An intensive analysis of an individual unit (as a person or community) stressing developmental factors in relation to environment. Case studies can utilise qualitative as well as quantitative methods. Critical cases are cases that hold a strategic importance in relation to a general problem and allow deductions of the type If this is (not) valid for this case, then it applies to all (no) cases. (Flyvbjerg 2011). Furthermore, both universities are known for having a relatively strong focus on study and career guidance for international students in a Danish context. ASB, e.g., has a still stronger focus on career guidance than other parts of Aarhus Uni- BOX 1: THE UNIVERSITIES The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) The Aarhus School of Business (ASB) Founded in 1829, DTU is ranked as one of the foremost technical universities in Europe, and as the number one technical university in the Nordic region A total of B.Sc. and M.Sc. students study at DTU (2011) Since 2007 most M.Sc.-programmes have been taught in English Of 750 new graduate students enrolled for the 2011 school year, 33% were international students. Founded as full-time business-school in 1951 One of the 10 largest business schools in Europe In 2000 the teaching language of three masterdegrees was changed from Danish to English and after 2007/2008 most master-programmes have been taught in English Of 1,215 new graduate students enrolled for the 2009 school year, 37 % were international students. ASB became part of School of Social Sciences and Business, Aarhus University in January Source: dtu.dk, information from the International Office at DTU, information from AU Career, 16 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

17 versity. These characteristics make DTU and ASB critical cases in relation to a more general investigation of the relationship between universities, international graduates and companies in Denmark. Since both DTU and ASB are at the forefront of internationalisation of university education in Denmark and we wish to investigate whether Danish universities can improve the way they facilitate the integration of international graduates, we will argue that what we find in these cases can be generalised through logical deductions of the type, If this is valid for this case, then it applies to all cases (Flyvbjerg 2011). A survey of international graduates from DTU and ASB from the years In-depth qualitative interviews with 28 international graduates of ASB and DTU. In-depth qualitative interviews with 10 companies, including Novo Nordisk, Oticon, Vestas, Rambøll and Siemens Windpower. In-depth qualitative interviews with representatives of the International Office, AU, InterRessource, DTU Alumni, and the Career Centre of DTU A tracing analysis of the career paths of 48 international graduates who have left Denmark. A further advantage of choosing DTU and ASB is that they are located in two different parts in Denmark and thereby cover two different regional labour markets in Denmark. Finally, on a more practical note, both universities are known for having strong relations with their alumni and stay in touch with them after graduation. Since we rely on the contact information of the universities for getting in touch with graduates, this is a critical point for an empirical study in this area. The questionnaire was distributed to a total of 642 respondents. 225 of these responded to the questionnaire, corresponding to a response rate among international graduates from DTU of 47 % and 26 % among international graduates from ASB. Even though the ASB response rate is low, an analysis of non-response indicates that there isn t any bias in the incoming answers and thus we conclude that the results of the survey are representative. For more information about methodology, see appendix 1. A NOTE ON TERMINOLOGY In January 2011, the Aarhus School of Business (ASB) merged with the University of Aarhus and is now a part of the School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University. However, since the study covers the years , during most of the time the business school was known as ASB, we will use this term in the report. Methods used To investigate the two cases, the following methods where used: 2.8 Outline of the report In chapter 3 we look at the transition from education to job from the perspective of the international graduates who have completed a master s at DTU or ASB. Among other things, we look into the reasons why they have chosen to work in Denmark and the process of searching for a job in Denmark. Furthermore, we also look into why some graduates leave Denmark and what we lose by international graduates leaving Denmark. INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 17

18 In chapter 4, we investigate what companies do to integrate global talent and what obstacles exist to this integration. We also look into what benefits Danish companies gain by employing global talent, e.g. in relation to access to new markets, local knowledge of how markets in other countries function and in relation to creativity and innovation in companies. Finally, the chapter investigates what companies do to facilitate career paths of international graduates. In chapter 5, we look into what universities are doing to facilitate the meetings between international graduates and companies. Firstly, we look into what ASB and DTU are doing in order to help international graduates gain a footing on the Danish labour market. After this, we investigate how international graduates perceive the university initiatives and present their suggestions for improving these services. Finally, appendix 1 provides an in-depth presentation the methodology used in the study and the data that the study is based on. 18 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

19 3 The graduate perspective from education to job As the review of previous studies in chapter 2 showed, there are many benefits related to the integration of international graduates into the labour market and thus having a more multicultural workforce (Konrad 2006; Nelson 2004 Yang & Konrad 2011, Jackson & Alvarez 1992). However, the integration of international graduates is not without its obstacles, and in this chapter we investigate the transition from education to job from the perspective of the international graduates who have completed a master s at DTU or ASB (now AU). We look into why graduates have chosen to work in Denmark and the barriers related to the transition. Not all international graduates stay in Denmark after graduation, and in this chapter we also look into who left and why, and what we lose by international graduates leaving Denmark. The box below contains some facts about the graduates who participated in the survey. For more information, see appendix Main findings The number of international students completing a master s at a Danish university has increased significantly in recent years. The survey shows that some of them leave afterwards, but that many of them stay to work, motivated by the fact that they find working in Denmark offers professional and personal development. More than half of the graduates indicate however that their choice to work in Denmark is temporary and that they do plan to or are considering moving back to their home country or another country. When graduates leave, Denmark loses competencies and innovative potential. A tracing analysis of the graduates who have left shows that the majority of the graduates had a successful career. Furthermore, none of the graduates have returned after leaving Denmark, hence the loss of competencies is permanent. The fact that many graduates have left or consider leaving Denmark points to the necessity of having different initiatives in place that can work towards retaining these graduates. Many of the reasons for leaving given by the graduates are related to issues that are difficult to change (personal reason, missing family and friends, high living cost in Denmark, looking for new experiences). However, there are barriers that can be overcome related to a successful transition from education to job. The barriers that graduates encounter here are a lack of a network, a lack of job experience from a student job or internship and a lack of Danish language skills. BOX 2: FACTS ABOUT THE GRADUATES A total of 225 graduates participated in the survey: 132 graduated from DTU and 93 from ASB (now AU). The youngest of the graduates is 25 years old and the oldest 41 years old. They graduated between 2005 and A total of 67 % are from Europe (49 % are from Eastern Europe), 2 % are from Africa, 6 % are from North or South America and 25 % are from Asia. INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 19

20 3.2 The majority of graduates are still living and working in Denmark Over the past decade, the international master s programmes have attracted an increasing amount of international students to Danish universities, but a recent study by the Danish Agency for International Education shows, less than half stay after graduation (SiU 2011:1). If we look at the survey conducted among graduates from ASB and DTU, it shows that 70 % of the graduates are currently living in Denmark and 30 % are living in their home country or another country, c.f. figure 2. It is important to keep in mind that there might be a bias here, since graduates living in Denmark have probably been more inclined to answer the survey. A determining factor in retaining international graduates is whether or not they are capable of getting and maintaining a job that is relevant to their training and qualification (SFI 2011:41). It is not easy finding a job in the current economic situation and especially not for new graduates. A recent study conducted by The Economic Council of the Labour Movement shows that one in five university graduates from 2010 did not have a job when they graduated (AE-Rådet 2012:11). Furthermore, the study shows that the number of graduates who were unemployed 26 weeks after graduation increased from 11.3 % in 2008 to 20.4 % in In view of this, the employment rate among international graduates who participated in the survey is positive given that 85 % of the graduates living in Denmark are currently working. As figure 3 shows, around 74 % of the graduates find that their job is very relevant or relevant to their training and education. Only 20 % have a job that is moderately or somewhat relevant to their training and education, while 6 % have a job that is not relevant at all. This is not much higher than the comparable numbers for Danish graduates. Differ- FIGURE 2. Overview of the international graduates International graduates from ASB and DTU 70 % are living in Denmark 30 % left and are living in their home country or another country 58 % are living in their home country 42 % are living in another country 60 % are considering leaving Denmark 90 % would consider returning to Denmark to work Source: DAMVAD 2012, N= INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

21 ent alumni surveys show that around 5-10 % of the graduates are employed in jobs that are not directly related to their training and education. Having a job that is not relevant to education can also be a temporary choice while looking for a relevant job. For example, a Moroccan graduate, who studied Automation and Robot Technology at DTU worked for a short period right after graduation teaching mathematics while looking for a job within his field. FIGURE 3. Relevance of current job to training and education in Denmark Very relevant Relevant Moderately relevant Somewhat relevant Not relevant Source: Survey DTU and ASB 2012, N= Graduates are motivated to work in Denmark because they find it offers professional and personal development Often the motivation to move to another country looking for a job is explained by financial motivation, but motivation to migrate is often much more complex (SFI 2011). Financial incentives are important, and some of the graduates do point to wanting to earn a higher salary as one of the reasons why they have chosen to work in Denmark. But financial incentives are often only part of a number of motives. In this study motivation is addressed by drawing on self-determination theory (SDT). Here, the engagement in behaviour is described as varying with respect to how self-motivated it is, and it offers a framework of two broad types of motivation representing opposite ends of self-determination: autonomous and controlled motivation (Deci & Ryan 1985, 2000). We have identified motivation for choosing to work in Denmark by asking the respondents to indicate whether each of the 14 reasons listed in box 3 played a role in their choice to work in Denmark. As figure 4 shows, graduates are generally auton- BOX 3: AUTONOMOUS VERSUS CONTROLLED MOTIVATION Autonomous motivation Because I found it interesting to gain international experience Because I found the job content interesting Because I found it challenging Because I found it personally developing Because I found it professionally developing Because I thought it would be exciting to work in Denmark Because it was one of my life goals to work in Denmark (or abroad in general) Controlled motivation Because I wanted to earn a higher salary Because I thought the experience enhance the likelihood of earning a high salary later on in my career Because I expected it to provide greater status Because I expected it to facilitate my career progression Because I expected it to provide me with recognition from others Because I felt pressured by others (e.g. parents, spouse, friends) Because I felt pressured by the economic situation (e.g. higher unemployment rate in home country) Source: DAMVAD 2012 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 21

22 omously motivated, meaning that the reason why they have chosen to work in Denmark is primarily self-endorsed and congruent with their interests and values (Weinstein & Ryan 2010).For instance, 81 % of the graduates are motivated to work in Denmark because they find it offers professional development, while 76 % find it offers personal development. And 80 % say they chose to work in Denmark because they and wanted to gain international experience. None of the graduates had completely controlled motivation, indicating that none of the graduates have chosen to work in Denmark primarily due to external pressure, either from an external source or from self-imposed pressure (Deci & Ryan 1985). This does not mean that external pressure does not play a role in the graduates motivation. Almost half of the graduates indicated that part of their motivation was that they wanted to earn a higher salary (48%). Some 25 % of the graduates also stated that they have chosen to work in Denmark because they felt pressured by the economic situation and 8 % say that they felt pressured by others. It is however important to keep in mind that most graduates are here by choice and not necessity. A Canadian graduate from DTU puts it this way: We [international graduates] are ambitious and here to work. We are not here to take anything from anyone. And a Malaysian graduate from ASB supplements, commenting on Danish stereotyping of internationals: A lot of people think that because I m from Asia I m here because of a boyfriend or a husband and that I come from a horrible place and should be thankful to be here. It s difficult for people to understand that I am here by choice and for the experience, and that I would want to return some day. 3.4 Living and working in Denmark is a temporary choice for many international graduates The choice of international graduates to work in Denmark is, for many, a temporary choice. More than 60 % of the international graduates indicate that they plan or are considering moving back home or to another country in the near future, c.f. figure 5. Not surprisingly, there are a higher per- FIGURE 4. Motivation for working in Denmark Source: Survey DTU & ASB 2012, N=158 Note: 0 = completely controlled motivation, 100 = completely autonomous motivation 22 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

23 centage of unemployed graduates who are considering leaving Denmark. However it is worth noticing that the number of graduates who plan to return home or move to another country in the near future is significantly higher among the employed. There are many reasons why international graduates plan or are considering moving back home or to another country in the near future. Listed below according to how prevalent they are, are the main reasons given in the survey: Personal reasons (missing family etc.) Lack job opportunities The Danish culture Looking for new experiences and a change of environment The cost of living in Denmark Danish immigration policy Weather. The main reason given by the graduates for planning or considering returning to their home country or moving to another country is personal reasons. Many miss their home country, family and friends and are thus planning to go back home. However, the interviews with the graduates show that even though missing their friends and family are a big part of why they consider returning home, it is only part of the reason. As a Pakistani graduate from DTU who is considering leaving, puts it: Moving to another country would give me more exposure, better work opportunities. And returning home; well home sweet home! Another prevalent reason why some plan to return home or move to another country is the lack of job opportunities in Denmark and/or the pursuit of new experiences, especially new job experiences. As some of the interviews reveal many of the graduates ended up working in Denmark because they got a job here, not because their job search was limited to Denmark. This is illustrated by a Moroccan graduate from DTU, who not only applied to different universities before ending up at DTU, but also looked for a job after graduation in various countries, subsequently ending up in Denmark because he got a job here: I didn t expect to stay such a long time. When I graduated here it was right after September 11 th, and that s why I was looking to leave Denmark. I wasn t thinking about going home. But I was thinking of going to another country. I looked in Denmark, the UK and other FIGURE 5. Do you plan to return to your home country or move to another country in the near future? Graduates living in Denmark Total Yes Unemployed Employed Maybe No Don t know 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Source: Survey DTU and ASB 2012, N=158 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 23

24 countries. But then I got a job teaching mathematics here in Denmark. And after 2-3 months I got a job relevant to my education in Denmark. Danish culture is also listed as a reason why some of the graduates are considering leaving Denmark. As one of the graduates says: The exclusive culture and cold hospitality always remind me that I am not part of the society. Some of the graduates also point to high taxation, high costs of living and Danish immigration policies as the reason why they are considering leaving Denmark. If we look at the immigration policies, they are complex and different rules apply depending on which country you have migrated from. Subsequently, there are wide differences in how graduates are affected by these policies, but for some it does become a big obstacle. This is the case of a Canadian graduate from DTU, who has lived in Denmark eight years. Despite being married to a Dane and having a child born in Denmark, he cannot get permanent residency. This affects his life in many ways. For instance he cannot join an unemployment insurance fund. Not being able to get a permanent residency also makes him feel unwelcome. As he puts it: I have been here 8 years, living and working. And I will continue to do so for my wife s sake. For my daughter s sake. But if the Danish society will not accept me, then maybe it s time that I move back to Canada. 3.5 Many graduates left due to a lack of job opportunities As mentioned earlier, around 30 % of the graduates who participated in the survey left Denmark after graduation. As figure 6 shows, most list lack of job opportunities in Denmark as the main reason why they left. The fact that approx. 45 % of the graduates would return to Denmark to work and 48 % would consider doing so further emphasise that having a job is the main determining factor in whether a graduate stays or leaves. Interviews with the graduates reveal that many of them searched for a job before leaving Denmark. An example is a Lithuanian graduate from ASB, who tried to find a relevant job after graduation. She got temporary jobs doing phone interviews in English and started take Danish classes. However, after a while she gave up and returned home: As I FIGURE 6. Reason for returning home or moving to another country No job opportunities Wanted to return to my home country Personal reasons Job offer abroad Other reason Source: Survey ASB & DTU N= INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

25 could not speak normal Danish it was difficult to compete on the Danish labour market. And after a couple of months I could not see any prospects in staying. As it turned out, based on her Danish language skills and knowledge of Danish culture she was hired by a Lithuanian company with activities in Denmark. It is safe to assume that some of the graduates never actually intended to stay in Denmark after graduation. Figure 6 shows that 13 % of the graduates left because they wanted to return to their home country and another 22 % give personal reasons as the main reason why they left. 3.6 The majority of the graduates who left have a successful career To further investigate the lost potential, we have conducted a tracing analysis of 46 graduates who are no longer residing in Denmark. As figure 7 shows, we found that more than three out of four or 34 of the graduates currently have a successful career in their relevant profession/discipline, while 10 have an uncertain career success meaning that the relevance of their job is unclear or we are unsure whether or not they are currently working. The remaining 2 graduates are likely to have a successful career. It is also worth noticing that most of the graduates who have left were satisfied or very satisfied with living in Denmark, which indicates that the majority of graduates didn t leave due to dissatisfaction with living in Denmark. As figure 7 shows, none of the graduates were dissatisfied with living in Denmark. However, around 22 % were only moderately satisfied or somewhat dissatisfied, which probably contributed to their decision to leave Denmark. FIGURE 7. Satisfaction with living in DK graduates who left Very satisfied Satisfied Of the 31 graduates who have a successful career only three are working for an international office of a Danish company. These graduates do not represent a loss of competence for the Danish labour market, but the remaining 28 are considered a loss for Denmark in terms of competencies. The loss of competencies is further emphasised by the fact that these graduates found employment in less than three months, and more than half of these graduates actually got their first job immediately after graduating. Another interesting finding is that none of the graduates have returned after leaving Denmark, hence the loss of competencies is permanent. Moderately satisfied Somewhat dissatified Dissatisfied Source: Survey DTU & ASB 2012, N=67 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 25

26 If we look at where the graduates had their first job, eight graduates had their first job in Denmark, eight worked in another European country and 23 had returned to their home country. Even though the vast majority of the graduates we traced graduated in 2009 or later, 15 (32 %) have moved from the country where they started their career to another country. For instance, of the eight graduates who worked in Denmark, four have returned to their home country while three have moved to another European country and one is currently living and working in the U.S. This is in line with research showing that students, particularly those who graduated abroad, are more mobile and more often search for and gain work experience abroad than students who have not studied abroad (Wiers- Jenssens 2008). Examples of graduates with a successful career ASB graduate in EU Business and Law, returned to home country, working as an independent legal advisor. ASB graduate in Finance and International Business, working in Slovakia as a Financial Analyst. ASB graduate in Marketing, working in Switzerland as Sales and Operations Planning Specialist. DTU graduate in Engineering Acoustics, working in the UK as a Research & Development Engineer. DTU graduate in Sustainable Energy, working in Switzerland as an engineer. DTU graduate in Software Engineering, working in home country as Embedded Software Engineer. FIGURE 8. Tracing of graduates who left Career sucess Country of first job Current country of residence 34 have a sucessful career Denmark (8) Home country (31) 2 are likely to have a sucessful career 10 are either not working or relevance of job is unclear Home country (23) Other European country (8) Information unavailable (7) European country (12) Outside EU (3) Source: DAMVAD, INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

27 3.7 Helping graduates get a job is essential if we want to keep them in Denmark The fact that many graduates leave after graduation and many of those who stayed are considering leaving points to the necessity of having different initiatives in place that can work towards retaining these graduates. As mentioned earlier, many of the graduates reasons for leaving or wanting to leave are related to issues that are difficult to do anything about. It is hard to have initiatives in place that will stop the graduates missing their family, it is difficult to change the living costs and it is impossible to do anything about the weather. But there are things that can be done in order to retain international graduates. As mentioned earlier, having a job is the number one factor and in the following we will look into the factors that are important in ensuring a good transition from education to job. through recommendations and job referrals. For instance one of the graduates we interviewed for the study was recruited after having returned to his home country by a Danish company working in the wind power industry, due to a recommendation from his thesis supervisor. In general, companies tend to put great emphasis on recommendations and referrals when hiring, and the graduates experience that these referrals are very effective and hence a job can be obtained even without it being formally announced. FIGURE 9. Graduates who found the following groups to be important or very important to their job search Former employers or colleagues Friends and family outside university A network is important when looking for a job A network is important when looking for a job, and can be a determining factor in getting employment after graduation (Shumilova & Cai 2011; Rambøll 2010:51). Fellow students/graduates Professors We cannot test how important a network has been to graduates because we do not have a reliable indicator that can measure whether a graduate has a network or not. However, in the survey we have looked at the importance of a network from different angles. For instance, we asked graduates how important various groups were to their job search. Around 38 % found former employees or colleagues and, respectively, friends and family outside the university and fellow students/graduates to be important or very important, c.f. figure 9. And finally, 34 % found that their professors had been important during their job search. There are many examples of graduates having found their job Source: Survey DTU and ASB 2012, N= 158 One of the reasons why relatively few graduates find that their network have been important during their job search may be attributed to the fact that many international graduates have a very limited network among Danes. Only 16 % indicate that they regularly socialise with Danes and that most of their friends are Danes. The large majority (70 %) sometimes socialise with Danes, but most of their friends are not Danes. The remaining graduates indicate that they do not socialise with Danes outside their workplace. Many graduates point out that part of the reason why international graduates INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 27

28 have a small network, especially among Danes are because Danes are not very social: The only Danish network I have are friends of my Danish boyfriend. It is difficult to engage with Danes. They are not very social. Mostly, they spend time at home. (Bulgarian graduate from ASB). Danes being difficult to become acquainted with is however not the only reason why international graduates have a small network among Danes, as there are many other contributing and intertwined factors. As a an interview person from the universities states, many internationals students have a tendency to group together. Sawir et al. explains this as being due to cultural loneliness triggered by the absence of a preferred and known cultural and/or linguistic environment (2008). The tendency to group is also strengthen by the fact that many international students are taught in classes with few or no Danes. A network is not only important when looking for a job, but is also closely related to social integration, since social integration is often facilitated through participation in social activities and having friendships with colleagues, fellow graduates, etc. (SFI 2011). As highlighted in chapter 2, researchers point to universities having a big role as facilitators of the graduates network-building and social integration. Many universities have events that are designed to broaden the international students network, and we will take a close look at this in chapter Student jobs and internships ease the transition from education to job Studies show that having a relevant student job reduces the risk of unemployment (Rambøll 2010; Shumilova & Cai 2011). As figure 10 shows, 40 % of the graduates had a student job during their studies. If we look at the difference between graduates there who are employed and the unemployed, there is an indication that the students who have had a student job during their studies have a higher employment rate that those who did not. Some 48 % of the employed had a student job, whereas 79 % of the unemployed did not. Relevant student jobs are not always easy to come by. One barrier is the actual supply of student jobs, which is dependent on the study programme as well as the location. Location in particular can be a huge barrier. For instance, the actual number of student jobs is much lower in Aarhus, where ASB is located, than in the Copenhagen were DTU is located, because many big companies and a large number of governmental agencies are located in the Copenhagen area. The task of finding a student job does not become any easier when you are an international student competing with Danish students, who are also looking for a student job. As an interview person from the universities points out, international students do however have an advantage in terms of their native language. If a small or medium size company is looking to export their goods to a new country, having a student who knows the language and the culture can be a determining factor in whether the company can enter the market or not. An interview person from one of the universities highlights that the cultures in different study programmes also play a role in how labour marketoriented the students are and subsequently how much effort they put into finding a student job. As she points out, some study programmes have a culture that encourages a focus on student jobs, while others encourage a focus on studying. The latter can be a contributing factor to graduates having an unclear idea about the labour market they are entering after graduation, since it does not encourage students to reflect upon what type of job 28 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

29 they want to pursue and what is important (student jobs, project work, etc.) in order to increase their chances of getting the job they want (Rambøll 2010:84). doing my thesis in collaboration with a company were a very good way of getting familiar with Danish working culture and getting to know how the Danish job market works. The importance of having a culture that encourages a focus on student jobs is further underlined in the interviews, where many graduates mentioned that their supervisors or professors through their personal or professional contacts have played a role in them getting a student job or internship. Getting a student job is also a way of gaining a foothold in the labour market. The interviews with the graduates reveal that many of the graduates are often employed by the company where they worked during their studies. And for companies who are reluctant to hire an international graduate, hiring an international student is less of a commitment and gives the company a change to see the advantages of having an international employee. Furthermore, student jobs, internships and project work are not just important because they can reduce the risk of unemployment, but also because they help the graduates gain a better understanding of the labour market both in terms of what companies are out there and in terms of how a Danish workplace operates. As a Moroccan graduate from DTU explains: The student jobs and Figure 11 also reveals that student jobs can help students get a clearer idea about the labour market works, given that a higher percentage of the graduates who had a student job during their studies indicate that they had a clear idea, or to some extent a clear idea, about the labour market operates as compared to the those who did not have a student job. FIGURE 11 Student jobs and clear idea about the Danish job market works Student assistant Not Student assistant Total No Yes, to some extent Yes Source: Survey DTU & ASB N= 158 FIGURE 10. Student jobs and employment graduates living in Denmark Total Unemployed Had a student job Didn't have a student job Employed 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Source: Survey ASB & DTU N= 158 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 29

30 Given that many of the international students have not had a student job or an internship during their studies, the role of universities in providing graduates with a clear idea of the Danish job market becomes crucial. We will explore what the universities do in order to give the international students familiarity with the Danish labour market in chapter Lack of languages skills is a barrier to getting a job In general, languages play a major role in whether or not international graduates find employment after graduation. As a representative from one of the universities points out, one of the reasons why international students often have an unclear idea of the labour market is because they don t have the ability to keep up with changes in the labour market due to language difficulties. For instance, keeping up with the news can give you an idea of where business is currently booming and hence which companies are hiring. This is especially important at the moment due to the financial crisis. According to the graduates, language is also one of the main barriers to getting a job, c.f. figure 12, and 62 % of the graduates have experienced linguistic or cultural barriers during their job search. The interviews highlight the fact that even big international companies say that Danish is mandatory. It is especially frustrating for the graduates when Danish is required for jobs where it would not substantially impact the outcome of tasks performed. For instance, a Bulgarian graduate states that she has been turned down by companies because of her lack of Danish skills, because much communication is in Danish even though the official working language is English. Another linguistic barrier is that most of the job ads are in Danish. Graduates perceive this as an indication that the companies prefer a Danish speaking candidate, which is probably also the case. As we see in chapter 5, the more international companies will usually have their job adds in English. Despite the job adds being in Danish, some of the FIGURE 12. Main barriers for getting a job in Denmark Language barriers Scarcity of positions / economic crisis Many competitors for each position Conservatism among hiring companies Discrimination because of race or nationality Lack of support from universities Cultural barriers Source: Survey DTU & ASB N= INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

31 graduates still send an application if they see the job to be one they would be able to fulfil. Another barrier that many graduates have encountered during their job search is conservatism and favouritism, i.e. the tendency to hire people who are like one s self. In the case of the international graduates, the favouritism manifests in Danes preferring to hire Danes. As one of the graduates put it: Danes tend to have a 'We welcome foreigners' policy, but in real life I experience it with the addition of but we prefer Danes'. In general many of the graduates have experiences where they felt that the company with the vacancy didn t even consider their application, but went straight for a Danish applicant. And one of the explanations that are offered is that Danish workplaces in general are very homogenous. As a Canadian graduate from DTU says: Look at the people who recruit. Most or all of them are Danish, and they look for someone Danish. Or look at the management or boards of the big companies. How many of them are internationals? Many of the graduates feel that their applications are being ignored just based on their surname and/or nationality. As one of them points out: There are a lot of cultural things, which I see are barriers to me finding a job. I think some Danish companies still think that some of the internationals are worth less and somehow Danes are on a higher level. Also, there is this mentality that they want a safe shot and therefore hire a Dane, because they know what they will get with a Dane. 3.8 Graduates can do a lot to ensure a successful transition from education to job The international graduates can do a lot to ease the transition from education to job and heighten their chances of getting a job in Denmark. Some of the advice from graduates to future international students coming to Denmark to study and work is listed below. Take Danish classes One of the main pieces of advice the international graduates offer future students coming to Denmark to study and work is to take advantages of the free Danish classes. Learning Danish even if it is only on a lower level will help the student find a job after graduation as well as facilitate social integration. Thus, a focus on learning a least some Danish is a good investment, if the international student is interested in working in Denmark after graduation. Build and use networks Networks are important when looking for a job, and many of the graduates recommend that future students focus on building a network among local as well as international students. One way of doing this is by doing project work in mixed groups, participating in career fairs and other events hosted by the university, participating in social activities and using alumni networks and other on-line networking Web sites such as LinkedIn. Use the services provided by the university The universities provide a number of services that are designed to help students in the transition from education to job (see chapter 5). The services include CV writing courses and networking events. Participating will help the students get a broader network and a clearer idea of the Danish job market. International students need to be aware that getting a job in Denmark builds on your own initiative and become better at using the possibilities the universities offer, e.g. for building networks by joining the alumni associations, etc. INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 31

32 Look for a student job, internship or project work A student job or internship is considered to be a way of gaining job experience, gaining a foothold in the job market and a clearer idea of the job market. Many graduates have found a job after graduation based on their student job and the connections they made there, and they recommend future students find a relevant student job even if it is just for a couple of hours a week. Paid student jobs and internships can be difficult to find, and for many students working for free just to get the experience is not an option as it depends on having the time and income to cover their expenses. In this case, doing project work for a company can be a good alternative. 32 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

33 4 The company perspective challenges of diversity Previous research reviewed in chapter 2 suggested that there are many benefits related to the integration of international graduates into the labour market, and thus having a more culturally diverse workforce. Among these are better resource acquisition, increased possibilities for marketing and better problem-solving. Previous studies also showed, however, that there are many challenges related to integrating international co-workers into a company. In conclusion, it was suggested that companies should adapt their organisational cultures and management practices by establishing a relational culture that cherishes uniqueness and differences, a corporate strategy that emphasises the importance of multiple perspectives, enabling cross-cultural teamwork, full integration of members of minority cultural groups into the formal organisation as well as informal networks (Cox and Blake 1991; Konrad 2006; Chavez & Weisinger 2008, Wong 2008). Following previous research, in this chapter we look into what benefits Danish companies receive by employing international graduates. We also investigate obstacles to the integration of global talent and how companies tackle them and manage for diversity. 4.1 Main results The companies interviewed for this study experience many benefits with employing international graduates. Benefits include access to growing markets, access to a larger pool of talented workers and contributions to innovation. The benefits apply to SMEs as well as large international companies Although 81 % of international graduates working in Denmark are either very satisfied or satisfied with their job this does not mean that there are no obstacles to international graduates when it comes to working in Denmark. Some 48% of international graduates have experienced cultural and linguistic barriers at their workplace. Most relate to social integration and barriers include being excluded from work-related tasks because other team members insist on speaking Danish, feelings of social isolation due to the reservedness of Danes, too much cultural subtext taken for granted when communicating, etc. The study shows that the companies interviewed manage for diversity but only to some degree, e.g. 82 % of international graduates have managers that are competent in dealing with culturally diverse employees. But of these, more than a third (30 %) work in organisations where this is only to a moderate extent and 84 % work in an inclusive environment, but for a little less than a third of these (25 %) this is only to a moderate extent. The companies interviewed for the study use different tools to integrate international graduates, depending on company size. Large companies in the sample use graduate programmes, buddy programmes, courses in Danish culture, etc., while SMEs seem to rely on more pragmatic approaches. Most initiatives are viewed as beneficial by the international graduates. More than 80 % of those international graduates who have experienced one or more initiatives to integrate them in the workplace have found them beneficial to a moderate, large or very large extent. However, initiatives aimed at ensuring social integration through collaboration with colleagues are perceived as the most useful. INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 33

34 4.2 Many benefits of hiring international graduates In an effort to understand and investigate the benefits of hiring international graduates, we have carried out 10 in-depth qualitative interviews with Danish companies that hire international graduates. The companies interviewed spanned from some of the largest companies in Denmark (and of these some of the heavyweights of Danish-based internationalised companies employing more than 10,000 people globally) to SMEs. The interview approach allowed us to get insights on the types of benefits companies gain from hiring international graduates. Access to growing international markets One of the key reasons for employing international candidates is based on the marketing argument (Cox and Blake (1991). Accordingly, international candidates contribute insight and cultural sensitivity from their home countries, which can be utilised in the marketing of products in these countries. Globalisation and internationalisation are key focus areas in companies such as Novo Nordisk, Vestas, Danfoss and Grundfos, which have established production sites all over the world, and on increasing scale also facilities for research and development. The qualitative interviews with these companies indicate a high and explicit awareness of the benefits of attracting and maintaining global talent. They were all quite clear about their strategy in terms of selecting the most relevant workforce for these international ventures. The international candidates and graduates have very valuable knowledge of various global markets which will benefit Novo Nordisk when entering new markets or expanding in existing ones. Indeed, international outlook and market knowledge are increasingly important for companies in their navigation in different markets and different cultures. Grundfos expresses the benefits of employing international candidates: An important reason for hiring international candidates at Grundfos is to support the attribute of being a global company. It is essential for Grundfos to have dedicated employees with a solid knowledge of international markets and cultures. Companies interviewed for the study include some of the largest and most well-known companies in Denmark, such as Danfoss, Grundfos, RAMBØLL, Oticon, Vestas and Siemens Windpower, as well as SMEs such as Advance and Danish Commodities. The international staff contributes to developing an international mindset, but also offers insight into global markets and support the establishment and operation of business units around the world. For Vestas, as a global company, it is necessary to have people from different parts of the world who can help us understand business processes in countries where we currently are operating as well as countries to which we wish to expand our market presence in the future. In this sense the international candidates contribute financially and culturally to the development of the core businesses of the companies. But, companies interviewed do often not distinguish between Danish and international candidates in the selection of candidates for these positions. Danfoss values employees with a global mindset, be it internationals or Danes. It is impossible to generalise this, for a Dane with international work experience might have a stronger global mindset than, say, a Chinese with very specific technical competencies. This being said, the companies 34 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

35 also highly value the international candidates from Danish universities as they are already to some extent familiar with the Danish culture and manner of working through their education. Do graduates function as ambassadors for Denmark? In this report it has only been possible to touch on the question of whether graduates from Danish universities function as ambassadors for Danish trade and businesses if they return to their home country. The question is whether studying at a Danish university makes one more interested in cooperating with Danish companies, importing Danish goods, etc., in one s later working life? The assumption seems reasonable based on the fact that many graduates have a strong emotional connection to their alma mater, e.g. one of the local chapters of DTU alumni in China is called: We live in Shanghai, but love DTU. The whole issue of using graduates from Danish universities as a local network seems to still be undeveloped and unexplored in an export policy perspective. The small and medium sized companies also find themselves in a position where they are working in an increasing number of countries. But here, the internationalisation process is seen as a rather new phenomenon. This development has accelerated in the past 2-3 years and will probably accelerate in the future. [...] A lot of our clients are Danish companies, but at the same time very international as well. We are following them into international markets. Up to 70 % of our business is international now. (Advance). The increasing number of activities in foreign markets implies a simple need for employees with new language and cultural skills. What we experience, especially in Eastern Europe, is that the culture is very important and it helps to have employees who speak the language. [...] We see it as a strength that somebody has a background from another country, because we are primarily a Danish company, but we work on a European level. The internationals have the same competencies as the Danes apart from the native language which is an advantage. (Danish Commodities). Access to a pool of global talent Another major reason for having global talent refers to the resource acquisition argument (Cox and Blake, 1991). According to this argument, companies will seek to recruit and integrate international graduates in order to gain access to a larger pool of talented workers. The relatively large number of Danish companies that are dependent on development of their engineering and technological competences are especially challenged by a shortage of specialised labour within science and engineering as well as other specialised skills. All the large companies stated in these interviews that the need to attract the best specialists in the world within specific desired fields. In one company this strategy is articulated explicitly: Novo Nordisk strives to be No. 1 not only in Denmark but in the World. To be able to reach this goal, it is crucial to attract talent from all over the world. Specialised competencies are very sought after, especially by companies involved with product development and manufacturing. Oticon hires quite a few specialists from Sweden because of a specific master s programme in audiology in Lund, and Vestas also looks beyond Danish boarders to find skilled staff. The international staff is very desirable for Vestas because they often possess skills that are not possible to find within the borders of Denmark.... Rambøll also states that the main motivation for hiring international candidates is to get their hands on the specialised experts within their fields of interest. INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 35

36 Companies with a main focus on resource acquisition welcome international candidates with a Danish master s degree, but they are one source of global talent among other sources. Novo Nordisk states that: The international candidates who have graduated from a Danish university are very skilled, motivated and strong individuals. They have to be, because they do not get a lot of support. International staff also provide a possibility to additionally attract people with the desired competences. Networks are also important some internationals might already have or it might be easier for them to get access to networks in other countries. Some internationals have access to strong networks of expats in Denmark. This useful for us if we suddenly need a freelancer with a certain background, English, Belgian, etc.. (Advance). Contributions to innovation The large, internationally oriented companies in our sample are very outspoken in their promotion of the benefits of having a multicultural workforce. The multicultural organisation is argued (Konrad, 2006) to be more effective at innovation and problem-solving. Accordingly, teams of employees with different perspectives, backgrounds and mindsets are expected to bring a greater variety of resources and intellect to decision-making processes. Companies that focus on innovation as a key driver to create products and services in particular expressed the idea that diversity and different perspectives and mindsets support the innovation process: Novo Nordisk has the overall philosophy that diversity and different perspectives lead to innovation. The idea of developing a diversity-oriented corporate culture is expressed by several of the larger companies. The international staff (...) can contribute their views and ways of thinking, which can be crucial to the decisions and developments taking place within the company. (Vestas). This is an example of the problem-solving argument (Cox and Blake, 1991), according to which heterogeneity in the problem-solving groups is expected to produce better decisions by including a wider range of perspectives. A perspective that applies to the whole workforce and not just to the international staff. Grundfos promotes an approach and a mindset where holistic thinking is valued and where all people contribute to finding solutions to problems. Along with this increased focus on globalisation come incentives to integrate and retain the global talent for the company in order to maintain and continue to grow their expertise and leading role in the international markets. In conclusion, a lot of benefits have been identified for Danish companies employing international graduates interviewed for this study. In the next section, we look into some of the obstacles encountered when it comes to recruiting and retaining international graduates. As mentioned above, results from previous studies and theoretical discussion have pointed to psychological as well as to intra-organisational barriers. 4.3 International graduates are mostly happy about working in Denmark, but also experience obstacles If we look at the integration into the workplace from the graduates perspectives, the survey shows that most international graduates working in Denmark are happy about their jobs with 81 % of the graduates either being satisfied or very satisfied about their current job in Denmark. Another 15 % are 36 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

37 moderately satisfied and 4 % are dissatisfied or very dissatisfied. FIGURE 13. In general, how satisfied are you with your current job? FIGURE 14. Have you experienced cultural or linguistic barriers to being integrated into your work place in Denmark? Very satisfied Satisfied No Yes Moderately satisfied Dissatisfied Source: Survey DTU &ASB, N= 135 Source: Survey DTU & ASB, N= 135 This is a very positive result. However, it does not mean that there are no obstacles for international graduates when it comes to working in Denmark. Some 48 % of international graduates report that they have experienced cultural and linguistic barriers at their workplace (see figure 14). Barriers seem to be more connected to psychological than organisational barriers (cf. Konrad 2006). We find from the qualitative interviews and comments of international graduates that the main barrier is language. This seems to be a problem especially concerning small talk and informal/social communication between colleagues. Danish is often used for informal talks between colleagues at lunch or social gatherings, such as Friday breakfasts. Many of the international graduates experience on social occasions that their Danish colleagues immediately tend to forget that not everybody speaks Danish. Very dissatisfied Others feel that you have to have a high level of proficiency in Danish, even when it comes to taking part in social occasions. Some feel that even after several years of being in Denmark and speaking Danish it is hard to be taken seriously in a discussion with colleagues when the conversation is in Danish. Some language problems are related to performance of work-related tasks. Despite declarations of English being the company language, some documents may still be in Danish. The international graduates interviewed for the study describe it as a long process of several years of switching the work language to English, where many important documents are still in Danish. The Danish or English as a working language issue can also affect work-related meetings. A young female engineer from Asia, educated at DTU and working at a large Danish company states: When I am the only non-danish speaking person at a meeting, they just hold the meeting in Danish. I feel very uncomfortable. INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 37

38 Judging from the qualitative interview there seems to be three main concerns from the perspective of international graduates when it comes to cultural problems. One is connected with the reservedness of Danes, the other with national stereotyping of foreigners, either tacitly or expressed. The third is connected with Danish employees and employers sometimes forgetting that working in a culturally diverse environment sometimes means that more time should be spent on explaining decisions and communicating. Many international graduates report experiencing that their Danish colleagues as very reserved and difficult to get to know personally. In their experience, Danes tend to value their comfort zone highly and do not open up easily. A young engineer from Spain, educated at DTU and working at an international company in Denmark, says: Danish people are very hard to get to know personally. People are friendly and helpful at the workplace, but it is difficult to meet people after work. They are hard to get to know. Back home I would have made lots of friends after having worked somewhere for 1½ years. This is very different from her experience of the study environment at DTU, which was very international. In contrast, her working experience is very Danish and a bit lonely. An Asian graduate working in the financial sector and who had held several specialised jobs at several companies in Denmark recounted several failed initiatives where he has tried to make contact with Danish colleagues and dryly remarked: This country has only opened up recently. A Moroccan engineer, who has lived in Denmark for 14 years and works as a specialist in the private telecommunications sector, says Danes don t speak a lot. But in the end you get it. You don t have to socialise with Danes. You can just watch television and read the newspaper. And this is said even though he is very happy about living in Denmark and his education at DTU. Based on the qualitative interviews, a second obstacle to the integration of international graduates seems to be cultural misunderstandings or national stereotyping of international graduates by some of their Danish colleagues. This is sometimes just felt and at other times expressed more or less openly. One example is jokes of the Danish black humour type based on national stereotypes about Southern Europeans, Eastern Europeans or Asians regardless of whether they apply to the person in question or not. An Italian engineer reports that he is often blamed on the basis on Danish stereotypes of Italians and Southern Europeans for everything from the delay of IC 4 trains to the sinking of the cruise ship Costa Concordia. This is probably not meant in a negative way by his colleagues, but from their side as an example of friendly teasing. But the joke is lost in translation, and ends up by being offensive to their international colleague. We found a third factor connected with international graduates feeling that their Danish colleagues and employers sometimes take a lot of cultural subtext for granted and fail to explain the reasoning behind decisions and to communicate such. Some of the persons interviewed point to Danish companies being blind to seeing that their decisions have a cultural component and may need more explaining or introduction when some of the workforce has an international background. For some international graduates, there are cultural things at the workplace that are difficult to understand. An engineer with a Canadian background who has worked at several SMEs in Denmark says Everybody in Denmark thinks that they are not culturally biased, but they are. There is a certain way of thinking that is very Danish. This 38 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

39 points to the fact that working in an international environment takes more explaining and communication of decisions than when working in a fully Danish environment. Having thus investigated the barriers, we will change our focus and investigate what companies can do to integrate international graduates and overcome the barriers. In other words, we will look at whether and how they manage for diversity. 4.4 Companies have started managing for diversity but there is still some way to go In previous research, it is suggested that companies need to change their practices and manage for diversity, e.g. through establishing a relational culture that cherishes uniqueness and differences, full integration of members of minority culture groups into the formal organisation as well as into informal networks. In the following section we look more closely into what initiatives Danish companies take in order to tackle the challenges involved with attracting, recruiting and retaining international graduates. We have asked international graduates from DTU and ASB to characterise the companies they are working for in Denmark in terms of diversity management. Results show that most companies employing international graduates manage for diversity, but only to a certain extent. E.g. results show that 68 % of international graduates work in a company characterised by HR policies and practices that value diversity. However, of these, almost half of them (32 %) work in companies that only to moderate extent have HR policies and practices that support diversity (figure 15). Some 75 % of international graduates work in a company with an organisational culture that values diversity, and of these a third (26 %) work in organisations that only do so to a moderate extent. Another 82 % have managers that are competent in dealing with culturally diverse employees. But, of FIGURE 15. To what extent is your company characterised by HR policies and practices that support diversity Adaptive and flexible procedures and practices An organizational culture that values diversity Managers competent in dealing with culturally diverse employees An inclusive environment Colleagues willing to speak English No or very little extent little extent moderate extent large extent very large extent English as the official business language Source: Survey ASB & DTU, N= INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 39

40 these, more than a third (30 %) work in organisations where this only happens to a moderate extent and 84 % work in an inclusive environment, but for a little less than a third of these (25 %), this is only to a moderate extent. The results indicate that the companies employing international graduates from DTU and ASB are aware of the challenges of increasing diversity and are actively working towards accommodating a more diverse organisation. However, at least from the graduates point of view, there is still some way to go before companies are fully adjusted to accommodate internationals. In the following sections we will look more closely at the specific initiatives taken by companies to integrate international graduates. 4.5 Specific initiatives to integrate global talent Figure 16 shows the specific initiatives that companies international graduates from ASB and DTU work for have taken to facilitate their integration. The results show that most companies support integration of international graduates. Results generally show that companies take an active approach to integrating international graduates into the company. However, the results also show that in a lot of companies the initiatives are not that different from how newly graduated Danish employees are integrated in the company. A total of 83 % were introduced to the other organisational members, and 77 % had a programme where they collaborated with other colleagues and 76 % had an official introductory programme. Fewer organisations place an emphasis on initiatives aimed directly at international graduates. A total of 62 % work in organisations that hold official meetings and gatherings in English, while 53 % work at a company that provided a mentor for international graduates, who helped with personal and professional challenges. Some 40 % were offered courses in Danish language and culture and 38 % administrative help with visas and accommodations. We give some in-depth examples below of the dif- FIGURE 16. Employer support for integration of graduates into the workplace through Integrators (social and cultural integration Job rotation Administrative help with visa, accommodation, Danish language and cultural courses A mentor, who provided you with personal and Job related training Official meetings and social gatherings in English An organizational introductory program Collaborate with different colleagues on Introduction of you to the other organizational Yes no Source: Survey 40 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

41 ferent initiatives and strategies of the companies interviewed and their experiences with them based on the qualitative interviews with companies. Graduate programmes In order to support the recruitment of the newly graduated candidates, large Danish companies like Novo Nordisk, Vestas, Siemens Windpower, Danfoss and Grundfos have internationally based graduate-programmes that let graduates work in a number of different departments or areas either in their country of origin or at different country sites. At Danfoss, e.g., the graduates are employed in their country of origin and then work in three different countries as part of the programme. It happens fairly often that some of these graduates are eventually employed in Denmark either in a timelimited contract or as a regular hire. In most cases, the graduates who are employed in Denmark after finishing the graduate programme are the ones who have shown an ability to adapt to Danish culture and working conditions. As Danfoss emphasises: Those with a global mindset and outreach as well as the ability to adapt to the Danish culture and context are the candidates we fall for. As mentioned above, a major problem of more diverse organisations highlighted in the theoretical literature is the social integration of international graduates. At Siemens Windpower, the graduate programme aimed at the most talented new employees has specific focus on social integration. About 50 % of the participants in the programme are international graduates from universities in Denmark or abroad. The graduate programme furthers social integration through events, buddies, a special graduate programme board, invite-a-colleague-home initiatives, etc. Social integration is viewed as a strategic challenge in facilitating the retention of the valuable graduates of the programme, especially due to the location of the headquarters of the company in a small Danish town in the middle of Jutland. However, some of the other smaller companies also have introductory programmes and/or a mentor/buddy who the newly employed candidates can ask for help and who will provide a thorough introduction to the workplace. Helping out with accommodation and practical issues Companies approaching the international candidates as a strategic resource make it easier for themselves to attract global talent by providing accommodations, job consultations for spouses and advice on how to navigate in the very complex Danish society. Companies located in parts of Denmark other than the Copenhagen area in particular recognise that they need to do a lot to attract both Danish and international candidates. Here, assistance with housing is one of the key selling points. Another company situated in Jutland states, however, that they do not offer any specific services for the internationals because they do not distinguish between Danish and international candidates. Danish language courses as a vehicle for social integration The ways of supporting integration of international staff are mainly concerned with the Danish language and understanding the culture. Almost all of the large companies interviewed offer Danish lessons, while the smaller companies may refer internationals to courses offered by local municipalities. Again, this is not necessarily done because the candidates need the skills at work, but for their own sake since this will help them to become more integrated in the Danish society during their leisure time. INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 41

42 Cultural courses as a mutual learning activity Companies feel very strongly that cultural courses prove to be very beneficial for both companies and international candidates. The reason is that these courses not only teach the newly hired candidates how to manage in the specific company, but also how to manage in Danish society. The cultural courses are often offered to everybody in the organisation, with this contributing to making social integration a mutual learning situation and not just an activity aimed at the international part of the workforce. In the same way of thinking, Advance states: It s important to us to be considerate of Danes and internationals at the same time. We don t want either of the parties to feel uncomfortable. Thus it is nice if internationals can follow a meeting in Danish. Danish is useful for small talk and sometimes for customers as well. We don t want to force our Danish employees to speak English all of the time. It s a good thing if an international can follow a social talk in Danish. Another interesting trend identified in the company interviews is that some companies with a specific international focus also educate their current staff to interact with cultures other than Danish culture. Globalisation is very important to Grundfos and we are currently establishing different Centres of Competences around the world. In the light of the vision to increase the number of international employees dramatically in the next few years, Grundfos offers cultural courses giving employees the knowledge and tools on how to handle themselves in different cultures. been employed in Denmark but are going to be stationed abroad, to lead e.g. a department in India, on how to tackle cultural differences. Informal communication However, several of the companies also admit that even though they feel their employees are quite inclusive, there is still a way to go. Especially when it comes to the informal lunch setting at one of the large companies that is doing a lot for integration, an international employee states that some of the employees live by the rule that When you are not working [e.g. at lunchtime], then you are not working!. Hence, you cannot be obliged to speak English. When the companies interviewed were asked what the main obstacles to integrating international candidates were, those currently focusing on expanding their services to the international market, such as Rambøll, reflected that one of the challenges is to change the mindsets of their current employees. The employees need to be open to invite in people from different cultures and they need to be willing to speak English instead of Danish. A similar view is found at Grundfos, a company with an established international outreach. The main challenge for Grundfos in terms of integrating international candidates into the organisation is first of all to attract them! Another challenge is then to enable the organisation in terms of its current employees to embrace international opportunities and thus take new colleagues in without hesitation. This is a very important aspect when striving for a more international atmosphere at the company. At Danfoss, they do not provide any cultural courses to teach international candidates about how to engage in Danish culture. To the contrary, Danfoss is more focused on preparing people who have For smaller and younger organisations, the task of social integration may be different: Internationals are often very involved in the social life of our company, because they are less settled than their 42 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

43 Danish colleagues. This is great as viewed from an employer s perspective. A lot of them are moving round a lot. (Advance). And for others. integration is greatly facilitated by everybody being very young and thus more flexible: We are a very young company everybody is under 40. This means most people are very social they feel like participating in social events. This makes integration a lot easier (Grown-Up). Advance started to hire employees with an international background 2-3 years ago. The reason for this was that a lot of the Danish clients of the agency were becoming more and more international and thus the agency was brought along with them into international markets. Since then, the agency has reoriented its strategy towards more and more international assignments. About 8-10 out of 80 employees currently have an international background and the company benefits greatly form their competencies, e.g. language skills and local knowledge about markets and networks. The company has adopted a pragmatic strategy towards integrating employees with an international background in order to strike a balance between the needs of its Danish and international employees. Nowadays, the company has changed its focus to a strict focus on competencies and is less observant of whether people come from Nørresundby or Lithuania. The two first hires of people with an international background were described as difficult and caused a lot of organisational anxiety about how to do things. But after those the company became confident of it being capable of recruiting and retaining employees with an international background. SMEs seem to be engaging the issue quite pragmatically as e.g. Danish Commodities in relation to Danish lessons and much talk in Danish: We say that we would like them to take a course in Danish if they don t speak it because of the importance of language to social integration [...]. We encourage people to speak in English. Finding relevant career paths to retain the internationals As highlighted in the theoretical literature, a major challenge for the integration of international graduates is making sure that there are relevant career paths for them. In this respect, there are a number of initiatives that vary from company to company in the study. An engineering consultancy company has earmarked 2 % of its company revenue for educating the employees in terms of courses and conferences. The same company has different career paths within the company for the employees to follow, and they use the MUS talks (a scheme for employee development dialogues) to align the wishes of the employee with the possibilities within the company. Another company working in engineering design and manufacturing focuses on being able to provide interesting jobs at other company sites around the world, should the job at a Danish site not continue to be attractive. This is done based on previous experiences that international candidates often have a lifestyle that makes them come to a country and work for some years before moving on to the next. By offering stationing in other countries, the company makes sure that the knowledge and skills of the employee remains inside the company, although at a different location. The smaller companies are often quite pragmatic concerning the career paths. A lot of the international graduates we employ are very pragmatic. They are happy to get a job in Copenhagen in the beginning, because it is not that easy. We find out later how they can be developed, but since we are INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 43

44 a very flat organisation there isn t a long career path. I would say their personality determines a lot about their career paths. (Advance). 4.6 Usefulness of integration initiatives One thing is the specific initiatives that are offered, another is how useful they are. In the following section we look more closely at how useful the graduates find integration initiatives at their work place to be. Bear in mind that this is not related specifically to the companies interviewed. In general, results show that international graduates do find initiatives to integrate them at their workplace to be useful. More than 80 % of those international graduates from ASB and DTU who have experienced one or more initiatives to integrate them into the workplace have found them to be beneficial to a moderate, large or very large extent. However, if you analyse the answers more closely, there are differences between the perceived usefulness of each initiative. Not surprisingly, 80 % view opportunities to collaborate with different colleagues as beneficial to a large or very large extent, whereas having a mentor, job rotation or job-related training is viewed as beneficial to a large or very large extent by % of the graduates. Introductory programs, administrative help with visas, Danish language and culture courses are found very useful or useful by 43 % 63 %. These results indicate that work-related integration, instead of special programmes, is viewed as the most important factor. This is an interesting result and in accordance with findings from previous research (e.g. Wong 2008, Chazez and Weisinger 2008). 4.7 What can companies do to integrate better? Results show that even though most graduates are satisfied with their work in Denmark, there are still challenges to be tackled in relation to the integra- FIGURE 17. To what extent did you find the different initiatives beneficial for your integration into the workplace? Danish language and culture courses An organizational introductory program Administrative help with visa, Integrators Appropriate introduction of you to others Meetings and social gatherings in English Job related training Job rotation A mentor No or very little extent little extent moderate extent large extent very large extent Opportunities to colleborate with different Source: Survey DTU & ASB 44 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

45 tion of international graduates. Results indicate that most Danish companies are still in the process of learning how to manage for diversity. As chapter 3 showed, gaining access to the Danish labour market is difficult for most graduates and after recruitment international graduates still face many challenges. Companies can do a lot to ease the transition from education to job and heighten their chances of successful integration: See the value in international graduates and acknowledge the benefits of access to a larger talent pool, local knowledge about new markets and the values of diversity for innovation, flexibility and problem solving. Make openness a cultural value in the organisation e.g. openness to language as a practical communication problem. You do not need to speak Danish perfectly to be able to communicate. Make it a value to be friendly and open to co-workers with an international background. Remember that decisions and communication are cultured. Take time to also explain and make communication transparent internationals. At the same time do not be shy about insisting on integration being a two-way street, e.g. by suggesting that international employees develop their Danish-related competencies. INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 45

46 5 The university perspective bridging study and working life In chapter 2, previous research on integration of international graduates was reviewed. Research from Australia, Canada and Finland showed that in many countries international students face challenges when studying as well as when looking for a job in their host countries. These challenges include a lack of working experience, a lack of knowledge of cultural and linguistic competences as well as outright discrimination. In the literature, it was suggested that universities take a proactive rather than reactive role in addressing the challenges faced by international students and helping them overcome them, including help with professional integration and the creation of stronger bonds between international and local students in the educational setting (Kamara & Gambold (2011), James and Otsuka (2007), Sawir et al. (2008); Dunn & Oliver (2011)). In this chapter we investigate what universities as the third part of the triangle in our theoretical framework is doing, how they prepare international graduates and introduce them to the Danish labour market, and if and how they engage companies in the area in order to bridge study and working life for international graduates. We also look into how graduates from ASB and DTU perceive the role of universities and investigate how international students perceive their study experience has prepared them for getting a job in Denmark. Finally, we look at how international graduates evaluate the universities initiatives in this area and present suggestions for improving the role of universities. 5.1 Main results ASB and DTU are among some of the most active universities in Denmark when it comes to offering services to international full degree students and graduates. In recent years, the approach of the universities towards facilitating the integration of international graduates into the labour market has improved greatly and in the direction of an approach, where universities take proactive action to tackle some of the challenges they know international graduates will face when graduating. However, due to the fact that internationalisation of master programmes on a large scale is a rather recent phenomenon, initiatives aimed at facilitating the transfer to the labour market for graduates are still rather dispersed and are run by project organisations dependent on external funding or many separate actors. The survey among international graduates, show that 91 % of international graduates from DTU and ASB find it very important or important that the university provides an introduction to the labour market. At the same time, 19 % of international graduates feel they were given information about the Danish labour market during their studies and 55 % that they were given information to a certain degree. And 31 % find that they did not receive information about the labour market. The qualitative interview with graduates - indicate a great contrast between the study experience at DTU or ASB and the labour market, because the study environment at both universities is very international and English, whereas working life afterwards, even at large companies, is described by many as very Danish. Also, student life is described as being sharply divided between Danish and international students in group work, etc. Results demonstrate the need for services that help international graduates integrate into the Danish labour market, such as the services 46 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

47 provided by career centres and InterRessource, but also indicate that Danish universities need a more strategic approach in this area if the policy goal of retaining more international graduates in Denmark is to be achieved. 5.2 DTU s and ASB s approaches to integration of international graduates into the labour market It is important to keep in mind, when analysing what universities do to integrate international graduates into the labour market that the internationalisation of master programmes at Danish universities on a large scale is a rather recent phenomenon. At ASB and DTU the majority of master programmes were taught in Danish until 2007/2008. As mentioned in the introduction this fact is mirrored in the number of international students that graduate pr. year with a master s degree from a Danish university. In the years it more than quadrupled (from 272 to 1302) c.f. figure 18. This means that the initiatives for facilitating the integration of international graduates into the labour market are relatively new and still being developed. When looking into ASB s and DTU s initiatives to integrate international students and graduates, we use a simple distinction from previous research and differentiate between reactive and proactive approaches to student services (Liesl and Gambold 2011). What is meant by a reactive approach is that services for international students and graduates are aimed at those who actively seek out and locate the available resources. In contrast, what is meant by a proactive approach is that universities take action to tackle some of the challenges they know international graduates will face before they arise. E.g. holding introduction weeks where international students can mingle and make friends can be viewed as proactive way of preventing social isolation and loneliness during studying. In later years, the approach to the integration of international graduates of the two universities has developed a lot and changed in the direction of a proactive approach. However, the integration of FIGURE 18. Number of international graduates from Danish universities (master level) Source:SiU 2011 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 47

48 international graduates into the labour market is not a part of the universities strategy for internationalisation. Representatives from DTU describe the approach to facilitating the integration of international graduates as more of a mindset or general idea than a strategy as such. At ASB the role of the university in facilitating the transition to the labour market is not mentioned in the university s internationalisation strategy. The lack of strategic focus might explain why initiatives aimed at facilitating international graduates transitions to the labour market are still rather dispersed and run by project organisations dependent on external funding or many separate actors. The services aiming at international students fall in two categories. One is connected to introducing students and graduates to how the labour market in Denmark works, how to write a CV and cover letter etc. The other category of services focus on making contact with companies and making them aware of the value of international students and graduates, either directly through visiting the companies or by building venues where international graduates and companies can get in contact (focus nights, career fairs or alumni network). Below we present some of the major services for international graduates in detail. ASB At ASB, help with gaining access to the Danish labour market has traditionally been the responsibility of the career centre. ASB has had rather strong traditions in this field compared with other parts of Aarhus University. However, most of the focus of the career centre has traditionally been on Danish students. In order to strengthen the focus and help for international full degree students in the Aarhus area, InterResource, a project funded by the EU and the Central Denmark Region, was created in 2009 with the aim of creating contact between international graduates and Danish businesses. It involves three partner institutions: Aarhus University, the Aarhus School of Architecture, and AU Herning. The project has one full-time employee and a contact person at each of the three participating institutions, as well as a number of student assistants and is running until InterResource devotes a lot of time to visiting companies in the Central Denmark Region. A specific focus is on small and medium-sized companies as the region is characterised by a lot of these companies and since it is often most difficult for international graduates to be employed by these companies. The visits focus on introducing companies to the possibility of hiring international graduates, as well as the opportunity to collaborate with international students on projects or demonstrating the benefits to smaller and medium-sized companies of employing international students or graduates, in terms of productivity, access to new markets and/or skills. InterRessource is in this respect an interesting example of the university taking an active role in relation to bridging study life and working life and working as a proactive mediator between international students/graduates and companies. InterResource also organises activities preparing international students for the labour market and job search. Among these are courses and counselling in how to write a CV and cover letter and preparation for job interviews, as well as general guidance on the Danish job market. Basic introductions in these areas is very useful. International graduates often need guidance on how to write a Danish CV and cover letter, as the proper way to do this differs from country to country. 48 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

49 Since 2009, more and more events have been produced in co-operation with ASB s career centre. Originally the career centre didn t have many events in English, but now a lot of the workshops of the centre are being held in English as well as Danish. Even Danish students sometimes show up for the workshops in English, if the timeslots of the workshops in Danish are inconvenient. Other interesting initiatives of the career centre include JobShadow, where graduate students are allowed to shadow an employee in a company for a whole working day in order to gain insight into work life, tasks within a specific field or job etc. centre has a coaching approach to career guidance that places an emphasis on the graduates themselves formulating their competences and wishes for a career. As at ASB, the career centre offers courses in writing CVs and cover letters and offers individual feedback on applications. In recent years, workshops on resumes and submitting applications in Danish are also held in English. In addition to this IDA also conducts a Working and living in Denmark event. The event is an introduction to the do s and don ts of the Danish job market and covers topics like workplace culture, taxes, salaries and social security. DTU At DTU, too, there has also been a trend in the direction of more a proactive approach towards helping international graduates be integrated into the labour market. However, the effort is organised by several different departments and organisations at DTU. Some of the initiatives are organised by the career centre, others by the student organisation, De Studerendes Erhvervskontakt (DSE), or the Danish Engineering Association (IDA). In addition to this, DTU took part in a project similar to InterResource, called International Students International career (ISIC) in the period of The project was hosted by IDA, the Danish Society of Engineers, and funded by The Capital Region of Denmark and the European Social Fund. The goal of the project was to retain more international students in the Greater Copenhagen area, as well as to facilitate contacts between international students, companies and Danish society through several project activities. A lot of the services aimed at introducing students and graduates to how the labour market in Denmark works are organised by the career centre. The career centre offers courses as well as individual career advice for all graduate students. The Some of the major services that function as a venue for creating contact between companies and international students and graduates are organised by DSE. DSE organises yearly a 2-day DSE Fair at DTU, where more than 100 companies introduce themselves and talk to graduates, both Danish and internationals. For the last several years, the catalogue and the framing of the event have been in English, even though some company presentations are still in Danish. Another DSE-organised event is Focus Nights, where 4-8 companies give short two-minute presentations. The companies are obliged to bring something to the dating event, an internship, job or student job or a project idea for a dissertation and the event is centred around filling the positions with one of the company s dates. In addition to these events, DTU has a Job Bank, where jobs are advertised as well as jobs from other job-related sites. The DTU Job Bank is currently the third-largest job site for engineers. There is a separate interface to the Job Bank in English. Finally, DTU Alumni offers access to a database with more than 17,000 graduates of DTU and a LinkedIn group of more than 7,000 graduates. In INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 49

50 the database as well as the LinkedIn network, it is possible to see where other graduates, international as well as Danish, are working. This is another example of an initiative that focusses on the university taking an active part in building bridges between university and work life. The database and LinkedIn group offer the possibility of students and graduates contacting other DTU graduates working at a company they are interested in and researching possibilities of getting hired, what competencies the company values etc. Thus, the database and the LinkedIn group give access to a network, which the analysis in chapter 3 showed international graduates usually lack. There is no evidence yet of how many use this network, but DTU Alumni are currently considering how to improve the use of the network for job searching purposes. In the next section we will look into how international graduates view the importance of an introduction to the labour market in Denmark and how they evaluate current initiatives by the universities. 5.3 International graduates place an emphasis on introduction to the Danish labour market As part of the study, an investigation was performed of how international graduates view the importance of having an introduction to the labour market in Denmark and how they evaluate the efforts of the two universities. When reading the results, it is important to keep in mind that, as mentioned, the period studied in this report covers graduates from , i.e. the study years During this period, the services offered for international graduates developed quite considerably, as noted above, i.e. through more and more offerings of the career centres being in English, and the creation of the ISEC and InterResource projects. Still, some main trends do emerge. First of all, the study shows that international graduates view an introduction to the labour market in their field as an important part of the tasks of the universities c.f. figure 19. Some 91 % of international graduates from DTU and ASB state that they find it very important or important that the university provide some kind of introduction to the labour market. Of these, 59 % find it highly important and 32 % important. FIGURE 19 How important is it that the university provide information about the labour market? Very important Important Moderately important Somewhat important Source: Survey DTU & ASB, N= 235 Contrasting this with their own experiences during their own study-time, 19 % feel they were given information about the Danish labour market during their studies and 55 % that they were given information to a certain degree, whereas 31 % find that they did not receive information about the labour market. And after graduating, 17 % of international graduates feel that they to a high extent, and 47 % to some extent, had a clear idea of the Danish job market within their field of specialisation. A total of 36 % did not have a clear idea (see figure 19). An interesting result is that the percentage of graduates who feel they have not received information about the labour market is markedly higher among 50 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

51 FIGURE 20. Views of graduates on university introductions to the labour market Universities provided guidelines and information about finding a job in Denmark Clear idea about the Danish job market after graduating Yes Yes to some degree No 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Source: Survey DTU & ASB N= 235 graduates who have moved away from Denmark (42 %). 5.4 Graduates experience a gap between the study life and the labour market Of course, it is debateable how much universities can prepare graduates for the labour market. After all, many Danish graduates probably feel that they are only partly or very little prepared for the labour market, even though they have much better possibilities of preparing themselves, including a tacit knowledge of the recruitment and work culture in general. The results, however, mean that markedly more international graduates feel that career guidance is more important than the emphasis they felt it received during their education. A key characteristic of higher education in Denmark is the way of teaching. Students at Danish universities are encouraged to view themselves as an active part of the learning process and a great emphasis is placed on the students own initiative either through independent work, or by working together in groups. Relationships between students and professors are often informal and students are expected to express their own views and to develop a critical approach to the problems they are working with. In addition to this, there is a focus on open problem-solving, especially at graduate level. FIGURE 21. To what extent did you find the following beneficial for your learning during your studies in Denmark? Exams based on student's own critical and analytical initiative Active participation in class Informal professor-student relationship No or very little extent little extent moderate extent large extent very large extent Group work 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%. Source: Survey DTU & ASB 2012, N = INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 51

52 The teaching style is thought of as being a good preparation for work life in Denmark, as most companies in Denmark are flat organisations with few or no levels intervening between management and staff. Decision-making is often decentralised and daily work is carried out in teams of co-workers having great autonomy in defining and solving their tasks. Key characteristics of successful employees, apart from technical skills, are motivation, independence, self-management and initiative. Furthermore, doing a master s degree in Denmark might be thought of as good introduction to working life in Denmark since the international student gets two years of introduction to Danish society and culture, as well as the opportunity to get acquainted with the Danish way of working while still at the university. In the survey we have investigated how international graduates perceive the values of teaching styles at ASB and DTU. Results show that most of the characteristics of the Danish university system are perceived as being beneficial to the students learning (figure 20). However, there are also interesting differences between the perceived usefulness of different parts of the educational system. Whereas group work is viewed as beneficial to a large and very large extent by 76 % of international graduates, 56 % view informal professor student relationship and 45 % view active participation in class and as beneficial to a large or very large extent. In the qualitative interviews with graduates, we find insights into the relationships between life at the university and working life. Most of the material does not however relate to the manner of teaching at Danish universities or its usefulness in working life later in Denmark, but rather focus on difference between the study environment and working life afterwards. We found that graduates often describe the great contrast between a very international study environment at DTU or ASB, where all necessary communication can be handled in English and there are no communications problem with teachers, students or administrators and working life afterwards, where many experience being a small international minority in a very Danish environment. In retrospect, some of the graduates interviewed for the study are critical of DTU and ASB since they have the experience of not having had much contact with Danish students during their studies and thus not much preparation for working life together with Danes afterwards. The lack of contact with Danish students is, according to them, due to Danish students tending to keep themselves apart from international students, e.g. by working together in Danish groups and international students in international groups during group work. As shown in the research from Canada and Australia, not getting to know local students while studying is perceived as a barrier after graduation, since the separation of Danish and international graduates, means that international graduates learn little about Danish work culture and mentality by co-working with Danes later as compared to if they had worked together during their studies. A Spanish engineering graduate from DTU who works at a large Danish company commented on this: At the university, international and Danish students don t mix a lot. That s a shame, because you don t learn to work together that way. DTU should do more to mix Danish and international students. 52 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

53 5.5 Room for improvement of international graduates use of services While a number of services are being offered for international students, the survey shows that not all students use them. Some 65 % of graduates report having used the services, while 35 % say they have not used the services. The main reason for not using the services is unawareness of their existence. A total of 48 % of the international graduates that have not used the services state the reason is that they did not know they existed. This is an indication that the services need to be marketed more proactively. Not having the time is another reason, given by 20 % of graduates. None however state that the services have been unavailable due to difficulties in getting an appointment. Finally, about 33 % haven t used the services for other reasons, i.e., having a job already after graduating, being pregnant, etc. FIGURE 22 Why did you not make use of services provided by the university? I didn t know they existed I didn t have the time Others had told me that the service was not worth it I tried, but it was difficult to sign up Other Source: Survey DTU & ASB 2012, N=57 In figure 23, we look at how useful graduates from DTU find the different services offered by the university (the answers only relate to graduates who have used the given services). Most useful is personal talk with the job councillor at the career cen- In FIGURE the next 23. section we will look closer into use of services by international graduates and how they perceive Usefulness them. of services - DTU DTU alumni chapters abroad Mentorprogramme 'Which line of work?' events Information Meeting (PhD Programs ) Linked-in group for DTU alumni Events about 'working and living in DTU Alumni network Workshop about Job Seeking Workshop Job Interviews DTU Jobbank Handbook on Job Seeking Personal talk with counsellor at the Very useful Useful Moderately useful Slightly useful Not useful 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Source: Survey DTU, N= 2-39 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 53

54 tre, with 82 % of the international graduates who used this service viewing it as very useful or useful. Workshops concerning job interviews are viewed as very useful or useful by 78 % of graduates. Informational meetings about Ph.D. programmes were viewed as useful by 70 % of participants, although nobody viewed them as very useful. The initiatives of DTU Alumni, like alumni chapters abroad, LinkedIn groups and the alumni networks are viewed by most as moderately or slightly useful. This indicates that there is a potential for expanding their use, e.g. the alumni network for networking and job search. In the qualitative interviews, international graduates first of all stress the value of workshops involving writing resumes and job applications, as well as individual feedback on applications and resumes. It is useful to learn how recruitment and selection works in Denmark, especially since resume-writing in many ways seems to be a national genre that is done differently in Denmark from the way it is done in Lithuania, which in turn is different from the way it is done in Spain. At ASB the picture is a bit different. Again, however, it is the personal talk with the councillors at the career centre that are viewed as most useful, with 70 % of graduates viewing these as very useful or useful. More than 60 % of graduates of ASB also view the ASB Job Bank as very useful or useful, whereas 50 % viewed InterResource as useful or very useful (this result might be affected by the fact that not all of the work of InterRessource is visible for students, e.g., outreach activities aimed at companies). Concerning the on-line alumni network (CON- NECT), results are very similar to the results at DTU, with 22 % viewing it as useful and none viewing it as very useful. Again, this indicates that there is a potential for expanding their use, e.g. the alumni network for networking and job searches. FIGURE 24. Usefulness of services ASB Mentor programme CONNECT (online alumni network) A day with Website-information CompanyDATING event The International Student Guide ASB Jobbank (now AU Jobbank) InterRessource Very useful Useful Moderately useful Slightly useful Not useful Personal talk with counsellor at the 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Source: Survey ASB, N= INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

55 Suggestions for improving services Based on the qualitative interviews with international graduates, it is possible to suggest a number of suggestions that could improve the role of universities in facilitating contacts between international graduates and companies. More help for international graduates to build networks and make contacts with companies Many international graduates point out in the qualitative interview that a major difference between them and Danish graduates is that they have a weaker network in Denmark. This can make job hunting much more difficult, especially if one is educated within a field where there is competition for jobs. As many international graduates are aware, of a lot or most job positions in Denmark are not advertised but rather are filled through network-based recruiting. One graduate educated in international marketing from ASB dryly points out: When I graduated, my whole network consisted of other international graduates in marketing. And they were unemployed as well. Obviously, the responsibility for creating a viable network in Denmark rests with the graduates themselves. And according to the universities, some graduates have unrealistic expectations of the universities and almost expect the university to get them a job. This unrealism also comes through in the open commentaries in the questionnaire, where some graduates suggest that universities should recommend the best international graduates to selected companies or a list of all international/english-speaking companies available in Denmark. This is unrealistic since this is not the way the Danish labour market works neither for Danes nor for internationals. However, it seems reasonable that many international graduates would fare better and easier and with a little extra help from the university. Suggestions include: Help with getting internships or student jobs the proactive approach of InterResource seems like a good example in this respect. More focus on job fairs with opportunities for international students. In the qualitative inteviews we found that international students fr experience the job fairs as being very focused on Danish students. More focus on introductions to work culture and how Danish companies think, e.g. through company presentations, (short) internships etc. Some of the companies interviewed also state that they see a stronger role for universities in showcasing international graduates and facilitating contact with the business community. More information and the marketing of services for international students In the qualitative interviews, some graduates suggest free Danish courses, or other events that already exist, such as feedback on applications. This, together with the relatively high number of international graduates that were unaware of the existence of career services, is a sign of the need for more information and better marketing of services for international students. Build a more international study environment A recurring problem seems to be that Danish and international students don t mix very much during their study time, e.g. during group work. In a way it is understandable since it probably reduces the transaction costs of working together. But in the perspective of building a more international study environment, where Danish and international students learn from each other, it is a loss. Especially, since it means that international students will not INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 55

56 get an introduction to how Danes work through their studying. More realistic information about the job market in Denmark before and after students are recruited Some of the international graduates interviewed in connection with the study have been frustrated by their experiences in the Danish labour market based on a perceived difference between how the labour market in Denmark was described when they chose their field of study and how they perceive the realities to be after graduation. Graduates with degrees in fields where unemployment is high point out that from their perspective there is a discrepancy between the official rhetoric about the need for global talent and their everyday experience of endlessly and unsuccessfully applying for a job. Some indicate the need for a more critical introduction to the Danish job market for international students, perhaps even before they are recruited. As one graduate points out: you need a realistic picture of carrier options. When I was enrolled in studies, it was too optimistic and I had to settle for less carrier options as chances were too few. when it comes to facilitating the integration of international graduates into the labour market. Results show that international graduates put an emphasis on receiving an introduction to the labour market and demonstrate the need for services that prepare them such as provided by career centres and InterRessource. Among initiatives taken by universities, initiatives like InterRessource that actively seek to engage companies and introduce them to the value of international students and graduates stand out, as well as initiatives like career fairs and focus nights that create a venue where students/graduates and companies can interact and meet each other. Results however also suggest that Danish universities should develop a more strategic approach in this area if the policy goal of retaining more international graduates in Denmark is to be achieved since initiatives aimed at facilitating the transfer to the labour market for graduates are still rather dispersed and are run by project organisations dependent on external funding or many separate actors. Apart from information about availability of jobs, the qualitative interviews show some have also been surprised by a lack of knowledge about basic facts concerning the Danish labour market, like the fact that the working language in many companies is Danish. This information should ideally be given to international students before they choose Denmark as the country they study in. 5.6 The need for a strategic approach Based on the description above, the approaches of ASB and DTU can be characterised as having moved in the direction of a proactive approach 56 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

57 6 Literature Brodmann, S. & J.G. Polavieja (2011): Immigrants in Denmark: Access to Employment, Class Attainment and Earnings in a High- Skilled Economy. International Migration, 49(1), pp Chaisson, J. and Schweyer, A. (2004): Fostering global workforce practices that are scalable, sustainable and ethical. Position Paper - June, 2004, A Human Capital Institute. Chavez, C. I. &Weisinger, J. Y. (2008): Beyond diversity training: A social infusion for cultural inclusion. In: Human Resource Management, 47 (2): Collings, D. G. and Mellahi, K. (2009): Strategic talent management: A review and research agenda. In: Human resource management review 19, pp Douglass, J. A. and Edelstein, R. (2009): The global competition for talent: The Rapidly Changing Market for International Students and the Need for a Strategic Approach in the US. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.8.09, University of California, Berkeley. Farndale, E., et al. (2010): The role of the corporate HR function in global talent management. In: Journal of world business, vol. 45, issue 2, pp Forum for Business Education (2009), Analyse af international studerendes beskæftigelsessituation efter endt uddannelse i Danmark Gupta, A. K. & Singhal, A. (1993): Managing human resources for innovation and creativity. In: Research Technology Management, 36 (3): Cox, T. H. & Blake, S. (1991): Managing cultural diversity: Implications for organizational competitiveness. In: Academy of Management Executive, 5 (3): Cranmer, S. (2006): Enhancing graduate employability: best intentions and mixed outcomes. In: Studies in Higher Education, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp , Institute of Education University of London, UK. Deloitte (2008): International rekruttering. Barrierekatalog. Copenhagen: Deloitte. Guthridge, M., Komm, A. B., & Lawson, E. (2008): Making talent management a strategic priority. In: The McKinsey Quarterly, January: Hansen, N.W. & A.M. Boesen (2010): Danmark. In: N.W. Hansen, Å.A. Seip & L. Eldring (eds.): Rekruttering af kompetansearbejdskraft fra tredjeland til Norden. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers, pp Harvey, L. (2001): Defining and Measuring Employability. In: Quality in Higher Education, Vol. 7, 2, Deloitte (2010): Internationalisering af myndigheders kommunikation. Opfølgning på analyse af barrierer for internatinal rekruttering. For the Danish National Labour Market Authority. Copenhagen: Deloitte. Hofstede, G. (1980): Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Härtel, C. E. J. (2010): International students, representation of global management issues, and educating from a paradigm of human well-being. In: INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 57

58 Academy of Management Learning & Education, 9 (4): INM (2011): Welcome to Denmark. A Guide for Employees and Students from Abroad. Copenhagen: Danish Ministry of Refugees, Immigration and Integration. Ivaturi, V. et al. (2009), Global Mobility of Talents: What Will Make People Move, Stay, or Leave in 2015 and Beyond? The Global Information Technology Report , World Economic Forum, Chapter 1.7, pp Jabbour, C. J. C. & Santos, F. C. A. (2008): The central role of human resource management in the search for sustainable organizations. In: The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19 (12): Jackson, S.E., & Alvarez, E.B. (1992): 'Working Through Diversity as a Strategic Imperative. In: Jackson & Alvarez, (1992):Diversity in the workplace: human resources initiatives. New York: The Guilford Press: pp James, K. and Otsuka, S. (2007): A Critical Theory based Investigation into Race and Class-based Discrimination experienced by International Chinese Graduates at Australian Accounting Firms. Working paper, School of Accounting, Economics & Finance, University of Southern Queensland, Australia Jespersen, S.T. et al. (2007): Brain drain eller brain gain? Vandringer af højtuddannede til og fra Danmark. Copenhagen: Danish National Centre for Social Research 07:04. integrate and work in Denmark. So why is it so difficult?. Master's Thesis, Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Kamara, A. and Gambold, L. (2011): Immigration and Diversity: Exploring the challenges facing international students on and off campus In Belkhodja, C. (2011): International migration: the emergence of the mobile student. Canadian diversity, A publication of the association for Canadian studies, Vol. 8:5 Winter 2011 Hiver. Kochan, T. (2003): The effects of diversity on business performance: Report of the diversity research network. In: Human Resource Management, Spring 2003, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp Konrad, A. M. (2006): Leveraging workplace diversity in organization. In: Organizational management Journal, EAM White paper series, Vol. 3, Issue No. 3, pp Kudahl, S. (2011): Mangel på internationale skoler svækker dansk erhvervsliv. Momentum. Lam, A. and Lundvall, B-A. (2007): The Learning organization and national systems of competence building and innovation. In: N. Lorenz and B-A Lundvall (eds.): How Europe's Economies Learn: Coordinating Competing Models. Oxford University Press, pp Langfelder, H. and Rahlf, J. (2008): Employability The Unknown Goal of Students and Universities?. In: Schmidt, P. et al. (2008): What do we know about our graduates?. Proceedings of the SILVA Network Conference, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, pp Jones, E. (2010): Globalizing Denmark: ASB international students want to successfully socially Malchow-Møller, N. & J.R. Skaksen (2004): Changes in Demand for Skilled Labour in Den- 58 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

59 mark A Disaggregate Perspective. In: Nationaløkonomisk Tidsskrift, 142, 1, pp Nelson, R. (2004): Evolutionary Theories of Cultural Change: An Empirical Perspective. Max Planck Institute of Economics, Evolutionary Economics Group in its series Papers on Economics and Evolution with number Oxford Research & Copenhagen Post (2010): The Expat Study København: Oxford Research A/S & The Copenhagen Post. Parker, G. M. (2003):Cross-functional teams: Working with allies, enemies and other strangers. John Wiley & Sons: San Francisco. Pluss Leadership (2010): Evaluering af Handlingsplan for offensiv global markedsføring af Danmark. Copenhagen: Danish Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs. Rogers, Everett M. (2003):Diffusion of Innovations. 5th ed. New York, NY: Free Press. Sawir, E., Marginson, S., Deumert, A. Nyland, C. & Ramia, G. (2008): Loneliness and international students: An Australian study.. In: Journal of Studies in International Education, 12 (2): Schuler et al. (2011): Global Talent Management and Global Talent Challenges. In: Journal of World Business 46, pp SFI (2011): Rekruttering og fastholdelse af højtuddannet arbejdskraft, Danmark, Norge, Holland, Storbritannien og Canada. Shumilova Y. and Cai Y (2011): Towards understanding the factors affecting the employability of international graduates: the case of Finland. International Conference on Employability of Graduates & Higher Education Management Systems Vienna, September SiU (2010): Mobilitet på hele uddannelser (2008/09). SiU (2011): Internationale dimittenders efterfølgende beskæftigelse i Danmark. Stahl, G. K. et al (2007): Global Talent Management: How leading multinationals build and sustain their talent pipeline.2007/34/ob, INSEAD working paper series. Tarique, I. and Schuler, R. S. (2010), Global Talent Management: Literature review, Integrated framework, and suggestions for further research, Journal of world business No. 45, pp Tidd, J., Bessant, J. and Pavitt, K. (2001):Managing Innovation: Integrating Technological, Market and Organizational Change. John Wiley: Hoboken. Tsun-Yan Hsieh, Johanne Lavoie, Robert A. P. Samek (1999): Are You Taking Your Expatriate Talent Seriously?. In: The McKinsey Quarterly. Wiers-Jenssen, J. (2008): Does Higher Education Attained Abroad Lead to International Jobs?. In: Journal of Studies in International Education :101. Wong, S. (2008): Diversity Making space for everyone at NASA/GODDARD space flight center using dialogue to break through barriers. In: Human Resource Management, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp Wooten, L. P. (2008): Breaking barriers in organizations for the purpose of inclusiveness. In: Hu- INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 59

60 man Resource Management, Summer 2008, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp Yang, Y. and Konrad, A. M. (2011): Diversity and Organizational Innovation: The Role of Employee Involvement. In: Journal of Organizational behavior 32, INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

61 Appendix 1: Methodology In this appendix we present the methodology and data behind the study. 6.1 Survey The themes of the questionnaire have been jointly developed by DAMVAD and DTU Management. After the first draft of the questionnaire was developed, it was pilot tested by five representatives from the population. The questionnaire was sent to the selected pilot testers prior to the test. In telephone interviews, they were asked to comment on whether the questions, answer categories and concepts used in the questionnaire were relevant, understandable and comprehensive. They were also asked if there were key elements that they found were missing in the questionnaire. Generally, the test persons found the questionnaire clear and straightforward, but the pilot tests also led to a minor revision of the questionnaire. Launch and follow-up procedures The questionaire was distributed as a Web-based survey on March 15 (DTU) and March 16 (ASB) 2012 via the software application Enalyzer. In order to secure a high response-rate, and following the advice of DTU and ASB, a prize was advertised for participating in the survey. During the data-collection phase two reminders where administered to the respondents. The survey was active in 48 days in total. The survey was launched in different ways at the two universities. The DTU survey was send directly from DAMVAD via to the respondents. At ASB, internal university guidelines made it impossible to send the invitation for the survey directly to the respondents, instead the link for the questionnaire was distributed via an internal CMS system. The distribution method at ASB made it a bit more difficult for respondents to participate in the survey, since they had to type in a code to gain access to the questionnaire. Some respondents may also have failed to recognise the invitation for the survey among other mailings from ASB. DAMVAD and DTU Management suspects that the different ways of distributing the survey is one of the reasons behind the large difference in response rates between the two universities (see below). Response rates and representativity The questionnaire was distributed to a total of 642 graduates from the two universities covering the years The study at DTU was based on sample of 280 respondents, while the study at ASB included the total population of 362 respondents. 225 of the invited graduates responded to the questionnaire, corresponding to a response rate among international graduates from DTU of 47 % and of 26 % for international graduates from ASB. While the response rate for DTU is satisfactory, the response rate for ASB is low and needs further analysis in order to determine if the answers are representative of the wider population. In order to determine the representativity of the incoming answers, we have carried out an analysis of non-response, by comparing the distribution of known parameters in the population with the distribution of the same parameters in the responses. The parameters are: Geographical area of origin by continent The year of graduation. INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 61

62 Both parameters are thought to be important for the experiences of graduates in Denmark and thus their answers to the questionnaire. Geographical area of origin might affect graduates experiences, due to differences in educational systems, challenges involving relating to stereotypes in Denmark about people from a particular part of the world, etc.the year of graduation is also important since some graduates graduated in the boom years ( ), while others graduated during the economic crisis ( ), and this is very likely to have affected the experiences of graduates in the labour market in Denmark. We argue that if the distribution of the received responses resembles the distribution in the population, then this is an indication that non-response has not led to any bias. Table 1 shows the distribution as regards geographical area of origin by continent of the population and sample for graduates of ASB. Generally, the distribution of the completed answers resembles the distribution in the population, except that graduates from a country in Western Europe are slightly underrepresented (34 % in completed answers vs. 38 % in population) and graduates from a country in Eastern Europe are slightly overrepresented (43 % in completed answers vs. 38 % in population). As regards year of graduation, table 2 shows the distribution in the population compared with the distribution of completed answers. Even though differences are larger here, especially for the years 2008 (20 % vs. 13%) and 2011 (4% vs. 9. %), the distribution of completed answers resembles the population. We take this as an indication of results being representative for the population of graduates from ASB as well, even though the response rate is low. 6.2 Qualitative interviews In addition to the survey, 28 qualitative interviews were conducted with graduates from DTU and ASB. The purpose was to go into depth with results from the survey to seek further explanations. In the survey, graduates had the opportunity to volunteer for qualitative interviews. The persons interviewed were selected from the pool of graduates volunteering for an interview, taking into account a broad representation of factors in order to TABLE 1 Distribution on continents of population and completed answers - ASB ASB: Distribution of population ASB: Distribution of completed answers Africa 2 % 2 % Asia 18 % 16 % Western Europe 38 % 34 % Eastern Europe 38 % 43 % North America 3 % 4 % Oceania (Australia, NZ etc.) 0 % 0 % South America 1 % 1 % Source: DAMVAD, INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

63 represent different types of experiences, such as: Country of origin Current place of residence, Denmark or abroad Occupational status unemployed or employed Satisfaction with life in Denmark University (ASB or DTU) University services used. Graduates were granted anonymity. In addition to the interviews with graduates, interviews were carried out with representatives from ASB and DTU, along with companies recruiting international graduates (see appendix 2 for a list of the persons interviewed). The main purpose of these interviews was to gain insight into how educational institutions and companies can support integration of the international graduates and the specific benefits companies get from hiring international graduates. All interviews were organised as semi-structured interviews. A summary was made of each interview. Afterwards, the interviews were analysed across the various interviewees and compared with the open responses from the questionnaire. Subsequently, a methodological triangulation was made, where results from the completed interviews were combined with the other analyses from the questionnaire. This combination of different data sources was made to achieve an increased robustness of the results. 6.3 Tracing analysis In the tracing analysis we looked into how career paths have evolved or been shaped over time for those graduates who have returned to their home country or moved to another country after graduation. The main purpose was to see whether the graduates had a successful career after leaving Denmark and thereby determine what competencies were lost when they left A sample of 60 graduates from DTU and ASB was selected and an online search on LinkedIn was conducted to collect data about their career profiles. In a few cases the graduates didn t have a LinkedIn profile or the profile was incomplete, and here Facebook and Google were used to complete the career profiles. The tracing analysis resulted in career profiles of 48 graduates. Of these 37 (77 %) graduated from DTU and 11 (23% ) from ASB. TABLE TABLE 2 Year of graduation in population and sample - ASB Year of graduation ASB: Distribution of population ASB: Distribution of completed answers % 8 % % 11 % % 6 % % 13 % % 19 % % 34 % % 9 % Source : DAMVAD, 2012 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 63

64 Appendix 2: List of persons interviewed The interviewed graduates are anonymous. Interviews at ASB and DTU Project leader Jane Midtgaard Madsen, InterResource Assistant Director Kaja Bertelsen & International Coordinator Charlotte Kristensen, The international Office, AU Advisor Helle Warburg, The Career Centre of DTU Director of Relationship Management, Gitte Andresen,DTU Alumni. Companies interviewed HR Specialist Kirsten Nielsen, Siemens Windpower Global HR Director Lars Christian Lassen, Novo Nordisk Recruitment Specialist Martin Jensen, Oticon HR Consultant Janne Sandholdt, Danfoss Head of department Bo Thiel Schmidt, Grundfos Recruitment consultant Annie Blynov, Rambøll Denmark Director, International Mobility Development / People & Culture Karina Boldsen, Vestas CEO Jens Krog, Advance Head of Power Trading Cagdas Ozan Ates, Danish Commodities HR Manager Kristina Berg, Grown Up Scandinavia. 64 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM

65 INTEGRATING GLOBAL TALENT DAMVAD.COM 65

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