1 MEDICAL DATA MINING Timothy Hays, PhD Health IT Strategy Executive Dynamics Research Corporation (DRC) December 13, 2012
2 2 Healthcare in America Is a VERY Large Domain with Enormous Opportunities for Data Mining US Healthcare (2009) $2.5 Trillion 17.3% of GDP Healthcare system: Providers, Payers and Patients, Government (Federal and State) and Private/Commercial, Research to (Best) Practice, Regulations, Laws, and Policies (i.e. Affordable Care Act, etc.)
3 3 Healthcare / Medical Data Mining Patients and Consumers Providers: Government, Private or Commercial, hospitals, pharmacies, clinics, doctors offices, and other provider services Payers: employers, insurance carriers, other third-party payers, health plan sponsors (employers, unions, DOD, VA, HHS, etc.) Areas where data mining can help!
4 4 Healthcare / Medical Data Mining Healthcare crosscuts: Regulatory: laws, regulations, coding, guidelines, best practices, performance, costs, reporting (i.e., adverse event), etc. Research: basic research, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, genetics, drug-drug interaction, diagnostic test decision support, biomedical research data mining (basic or clinical results), etc. IT systems: interoperability, software development, information/data storage, security and access, reporting, Big Data and small data, usability, data transfer, training/educating/communicating, and so much more! Areas where data mining can help!
5 5 So How Do We Get There? Understanding and Then Tackling the Pieces!
6 6 Medical Data Mining Where are the opportunities?
7 7 Build On History and Knowledge Practice domains / Fields we can learn from: Knowledge management is the theory behind knowledge capture and use Informatics is the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems Analytics is the practical application of tools (i.e. algorithms) upon information to gain new insights. Others: Business Intelligence Competitive Intelligence Computational Science Bioinformatics Health Informatics Predictive Modeling Decision Support Artificial Intelligence, etc.
8 8 Data Mining Effective Use of Data, Tools, and Analyses Decisions, Plans, Actions Knowledge Discovery and Analysis The application and productive use of information Information Data organized into meaningful patterns Data Unstructured, structured, Multiple sources
9 9 Medical Data Mining Leads to: Question based answers Anomaly based discovery New Knowledge discovery Informed decisions Probability measures Predictive modeling Decision support Improved health Personalized medicine
10 10 So, Again, How Do We Get There? What questions are you trying to answer? Ultimately, identify answers to questions we didn t know we had Do you have data, tools and analyses to answer the question? Example areas: Healthcare management (provider care practices) Fraud and abuse Treatment effectiveness Patient involvement and relationship Understanding and Then Tackling the Pieces!
11 11 Dilbert on Data There are Exabyte s of data! But is it the right data to answer your question?
12 So, Again, How Do We Get There? 12
13 13 Evolution of the Lung Cancer Portfolio: Abstracts
14 14 So, Again, How Do We Get There? Data: the V s (Volume, Velocity, Variety, Veracity, and Visibility) Tools/Applications: Search algorithms, text mining, natural language processing (NLP), machine learning, etc. clustering, predictive modeling, relationship and link analysis, taxonomy generation, statistical analysis, neural networks, visualization, heat maps, etc. Analysis: Methodologies (exploration and drill down) and subject matter/domain experts Understanding and Then Tackling the Pieces!
15 15 The Data V s Data Volume - large, small, combined, separate, etc. Velocity transfer: capture and retrieval includes streaming, batch processing, utilization, etc. Variety - text [structured unstructured], images, audio, video, etc. Veracity - meaningfulness [use], value, variability, quality, etc. Visibility - access, security, Understanding and Then Tackling the Pieces!
16 16 Tools / Applications 1000 s of Tools Integrated or add-on Question/Domain/Analysis specific Use with Repositories and Platforms Helpful but not necessary for analysis Relevant to data veracity/quality Understanding and Then Tackling the Pieces!
17 17 Analysis Methodologies Research Algorithms Proprietary Subject matter experts Domain (healthcare centric) expertise Analysis expertise Tool and application experience Understanding and Then Tackling the Pieces!
18 18 Medical Data Mining Spectrum Complexity Planning/Forecasting Modeling/Predicting Decision Support / Optimizing Dashboards Reporting Capability
19 Medical Data Mining 19 It sounds good, but are there standards for data capture, use, definitions, sharing, etc.? Are standards needed (yet)? Are there sufficient tools, applications, analyses and staff available to identify valuable information to improve healthcare? Are there sufficient benefits and incentives in core areas where data mining is essential? Personalized and predictive medicine Fraud and abuse Research advancements Improved treatments and medical devices
20 Dilbert on Federal & Corporate Realities 20 An integrated approach is key!
21 NIH Research, Condition, and Disease Categorization Project
22 22 National Institutes of Health (NIH): Case Study The purpose of the Research, Condition, and Disease Categorization (RCDC) project is to 1. Consistently categorize NIH-funded research projects according to research areas/categories 2. Use an automated process, and 3. Make the results available to Congress and the public
23 23 How does it do that? NIH: Case Study RCDC system uses Elsevier s Collexis technology to text mine biomedical concepts from research descriptions NIH research experts define a weighted classification system for each of 238 categories All NIH research is then categorized through an automated process The output is reported publicly at Report.NIH.Gov
24 24 NIH: Case Study The Research, Condition, and Disease Categorization (RCDC) project is an example of providing new, timely information out of unstructured and structured data RCDC pulls data from 7 databases (all containing well over 4 terabytes of content) that gets routed, compartmentalized, validated and ultimately used for regular reports and on-demand queries Allows research information to be explored proactively Is adaptable as 1) Science evolves over time and 2) Increased needs for data usage are identified
25 How Does RCDC Work? 25 Category Definition developed by NIH staff Matching Process Projects with matching categories Project Description Matching compares individual project descriptions to the category definition the resultant category matching score for a project is a reflection of how closely the project is related to a particular category
26 Category Definition Created in the New System 26 A definition is a list of scientific terms from a thesaurus (300,000 terms and synonyms). Terms are selected by NIH Scientific Experts to define that research category. Terms are weighted to fine-tune the matching process. Terms from grants/projects are matched against definitions to produce category project lists.
27 Sample: Sleep Research Draft Fingerprint 27 Analytical Tool
28 Prior View of Data (FY 2009) 28
29 29 Summary level data
30 30 Drill down level data, not available on web in the past
31 31 NIH: Case Study Ahead of its time RCDC opened the door for analysis and review of research that was not previously possible (including decision intelligence practices) Additional uses of new analytical, visualization, and exploration technologies are now taking place because the platform exists!
32 Benefits Enhanced NIH s ability to: Leverage existing information and processes Conduct text mining and perform scientific portfolio analysis Provide transparency into government spending on research Greatly improved process Consistent methodology (one definition per category) Reproducible numbers New open platform to support decision intelligence Improved public understanding of NIH spending Access to project listings not available previously Searchable, accessible query tools and reports 32
33 33 Summary The opportunity and future for Medical Data Mining is HUGE! Practice areas cover the landscape: Patient, Provider, Payer, Research, Regulatory and IT Tackle it in chucks! Question based data mining Don t try to build the be-all end-all data source use what s available to begin to answer critical questions sooner rather than later Aspects of Data are critical The right Tool for the right job Analysis requires well trained analysts
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