1 Indigenous Early Childhood Development Programs as Hook and Hub for Inter-sectoral Service Delivery 1,2 Jessica Ball Associate Professor, School of Child and Youth Care, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada Introduction Indigenous communities in Canada have placed high priority upon community development and capacity building that will improve conditions and outcomes for Indigenous children. Promising innovations by First Nations communities in rural British Columbia are demonstrating the potential of Early Childhood Development (ECD) centres to: (a) enhance child safety, health, and development; (b) increase opportunities for education, employment, social support, and well-being among Indigenous parents; and (c) serve as hubs for a range of programs and services that promote wellness, social cohesion, and cultural continuity. Beginning in 2002, I began to collaborate with a number of First Nations and agencies serving Aboriginal people in British Columbia to mount a multi-year, multidimensional, multi-purpose program of research. The theme that unified the various components of this research is understanding the determinants of Indigenous child, family and community development. The focus of the research, initially, is on Indigenous peoples in Canada. This program of research has several goals: (a) to respond to requests from government, communities, and programs for research to establish culturally meaningful indicators, criteria, and tools for monitoring and measuring the development and well-being of Aboriginal children; 1 Jessica Ball, The program of research described here is funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Human Resources Development Canada, and the Human Early Learning Partnership Program (BC Ministry of Children and Family Development and BC Minister of State for Early Childhood Development). 3
2 4 Variegations, Volume 1 (b) to assist with documentation, experimentation, and evaluation of population-based programs intended by Indigenous leaders and practitioners to improve developmental conditions and developmental outcomes for young Indigenous children; (c) to support the ongoing return to self-direction and self-governance of First Nations with regards to child- and family-serving policies and programs; and (d) to provide a culturally relevant context for mentoring Indigenous researchers, creating within the School of Child and Youth Care at UVic a team learning environment and funding for exploring topics in which many emerging Indigenous leaders are keenly interested. Demographic and epidemiological indicators According to Statistics Canada, there are about 700,000 First Nations and 50,000 Inuit people in Canada, comprising about 3% of the Canadian population. As a group, the First Nations and Inuit population in Canada has a uniquely young demographic: the average age is 25.5 years, which is 10 years younger than Canadians as a whole. Forty per cent of the First Nations and Inuit population is under 20 years of age. The proportion of First Nations and Inuit children under five years of age if 70% greater than in the non-aboriginal population. There is a projected 3% increase among Aboriginal people in ten years, which is double the increase projected among non-aboriginal people in Canada. There are about 605 registered First Nations in Canada. First Nations people are culturally diverse and geographically dispersed. Many of the approximately 800 Aboriginal communities in Canada are small (77% have under 1000 members), and many are isolated or remote. There are long-standing disparities between Aboriginal and non-aboriginal peoples in Canada with regards to overall health, education, and employment, and access to health services, opportunities for relevant and effective education, training, and work equity (First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada (2003). Cumulative effects of colonial abuses, persistent racism, and pervasive poverty show on nearly all indicators of health, education, and social-well-being. Examples include: lower life expectancies higher rates of chronic illnesses such as diabetes, HIV, and cardiac disease higher rates of injury higher rates of poverty and unemployment higher prevalence of health risk behaviours including suicide and attempts. In Canada, 27% of children are growing up in single parent families, and over 40% of single Aboriginal mothers earn less than $12,000 per year. In British Columbia, there is a higher birth rate of the Aboriginal population, with more adolescent mothers. Fifty per cent of Aboriginal children living off-reserve
3 Jessica Ball 5 live in single parent homes, compared to 17% of children in single parent homes in the general population. Aboriginal children are seven times more likely to be in the care of the Minister for Child and Family Development: 40% of children in care are Aboriginal. Fifty-two per cent of Aboriginal children are living below the poverty line. As a population, Aboriginal children are over-represented on nearly every risk indicator (Province of British Columbia, Vital Statistics (2002). Children are our future The survival and resilience of Indigenous people in Canada - despite a multitude of hardships - have been attributed by Indigenous leaders to the strength of their communities, their spiritual beliefs, and the practical value of their cultural knowledge. Many First Nations parents and community leaders emphasize the continuation of cultural practices, the elevation of cultural identity and pride, and preservation of heritage or ancestral language, and the resulting reinforcement of positive cultural identity among young children as a keys to First Nations health and community revitalization. There are many effective, socially cohesive First Nations communities in urban and rural settings in Canada. It is a basic premise of the current program of research that all Canadian communities may benefit from learning more about the creative and holistic approaches to child care and development that are now being demonstrated in some First Nations throughout the province. Aboriginal ways Our initial assumptions about health and wellness profoundly influence how we design, implement, and evaluate systems of supports for health and development. Rich and diverse philosophical systems for understanding the nature and purpose of human life and how best to support it reside within Indigenous communities in Canada. These knowledge systems are beginning to find their way into discussions about how to move forward to improve the health and wellness of Indigenous people. In British Columbia, there is a major transition underway with 82% of eligible First Nations assuming control over some or all of the community health, primary health, and children s services for their members. With this shift, chronic unmet needs for training of Indigenous people in health and human services have become acute. In provincial and regional meetings of Indigenous leaders about ways to strengthen the capacity of their communities to mount and operate new services or to take over existing services, a point repeatedly heard is that Indigenous people want to learn from the mistakes of non-indigenous people. They do not want to replicate the fragmentation and inefficiencies of mainstream health care in Canada. A representative of one of the regional inter-tribal health authorities in British Columbia put it this way: Yes, we need training. But what do we want to train them to do and to become?
4 6 Variegations, Volume 1 The transition to Aboriginal control should not mean simply Aboriginal people taking over White jobs, doing things in White ways. We want to do things in Aboriginal ways, and we need training that will support our members in remembering their cultures and creating Aboriginal services that are really Aboriginal. The First Nations participating in the current program of research have engaged in extensive community-wide discussions about the meanings of child and family wellness within the culture and lifestyles of their own people. Across all the communities, recurrent themes involve holism, ecological contextualism, and community-embeddedness. Indeed, we can find the core concepts of population health in the ideas of many Indigenous people about how to support the survival, healthy growth and optimal development of all Indigenous children by ensuring equitable access to the conditions that produce these outcomes. Holism. In these First Nations, child development is viewed holistically, with the many aspects of a child s body, mind, and spirit seen as intertwined and requiring nurturance, guidance, and respect. This view permeated community decisions about what child care and development programs should entail; namely, a proactive, developmental approach to the whole child that included nutrition, preventive health, socialization, education, Indigenous language and culture. Ecological contextualism. The goal of improved community conditions for child health and development was seen as dependent upon the goal of supporting family wellness. Thus a goal of the child care and development strategies in these communities has been to provide a culturally safe (i.e., free of racism and culturally respectful), socially supportive centre for parents to be consulted about their child and offered opportunities to participate in the child care program, parent education and support programs, and service referrals as needed. Community-specificity. Effective population health strategies are not uniform; rather, they are based on geographically, politically, and culturally situated understandings of what health is and how to achieve it in particular populations and locations. Given the enormous diversity among Indigenous people in Canada and elsewhere, I question the notion of best practices in this area of research and practice. The concept itself is reminiscent of modernist ideals of truth and one size fits all approaches to community development and population health. These ideas are antagonistic to approaches based on a recognition of health as a multi-determined, multi-dimensional outcome that varies depending upon the population and setting. Promising practices. The First Nations who are participating in the current program of research reject a one size fits all approach to training and the possibility of any imported best practice model that would be suitable for adoption in their communities. They have sought training programs and have created program models that draw upon Indigenous knowledge retained by Elders and other community members, and that address the specific needs, circumstances, and goals of their constituent communities. The participating communities have undertaken various community forums,
5 Jessica Ball 7 task forces, training workshops and courses, and pilot projects intended to recover, uncover, and construct understandings of child and family care and development that: (a) fit well to describe their communities; (b) work to explain the current health status and conditions for development of their children; and (c) yield insights into what needs to be done to innovate promising practices for achieving community-identified goals for improved health and well-being for all of the children in their communities. These ideas have provided the conceptual foundation for development of community-based services which will be documented and evaluated in the current program of research in terms of their promise as an effective practice in certain circumstances for achieving specific goals. Guiding postulates for the research. This research program rests on three postulates: (1) the first posits that services appropriate to Indigenous people should probably be based on conceptualizations of child and family wellness as holistic, ecologically contextualized, and embedded within specific community development and health needs, goals, and cultural knowledge; (2) the second posits that training and services must recognize the socio-historical experiences that have negatively predisposed many Indigenous people towards health, social and education services and certain cultural, financial and geographic factors that increase the likelihood of success of integrated, community-based service delivery with families as a whole; and (3) the third posits that Indigenous communities must be the drivers of initiatives to improve Indigenous population health and well-being. Integrated program delivery. All of participating First Nations in the research are exploring the proposition that community-involving early childhood development initiatives of various kinds can be effective hooks for mobilizing community commitment and energy and effective hubs for the gradual introduction of interrelating, inter-sectoral programs. The current program of research will document various approaches to Indigenous Early Childhood Development (IECD) as hook and hub in several First Nations communities in B.C. In all of the participating communities, leaders expect that their IECD programs that are functioning in various ways as hubs will provide the conditions for improved health and well-being among young Indigenous children. The program of research will determine the extent to which improved developmental conditions for children are realized through community successes in mounting inter-sectoral programs using IECD as the initial, central, organizing hub. The recommendations of the Romanow Commission provide strong support for initiatives that place child care and development of a community s children at the hub of a coordinated, inter-sectoral system of programs and services for children, families, and the community as whole. In particular, the Romanow Report (2002) recommended ECD programs as a promising approach to improving the health of Aboriginal people and Canadians residing in rural and remote settings. In the
6 8 Variegations, Volume 1 Romanow Report, the National Aboriginal Health Organization is quoted as submitting that:...one of the essential ingredients in creating effective Aboriginal health systems is a multi-jurisdictional approach to health service reform (p. 224). While the philosophical and practical rationale for breaking down jurisdictional silos and coordinating training and service efforts may be a recent illumination here in Canada, there is a voluminous international literature advocating inter-sectoral and integrated service delivery for promoting maternal and child health, and growth and development (e.g., Haddad, 2001; UNICEF, 2001; Woodhead, 1996). Unfortunately, the international literature on inspiring examples in practice is much more attenuated (O Gara, Lusk, Canahuati, Yablick, & Huffman, 1999). Chronic disappointments in moving forward on the inter-sectoral agenda in Canada and abroad can be attributed to a number of political, conceptual, and practical barriers. Given these substantial challenges, the innovative approaches of the First Nations participating in the current research are particularly worthy of examination. Given the current culture and environment for health and well-being that encourages siloing of funding and services, lack of inter-jurisdictional coordination, and professional/disciplinary turfism, how are the First Nations participating in the research overcoming these obstacles to implementing holistic, inter-sectoral program models and what challenges remain? The current program of research will yield insights into the process of mounting intersectoral services using IECD as a hub, and will evaluate the effectiveness of these program initiatives for improving children s health and development, using evaluation criteria specified by First Nations parents, service providers, and community leaders. References First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada (2003). A statistical profile on the health of First Nations in Canada. Ottawa, ON. Haddad, L. (2001) An integrated approach to early childhood education and care. A paper prepared under the sponsorship of UNESCO/ Swedish Ministry of Education and Science Conference on Early Childhood Education and Care (Stockholm, June 13-15, 2001). O Gara, C., Lusk, D., Canahuati, J., Yablick, G., & Huffman, S., (1999). Qualities of caring: Good practices in infant and toddlers care group. Washington, D.C.: Early Child Development Education, The World Bank. Province of British Columbia, Vital Statistics (2002). Regional Analysis of Status Indians in British Columbia, ; Birth Related and Mortality Summaries for British Columbia and 16 Health Service Delivery Areas. Romanow, R.J. (2002). Building on values: The future of health care in Canada. Final Report of the Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada. Ottawa: National Library of Canada.
7 Jessica Ball 9 UNICEF (Bellamy, C.) (2001). The state of the world s children report for 221. New York, NY: United Nations Children s Fund, UNICEF. Woodhead, M. (1996). In search of the rainbow: Pathways to quality in large scale programmes for young disadvantaged children. The Hague: Bernard van Leer Foundation.
Early childhood care and development programs as hook and hub for inter-sectoral service delivery in First Nations communities 1 Jessica Ball University of Victoria (Journal of Aboriginal Health, Volume
Early Childhood Care and Development Programs as Hook and Hub for Inter-sectoral Service Delivery in First Nations Communities Jessica Ball University of Victoria School of Child and Youth Care Abstract
T h e T r a n s f o r m a t i v e C h a n g e A c c o r d : F i r s t N a t i o n s H e a lt h P l a n S u p p o r t i n g t h e H e a lt h a n d W e l l n e s s o f F i r s t N a t i o n s i n B r i t
CHILD HEALTH AND EDUCATION, 2010, 2(2), 28 51 Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Canada ISSN 1911 7758 Centring Community Services Around Early Childhood Care and Development: Promising Practices
The Health and Well-being of the Aboriginal Population in British Columbia Interim Update February 27 Table of Contents Terminology...1 Health Status of Aboriginal People in BC... 2 Challenges in Vital
The National Health Plan for Young Australians An action plan to protect and promote the health of children and young people Copyright 1997 ISBN 0 642 27200 X This work is copyright. It may be reproduced
Children s Health and Nursing: A Summary of the Issues What s the issue? The foundation for healthy growth and development in later years is established to a large degree in the first six years of life.
phone: (604) 255-2394 website: www.mvaec.ca June 22, 2015 Aboriginal Community Career Employment Service Aboriginal Front Door Aboriginal Mother Centre Canadian Aboriginal AIDS Network Circle of Eagles
STRATEGIC PLAN First Nation Public Libraries OUR WAY FORWARD Prepared by: First Nation Public Library Strategic Plan Liaison Committee Report June 2004 Introduction This Strategic Plan is a guide for developing
The South African Child Support Grant Impact Assessment Evidence from a survey of children, adolescents and their households Executive Summary EXECUTIVE SUMMARY UNICEF/Schermbrucker Cover photograph: UNICEF/Pirozzi
Health BUSINESS PLAN 2015 18 ACCOUNTABILITY STATEMENT This business plan was prepared under my direction, taking into consideration the government s policy decisions as of October 15, 2015. original signed
Inuit Aboriginal Metis First Nations Suicide Prevention Resource Toolkit Introduction First Nations (status and non-status peoples), the Inuit and Métis are collectively referred to as Aboriginal people.
2013 Ontario Early Years Policy Framework This publication is also available on the Ministry of Education s website, at www.ontario.ca/edu. 12-260 ISBN 978-1-4606-0949-1 (PDF) Queen s Printer for Ontario,
3.5 Guidelines, Monitoring and Surveillance of At Risk Groups 3.5.6 Children of Parents who are Affected by Drug and Alcohol Misuse Background There is overwhelming evidence that the misuse of drugs and
First Nations Fact Sheet: A GENERAL PROFILE ON FIRST NATIONS CHILD WELFARE IN CANADA Prepared by Marlyn Bennett Introduction The delivery of child welfare services to First Nations * children, families
First Nations Child and Family Caring Society of Canada Supporting First Nations Adoption Submission to: Standing Committee on Human Resources, Skills and Social Development and the Status of Persons with
BOARD OF EDUCATION School District No. 57 2100 Ferry Avenue Prince George, B.C. V2L 4R5 (250) 561-6800 POLICY 1230 APPROVED: 2011.06.28 POLICY The Board of Education recognizes that School District No.
Accord on Indigenous Education ACDE ACDE Accord on Indigenous Education The Accord was developed under the leadership of Jo-ann Archibald University of British Columbia John Lundy Laurentian University
Early Childhood Care and Development Programs as Hook and Hub: Promising Practices in First Nations Communities BY JESSICA BALL hook&hub Acknowledgements We express our gratitude to the three groups of
Aboriginal Cultural Competency Presented by Terri Stewart Aboriginal Cancer Care Coordinator Introductions Role of the Aboriginal Cancer Care Coordinator Definitions Demographics in BC Importance of Cultural
1 First Nations Elders and Parents Views on Supporting Children s Language Development Jessica Ball & Marlene Lewis* School of Child and Youth Care University of Victoria Project goal: To expand knowledge
2 3 About the BC First Nations Early Childhood Development Council The First Nations Early Childhood Development Council (FNECDC) was created in March 2007 to advocate for the interests of British Columbia
What We Heard Summary of the Community Conversations December 2011 May 2013 Aboriginal Engagement and Strategy Division Human Services Introduction The Aboriginal Engagement and Strategy (AES) division
Pathways to Better Health of the Lakeshore Muskegon HUB Health Care and Transportation The Community Benefit Programs of Mercy Health Bringing health capacity to the community through partnerships, coalitions
Ministry of Social Development and Social Innovation 2015/16 2017/18 SERVICE PLAN February 2015 For more information on the British Columbia Ministry of Social Development and Social Innovation, see Ministry
Momentum The Phase II: Child Care Initiative The State of Child Care in Portage la Prairie: Past, Present and Future Executive Summary Portage Community Revitalization Corporation May 2014 Funded by: Prepared
1.17 Life expectancy at birth The life expectancy of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males and females for a given period. Data sources Life expectancy estimates for the years 2005 2007 presented
Bill Mussell, Chair, Native Mental Health Ass n; Principal Educator, Sal i shan Institute, Box 242, Chilliwack, B.C. V2P 6J1 Restoration of Well-Being for Canada s First Peoples Introduction Aboriginal
Implementing the Truth and Reconciliation Commission s Calls to Action Ontario College of Teachers Conference 2016 May 26, 2016 Chelsea Hotel, Toronto Context TRC Background 2007: Indian Residential Schools
PRIMARY HEALTH CARE POLICY The Public Health Association of Australia recognises that: 1. Universal access to primary health care based on need and not on the ability to pay, is a fundamental human right.
Population Health Research Strategy 2012-2015 Population Health Division ACT Health 1. Foreword The shift in policy direction towards prevention and early intervention, and the associated funding for preventive
GOVERNMENT RESPONSE TO THE CHILD INTERVENTION SYSTEM REVIEW October 2010 Closing the Gap Between Vision and Reality: Strengthening Accountability, Adaptability and Continuous Improvement in Alberta s Child
BC FIRST NATIONS EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK Responses to these materials are welcome. See the community feedback questions inside Prepared for The BC First Nations Early Childhood Development
NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR FOOD SECURITY IN REMOTE INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES Council of Australian Governments A Strategy agreed between: the Commonwealth of Australia and the States and Territories, being: the
Preface: The National Panel on First Nations Elementary and Secondary was created by the Government of Canada and the Assembly of First Nations to improve the governance framework, improve student outcomes
A Portrait of First Nations and Education Population In Canada, 1,172,785 persons identify as Aboriginal, and 698,025 identify as First Nations. Aboriginal youth are the fastest growing demographic. The
2003 FIRST MINISTERS ACCORD ON HEALTH CARE RENEWAL 1 In September 2000, First Ministers agreed on a vision, principles and action plan for health system renewal. Building from this agreement, all governments
Check against delivery_ Commission on Population and Development 45th Session Economic and Social Council Statement by Dr. Sugiri Syarief, MPA Chairperson of the National Population and Family Planning
February 2006 Towards a POPULATION HEALTH PROMOTION APPROACH A Framework and Recommendations for Action EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Population health is an approach to health that aims to improve the health of the
Case Study: Population and Public Health Program of the BC Provincial Health Services Authority i Wayne Foster and Christopher Wilson. Originally published in Illustrations in Public Health of a More Collaborative
the mental health commission of canada s Supporting Youth Anti-Stigma Child and the mental health commission of canada s Youth Initiative Anti-Stigma Mental Health Initiative Supporting Child and Youth
Métis Community Health Indicators Capacity and Need Métis Community Health Indicators Capacity and Need...1 Métis Health Information...2 Objectives...2 Method...3 Sample...4 Data collection...4 Results...5
Culturally Appropriate Practices for for Facilitating Early Early Language Development of of Indigenous Children Jessica Ball Ball Marlene Lewis Early Childhood Development Intercultural Partnerships School
Health Promotion, Prevention, Medical care, Rehabilitation under the CBR Matrix heading of "Health Dr Deepthi N Shanbhag Assistant Professor Department of Community Health St. John s Medical College Bangalore
Children and Youth with Special Needs A Framework for Action Making it work! Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Children and youth with special needs : a framework for action. Co-published
COLLEGES, INSTITUTES AND COMMUNITIES PARTNERS IN RURAL SUSTAINABILITY ACCC SUBMISSION TO THE STANDING SENATE COMMITTEE ON SOCIAL AFFAIRS, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Brief prepared by: Association of Canadian
First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Child and Youth Health in Canada Dr. James Irvine Medical Health Officer, North Sask Population Health Unit Professor Emeritus, University of Saskatchewan La Ronge, Sask
April 2015 21/04/15_16531 CONNECT SUCCEED THRIVE THE WELLBEING FRAMEWORK FOR SCHOOLS Introduction The NSW Department of Education and Communities (DEC) is committed to creating quality learning opportunities
Caring for Unpaid Caregivers Developing an Ontario Caregivers Strategy Dr. Samir K. Sinha MD, DPhil, FRCPC Provincial Lead, Ontario s Seniors Strategy Director of Geriatrics Mount Sinai and the University
Position Paper on Access to Oral Health Care for Canadians Approved CDA Board of Directors May 2010 Preamble A daily regimen of brushing and flossing is an important part of good oral health while equitable
The Family Services Manager s Handbook A Head Start Training Guide from Training & Technical Assistance Services Western Kentucky University Table of Contents Family Services in Head Start... 1 The Head
Jack Layton New energy. A positive choice. Platform 2004 Health 1 Building an innovative, public health care system Throughout the 1990s, Canadians were told the debate over public health care was about
Public Health Association of Australia: Policy-at-a-glance Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Policy Key messages: Summary: Audience: Responsibility: Date policy adopted: 1. New National Injury Prevention
Youth Exchanges Canada Application Guide Exchange. Explore. Experience. Have you or your group ever thought about exploring other regions of Canada, living in another community, meeting new people, learning
Productivity Commission Education and Training Workforce: Early Childhood Development Victorian Association of Maternal and Child Health Nurses Submission The Victorian Association of Maternal and Child
Distribution: limited ED/BIE/CONFINTED 48/5 Geneva, 28 November 2008 Original: English UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EDUCATION Forty eighth
2014/15 Annual Plan for British Columbia Labour Market Development Agreement (LMDA) Labour Market Development Agreement It is my pleasure to present the 2014/15 Annual Plan for the Labour Market Development
Dental Public Health Performance Improvement Plan This performance improvement plan is for one of the 21 core programs that comprise the provincial initiative to strengthen the public health infrastructure
LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH Life expectancy at birth refers to the average number of years that a group of newborn babies could expect to live if they experience the current death rates throughout their lifetime.
UBC Centre for Excellence in Indigenous Health The UBC Centre for Excellence in Indigenous Health will provide a single coordinating point for Indigenous health initiatives and contact for community organizations.
Healthy Families BC Communities Initiative Vancouver Island Local Government Consultations Feedback Summary May 2012 Healthy Families BC Communities Initiative Vancouver Island Local Government Consultations
Taking account of health means more effective government More effective government means improved health Report from the International Meeting on Health in All Policies, Adelaide 2010 The Adelaide Statement
On September 18 th, we held our webinar, the online Chronic Disease Self- Management Program A good choice for Canada? We weren t able to answer all the questions from attendees, so we asked our panelists
Report of Recommendations on Financial Literacy EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS Canadians and Their Money Building a brighter financial future December 2010 Executive Summary Financial literacy is
Children and Youth Services Child Development Branch 6 th floor, Sterling Place 9940-106 Street Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T5K 2N2 Telephone 1-800-661-9754 Fax 780/427-1258 Child Care Orientation Course
Health and Community Services Industry Workforce Action Plan 2010-2014 Together, supporting South Australians health and wellbeing through a skilled and innovative health and community services workforce.
6. Supporting diversity We acknowledge and pay respect to all the traditional owners of the land we now call Victoria. There were approximately 40 language groups before colonisation that made up the state
Recognising the Strength of Culture Aboriginal Cultural Response for the Child and Family Health Service Discussion Paper Contents Definitions 3 Section 1: Introduction 4 1.1 Purpose of this paper 4 1.2
OVERVIEW OF Ecuador Overview of Ecuador YEAR OF 1830 INDEPENDENCE POPULATION 15,223,680 MILLION Languages Spanish, indigenous (Quechua, Shuar) Under-five Mortality Rate: 23 per 1,000 live births. Ecuador
1.14 Life expectancy at birth The life expectancy of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males and females for a given period Data sources Life expectancy estimates presented in this measure are from
Submission to the Government of Canada s Digital Economy Consultation Submitted by: Independent Media Arts Alliance Alliance des arts médiatiques independents (Montréal, QC) July 13, 2010 Discussion themes
Local Safeguarding Children Board For Hammersmith and Fulham, Kensington and Chelsea And Westminster Neglect Strategy 2014-2016 1. Introduction and Background This strategy has been developed in response
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.