Rehabilitation of Locks on the Kentucky River

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1 Rehabilitation of Locks on the Kentucky River Joshua M. Repp, PE Bergmann Associates

2 Presentation Overview River System History Evolution of Lock and Dams Structures Existing Condition of Structures Lock No. 3&4 Renovation Plan Lock Dewatering System

3 Kentucky River Inland Waterway Relationships Rochester, NY Upper Mississippi Lower Mississippi Ohio River Kentucky River

4 River System Structures 14 Locks and Dams Owners: Kentucky River Authority (KRA) Corps of Engineers Dams fixed crest L&D 3 L4 Frankfort Lexington Jackson Locks Locks 1-4 (open) Locks 5-14 (closed) 145 x38 chamber (Locks 1-5) 147 x52 chamber (Locks 6-14) 8 to18 foot Lifts

5 Kentucky River System History - Timeline 1790 Coal Barges 1812 Steam Boats L&D 1-5 Constructed L&D 6-14 Constructed L&D 6-14 closed due to lack of funding 2007 Plan issued to rehabilitate Locks 1-4 for recreational use 1862 Civil War Damage to Dams 1951 Recommended Closure of Locks Pre-1775 Native Americans occupied land Increase in mining & timbering First Flat Boats Kentucky Railroad Expansion Begins Commercial Navigation Decline due to Railroad Expansion

6 Kentucky River Locks 3 & 4 Project Lock & Dam No. 4 Lock & Dam No. 3 Rehabilitate Locks (Additive Alternative Work) GEST, KY Replace Dam 3 (Base Bid)

7 Evolution of Dam Structures

8 Evolution of Dam Structures

9 Evolution of Dam Structures

10 Evolution of the Kentucky River Dams Concrete Cap - Original Repaired 1950 Dam Sheeting & Resurfacing Repair s Cellular Dam - Ongoing - 2 of 14 dams Timber Crib Dam - Original 1830 s - Replaced in-kind 1910

11 Dam History s Dam Renovation

12 Dam Replacement Cellular Dam No. 9

13 s Existing Conditions - Dam No. 3 Missing Apron Sections Broken Apron Sections

14 Lock Structures Walls 220 long by 30 high Locks 1-8 limestone masonry Locks 9-14 concrete walls Miter Gates Original wooden gates replaced with horizontally framed steel gates. Original hand-operated machinery converted to electric and hydraulic Filling/Emptying System Miter gate valves (filling/emptying) Wall culverts (filling)

15 Existing Lock Conditions - Locks 5-14 Closed to Navigation Concrete Bulkhead Wall Upper Miter Gate Upper Sill Lock 5

16 Existing Lock Conditions Miter Gates Timber Seals (Quoin, Miter, & Sill) Gate Valves Gate Misalignment Pintle Weathered Miter & Quoin Post Weathered Quoin Gate Valve Leakage

17 Existing Lock Conditions Miter Gate Anchorages Miter Gate Failed Anchor Pin 2 Anchor Pins

18 Existing Conditions - Machinery

19 Existing Lock Conditions Preparation of Overtopping Secure of miter gates Removable or collaspable railing, machinery Collapse Machinery Stands Store Rack in-line with Gate Cable Tie-backs Turnbuckle Assembly Remove/ Collapse Wall & Gate Railing

20 River Levels Lock and Dam No.3 Top of Lock 10 yr. Flood 1 yr. Flood 6 mo. Flood mo. Flood T/O Crest EL

21 MAY 2010

22 MAY 2010 Flood Construction at Dam No. 9

23 MAY 2010 Flood Construction at Dam No. 3

24 MAY 2010 Flood Debris at Lock No. 3 Upper Gate

25 MAY 2010 Flood Debris at Lock No. 4 Upper Gate

26 Lock Renovation Plan Rehabilitate Gates Gate Valves Replace Pintle & Bonnet Steel Repairs Diagonal Replacement Quoin, Miter, Sill Seals Masonry Repointing Concrete Overlay on Top of Wall Convert Power Supply from Electric to Pneumatic Various Safety Upgrades

27 Renovation Summary Replace Anchorages Reconstruct Quoin with Quoin Plate Concrete Overlay (6 ) Add Diagonal Strap Repoint Masonry Replace Seals Reconstruct Sill Rehabilitate Valves (3) Rubber Sill Seal Pneumatic Supply Conduit Replace Pintle & Socket

28 Renovation Design Challenges Dewatering of the Lock Wall Stability Analysis Issues Geometry unknown the thickness of the lock walls was determined by the resident engineer during construction No former calculations Wall not theoretically stable with no physical signs of instability

29 Wall Geometry Investigations at Lock 3 Esplanade Dam Crest Interpolated Masonry Line Landwall Riverwall Lock Floor & Rock Line Interpolated Rock Line

30 Needle Dam Bulkhead 1 Wall Strut Needle Dam Bulkhead FULL WALL STRUTTING Wall Anchor Needle Dam Bulkhead ANCHOR LANDWALL Needle Dam Bulkhead

31 Needle Dam Bulkhead PHASE 1 - DEWATERING Secure Lower Gate Wall Strut PHASE 2 - DEWATERING Wall Strut Secure Upper Gate Needle Dam Bulkhead

32 Strut System for Dewatering Flanged Adjustment Assembly Struts (7 o incline) Sliding Plane Waler

33 Bulkhead System for Lower Gate Gate Recess Wall Struts Wall Anchors Bulkhead Beam Sheet Piling Anchored Precast Sill Blocks

34 Wall Anchors Lower Gate Bulkhead Reactions Wall Struts Bulkhead Reactions Temporary Survey Marker Wall Anchors

35 PDH Questions Q: When were the first locks and dams constructed on the Kentucky River? 1830 S Q: What were two major factors related to the decline in commercial traffic for the river system? 1. Variable river levels difficult to navigate 2. Unreliability and size of lock and dam structures 3. Advancement of railroads for transport of goods Q: What two advantages did vertical walers offer to the strut system? 1. Improved global stability - Increased the sliding resistance of the lock riverwall by lowering the sliding plane. 2. Better load distribution to the irregular and discontinuous masonry Q: The adjustment assembly in the pipe struts was detailed for what purpose? To ease removal of the strut between grouted walers after use in dewatering.

36 The Rehabilitation of Locks on the Kentucky River System, Kentucky, US Joshua M. Repp, P.E., Bergmann Associates, Rochester, NY, USA The 260 mile long Kentucky River runs from Eastern Kentucky (south around the City of Lexington) through the City of Frankfort (capital city of the Commonwealth) and flows northwest into the Ohio River. The river is divided into navigation and water supply pools by a series of 14 locks and dams, many originally constructed in the 1830 s with stone masonry walls. Due to a decline in commercial navigation over the past few decades, the locks have been closed by the state. Reinforced concrete weir walls have been constructed at locks 5 through 14 as a more permanent closure. Some of the timber crib and sheet pile dams, originally constructed to retain pool for navigation purposes, have been replaced to secure pool for water supply. Recently the KRA/FAC has been evaluating the rehabilitation of Locks 1 through 4, potentially restarting recreational river navigation from the Ohio River to Frankfort, KY. Bergmann Associates has been contracted to evaluate the lock conditions, structural stability and to develop repair plans. Full rehabilitation documents were developed for Locks 3 and 4 and base repair schemes developed for all four of the 38 wide by 175 long locks. The history of this rehabilitation and future repairs plans will be presented. Joshua M. Repp is a Project Engineer and Lead Structural Engineer for Bergmann Associates, a 350 person consulting engineering firm and currently works out of the Buffalo Office. He has been working in the Civil Works Group at Bergmann mostly on waterway structures projects around the eastern US for the past seven years. His roles on the projects for the KRA included Assistant Project Manager, Project Engineer, Structural Designer and Cost Engineer. He is a graduate of the University of Buffalo with a BS in Civil Engineering and a ME in Civil- Structural Engineering. He is a Professional Engineer in New York State.

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