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2 Photo Credit: Neil Kveberg -Front page, lower left photo

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4 PREFACE Effective vegetation management is not just mowing the grass periodically along the highway and controlling the brush when you can not see around the corner. In a time when government agencies are being held more accountable for the results and costs of their actions and when sufficient additional resources are not available to continue doing things like they have always been done in the past, the need for effective vegetation management practices has become a pressing issue for many roadway agencies and private contractors that provide~vegetation control along our nation's highways. This guide has been developed to assist those agencies, public or private, that are charged with the responsibility to manage and control roadside vegetation. It is intended to be a planning document that will enable each user to develop a management plan that will recognize the specific needs and unique characteristics of their particular location or area. It does not provide an ideal vegetation management plan. It will provide you with a proven process to enable you to develop an appropriate management plan for your area. This guide is intended to be used by managers, supervisors, and vegetation management teams. It provides order to a planning process and ideas for resource information. It also incorporates some best practices that have proven to be successful in various locations of the United States. It has been developed by a group of leading experts in the field of vegetation management from both the public and private industry with representation from throughout the United States. This guide will help bring a management perspective to roadside vegetation that will parallel that of the agricultural industry -a perspective that has enabled the United States to be a world class leader for many years with continued leadership into the future. We hope you find this guide infonnative and useful, and most importantly we hope it will enable you to provide "Beautiful RoadSides -the key to a beautiful America" in a costeffective and environmentally responsible manner. -Richard Arnebeck, 1996 NRVMA President A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise. -Aldo Leopold, 1949

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6 21 APPENDICES Example 7. Chapter 4 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES/EXPERTISE GLOSSARY 25 REFERENCES The Integrated Vegetation Management Decision-Making Process 29 Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Threshold Level Concept 3. Keys to Effective Planning Meetings 4. Roadside Management Zone Concept Roadside Prioritization Matrix 34 of Annual Work Plan -Fayette Cpunty, Iowa List of State DOT Roadside Vegetation Management Contacts iiii

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8 0 JUDICIOUS USE OF PESTICmES-Properly used, pesticides are an important tool in an IRVM program because they often provide the most cost-effective, expeditious solution to vegetation management objectives while minimizing environmental impact. 0 PUBLIC DEMAND/CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS-During the past two decades public acceptance and desire for more attractive roadsides have increased. Effective IRVM programs link with public desires and needs. Q TORT CLAIMS-Motorists now have more opportunity to bring legal action against highway officials based on negligence and improper maintenance after notification of a particular defect. An effective IRVM program reduces an agency's vulnerability for multi-million dollar law suits. Guidebook Focus On Management of Existing Vegetation-For simplicity, roadside vegetation may be divided into two categories. The first and most prevalent is what might be called "natural vegetation" or that which exists because of the forces of nature. The second is vegetation which exists as a result of the planning and planting efforts by humans. In its most comprehensive form, IRVM not only involves management of natural vegetation, but also the design, construction and maintenance of planted vegetation. While it is important to avoid building in future management problems when designing and installing roadside vegetation, the focus of this guide will be on the management of existing vegetation, whether natural or planted. The key idea is to encourage desirable plants as much as control undesirables, and to use or consider natural plant succession processes in all efforts and strategies. This guide provides a tool for developing a quality IRVM Program that operates on dynamic, long-range and annual IRVM plans and reported results. 2

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10 Environmental I:J Maintain or improve water quality I:J Protect soil resources I:J Preserve, conserve, and enhance biodiversity and integrity of desirable native plant communities including threatened and endangered species I:J Reduce negative effects and spread of invasive plant species I:J Improve safety for wildlife Appearance U Provide attractive roadsides 0 Preserve local biological heritage 0 Reflect local landscape character 0 Provide seasonal variation in form, color and texture Public Relations Q Generate teamwork, partnerships, and stakeholder participation Q Share expertise between state and local agencies Q Local communities share responsibilities and pleasures of attractive plants Q Increase awareness and education through better communication Q Generate positive governmental contacts with constituents by means of consistently wellmanaged programs Q Develop ownership of the plan 4

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12 0 IRVM benefits the public through lower life-cycle maintenance costs, less negative environ-~ mental impact, and the most efficient use of tax dollars. 0 LQcal area maintenance personnel have the greatest oppprtunity to interact with the public through routine contact and to explain the reasons for aryrrvm approach. Legislative! 0 This governing body needs to be convinced that IRVM is a worthy investment which will result in lower maintenance life-cycle costs with more built in sustainability; initial costs must be presented clearly in relation to long-term savings with innovative technologies. 0 Maintenance funding must be dedicated at a reasonable base level which allows for accomplishment of all critical roadside activities along with some preventive maintenance activities. Upper Management '=- Upper management needs to understand and support IRVM as a problem-solving process for roadsides. '=- Agency-wide support and understanding will provide the necessary links with design and construction considerations in terms of the built highway. '=- IRVM is a basis for continuous improvement in the area of roadside maintenance; it applies quality management principles to roadside vegetation management. Maintenance Managers 0 They are the primary resources for motivation, coordination, communication, guidance, training and follow-through on an IRVM program. 0 The maintenance management system must include necessary record keeping and cost tracking components for measurement and evaluation. 0 They are responsible for development and implementation of relevant technology and computer applications for implementation and practice of IRVM. Technical Maintenance Crews 0 If workers do not see the reasons and benefits for IRVM, it will not happen. Maintenance personnel will respond to real life examples and proven success. 0 If crews can be hired, trained and dedicated for roadside maintenance, there is a greater chance for success. 0 Individuals must be inspired and motivated to learn and continually improve the quality of roadsides in their care. This is something that will come with time if the program is successful. 0 There needs to be regular recognition of individuals and crews that succeed in improving their roadsides. They want to know that someone cares about what they do. 6

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15 6.urnl~Old WA"MI ~A1~:)~lJ~ ue O~ I.~M lnol. UO 11~M ~q 111M nol. pue l~~d~q:) s1q1u1 p~u1pno sd~~s ~q~ Mo11od.s~:)roOS~l pue s111){s '~~P~IMOill{ ~u1u1qwo:) q~nolq:j,,~1 op ~snf".~~s o~ s1 d~~s ~u~:)jodw1 ~sow ~q~ '~s~q SI.~MI~ ~sowjr s1 ueid ~urn~ ~~~Idwo:) ~ q~noq1iv.a:ju~g~ ~~'BtS ~q:} U!q:}! S~~~~!WUI :J gu!l~~~s fb:j l u~~ ~~q UO!~~:J!unwwo:J q~! P~A~!q:J~ ~q A~W A:JU~~S!SUO:J pu~ A~!nU!~uo:J ~P! ~~~~S 'UO!~~~lodsu~l~ Jo s~u~w:jlrd~p ~~~~S Jo ~S~:J ~q:} ui '~ld ~q:} ~no AJ.m:J ~~q:} l~uuosl~d ~P!SP~Ol ~q:} p~ :J!lqnd ~q:} Aq p~~d~:j:j~ S! ~! J! p~~u~w~ldw! ~q 11! ~ld v.sw~:juo:j fb:j!~!10d p~ '~g~~!l~q fbln~~u 'l~ln~ln:j 1~:J l ~!J o~ p~~d~p~ ~JB A~q~ ~sn~:j~q ~s~q ~q~ ~JB SU~ld 1~:J 'l 1~:J l AqA\ l~a~i e~l'p. ~:)UBU~~U!eW lo ~:)!IJS!P 'UO!~~l ~q1 ~e ~no S~:){eqs f.iyensn I~A~I ye:) 1 ~q1 uo!~epodsubl1 Jo s~u~m:ljed~p ~~e~s UN~!A\.s~~e~s P~~!u.o ~q1 ~noq~nolq1 S~l:)e ~P!SpeOl Jo ~l'p.qs S,UO!I ~q1 ~~eubw S~!~!l q~ne peol f.~uno:) pub UMO~ 'd!qsumo~ l~q1~~o~ P~PPV "SUBId WA'MI ye:) IloJ I~A~I ye:)!~oi e ~q f.ew s~!1 -uno:) '~ye:)s l~~l'p.i e UQ 'UBId WA'MI UB moll s~y~u~q ~Z!ye~l f.~q.l.uo!1:)!pspnf l!~q1l~pun s~p!speol u!e~u!'bw s~u~ww~ao~ UMO~ pub Sd!qSUMO.L.~ye:)s UMO~ lo dnsumo~ ~q1 ~q PInoM ~:)eid ~U!pe~s ~q~ 'f.iqen~jv '~Ie:)s ~q1 uodn spu~d~p l~msub ~q.l l.i~a~iie:) I ~q1 S! ~eqa\.uo!:j~wspnr I~~oI 1~~0 10 d!qsumo:j ~ 'f.:j!~ ~ 'qs!ibd ~ 'f.:juno~ ~ '~~IB ~~U~U~:JU!~W 10 UO!~~l ':J~!l:JS!P UO!:J~:JlOdSU~l:J JO :Ju~w:JIBd~p ~:J~:JS ~ l~~~qm I~A~I I~~OI ~q:j :J~ ~Id ~ l~q:j~~o:j ~u!:j:jnd 10J ){10M~UIB1J ~q:j S~P!A01d l~:jd~q~ S!~ NV~d WAHI~V30~ 3H~ ~NI~N3W3~dWI <INV ~NIdO~3A3<I

16 This critical step in program development is well worth the time and energy it requires. Do not be afraid to invite outside input. Assemble the committee right away. Include several people not employed by your agency. If you get good people, they will be your strength, your com-pass and your insurance, adding greatly to the success of the program. Steering Committee Selection Stock the committee with professionals from several disciplines creating a balance of knowledge, interests, and abili-ties. If the plan is to encompass a large geographical area, involve people possessing localknowledge of vegetation, growing conditions and legalities for distinct regions within the area. Smaller is better when deciding how large an area the committee will serve. Include members of those organizations that helped spark the initial interest in IRVM. The list below is a guide for achieving a representative cross section in your committee. Agency Staff Administrator/Policy Maker Design Construction Maintenance Industr~ Renresentative Herbicide Equipment Seed Erosion Control Federal FHWA (Local) V.S. Forest Service Bureau of Land Management Natural Resource Conservation Service V.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Dept. Of Defense Plant Materials Center Natural Resources Soil Conservationist Forester or Arborist Landscape Architect Horticulturist Biologist Botanist/Ecologist Habitat Grou~s Ducks Unlimited Pheasants Forever Beekeepers Association North Am. Wildlife Fed. Garden Club Native Plant Society The Nature Conservancy University Staff/ Educators Te,acher Researcher Extension Agent Agriculture Agronomist Farm Bureau Member Farmer Rancher Agronomy Society Society For Range Management Forage and Grassland Council Joint Right-of -Wa~ Occu~ants Electrical Power Gas Phone Cable Drainage Districts Miscellaneous Regulatory Agency - Agriculture Inspector Soil and Water Conservation District Weed Commissioner Concerned Citizens The committee should be large enough to include several of the above areas but small enough so it can function without becoming unwieldy. ~ to twelve members is sufficient. Meetings should be held at least monthly until the program is in place and functioning. 10

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18 Bringing In developing, adopting, and implementing an IRVM Program, one important step is the formulation of a long-range plan that outlines the direction the program will go. It answers the question, "Where do we want to be?" somewhere down the road with our program. Longrange plans typically cover five or more years into the future, and may be general or quite specific in nature. They also bec~e a valuable yardstick to measure program success at a later date. A generally accepted course to follow in developing a long-range plan would involve the fol-lowing: Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q the steering committee together for brainstorming/identifying plan elementswriting vision and mission statements Collecting pertinent data (records, inventories, mapping, etc.) Establishing goals and objectives for the program Analyzing and prioritizing goals and objectives Assigning duties and responsibilities for program participants Discussing and planning for budget considerations Providing opportunity for research and innovation Determining methods for evaluating program successes or shortcomings Bringing The Steering Committee Together An Integrated Roadside Vegetation Management Plan is only going to be as good as the people who develop and administer it. Setting up a steering committee and having effective meetings is discussed in another section of this document. However, it is important to remember to involve a broad cross section of people from administrators to the maintenance workers actually doing the hands-on implementation of the plan. It should be done in an atmosphere where employees are free to state their thoughts without fear of repercussions from their superiors. It will probably take several meetings over a period of time to put a comprehensive plan together and assign responsibilities for its implementation. Writing Vision and Mission Statements Early on in the process take the time to formulate vision and mission statements. Assign two or three people to formulate statements for review, correction and adoption by the the steering committee. 12

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20 Several objectives may be necessary to achieve a goal. For example the goal may be "Toreduce noxious weed cover on roadsides." Objectives to achieve that goal may be: 1. Convert 100 acres of badly infested turf on Interstate 94, between mileposts , to native grasses in '2. Spray out all visible noxious weed infestations on all roadsides by upgrading the equipment fleet and designating licensed applicators for herbicide application duty during the proper times of the 1997 growing season. The "Roadside Vegetation Management Zone Concept," shown in Appendix 4, provides a visual reference point for developing goals and objectives. Several basic principles need to be considered when establishing goals and objectives for theplan. a a a a a Safety for the traveling public and the employee Maintenance of the infrastructure and highway integrity Cost-effective use of public resources in both the long and short term Environmentally sound decision making Being a good neighbor to adjacent landowners and the travelling public Analyzing and Prioritizing Goals and Objectives After goals and objectives have been adopted for an IRVM program, a priority ranking shouldbe given to each one. Identifying which elements are most important allows problem areas and situations to be dealt with first, many times making the program more of a success and making other goals and objectives easier to reach. A simple ranking system with numerical values for lowest to highest priorities works well or refer to the matrix in the following table developed by the Washington Department of Transportation. For a more detailed explanation of this matrix prioritization system see Appendix 5. 14

21 16 "Putting the Plan on Paper" Now the actual plan may be written to address your goals and objectives in order of priority. Individual elements to accomplish each necessary action can be spelled out. The plan should be written by someone with planning experience-usually just one individual or a small committee with individual assignments. Then it may be reviewed by the whole committee and changed, if necessary, to meet your needs. Assigning Duties and Responsibilities At some point in time, either as part of the plan or as a separate exercise, the people who will implement the plan should be assigned duties and responsibilities. This may involve all or part of the current work force, or additional or contracted services. Since these people should already be a part of this planning process, they may have suggestions for what works best, or wish to take on different responsibilities than they previously were assigned. Discussing and Planning for Budget Considerations An IRVM plan may involve merely reallocating existing financial resources, be a response to additional funding possibilities or a need to more efficiently cope with dwindling financial resources. Realize that each program element has a cost connected with implementing it and determine if that cost is feasible under current or proposed budgets. Adding additional equipment may also add to problems in adopting the fully integrated approach to roadside vegetation management problems. Many times these problems can be handled by phasing in the program gradually, and starting with the elements easiest to do within existing time and equipment. It is not always necessary to totally change a program, but rather do things in a more efficient manner, using the same tools we already possess. If pessimism prevails start off with an implementation project. Providing for Research and Innovation Constantly keep an eye out for research opportunities that may result in innovations for improving quality, reducing costs, and improving working conditions for roadside workers. Evaluating Program Success This may be the hardest, but certainly the most important part of writing and implementing an IRVM Plan. It is imperative to have some benchmark, some comparison, some yardstick to measure program success. As much as we need to know where we have been and where we are going, we need to know if we are successful in our endeavors. Short-term goals and objectives need to be reached and documented. Records of implementation activities need to be maintained over time to evaluate oyerall direction and accomplishments. Periodic evaluations by program principals need to be reviewed to see if the program is moving forward and if the IRVM Plan has reasonable and attainable goals and objectives. Changes can then be made to allow us to reach the level of accomplishment that is expected. The entire plan should be reviewed during and at the end of its term. Goals and objectives can be reviewed and re-ranked to see if they are still viable over time. Performance of the plan should be reviewed separately from employee performance. Once the IRVM Plan has been written and adopted, it is time to move forward into the implementation phase.

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23 Training Training of staff cannot be overstressed. No matter how good the work plan, untrained workers will cost time and money and may lead to other problems. Set up a training program that meets the needs of your operation. Training topics taught by qualified instructors should include: Q Q Q Q Q Q Plant identification and planting techniques Chemical, cultural, biological and mechanical methods of pest control Safe and accurate equipment use Employee safety, e.g., clothing, emergency procedures, etc. Recordkeeping Public relations Recordkeeping As important as it is to use reliable methods in implementing a roadside program, it is equally important to maintain timely records of those operations as they are completed. Recordkeeping is essential for future planning and for evaluation of effectiveness. Take advantage of computer databases, geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS), technology to make recordkeeping more effective and retrievable. Record and file the following information for each project effort: 0 Project Location 0 Project Description 0 Weather Conditions (Especially with herbicides) 0 Acres or Miles Completed 0 Amount of Materials Used U Worker and Equipment Hours Devoted to Project 0 Person Responsible for Activity 0 Follow-up Observations 18

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27 Public Relations: A good public relations plan can contribute to the success of your IRVM program. Inform the public and others in your agency through newsletter articles. Consider establishing a working relationship with environmental reporters from local newspapers or television stations. Periodically keep agency public affairs personnel aware of photo and press release opportunities regarding roadside management. Collaborate with your agency's Office of Communications to assist in preparation of informative videos on IRVM. Plant Material Sources: Seed and plant stock appropriate for your locale may be commercially available. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) or one of the nine USDA Plant Materials Centers. Seed and plant stock source directories for most portions of the United States are as follows: National - Sources of Native Seeds and Plants Soil and Water Conservation Society, Ankeny, Iowa Northwest Region - Hortus Northwest, $9.00/2 issues Market Street NE, Ste. 521, Salem, OR Hawaii - Directory of Sources for Native Hawaiian Plants, $4.00 to Hawaiian Plant Conservation Center, NTBG, P.O. Box 340, Lawai, Kaua'i, Hawaii Alaska - Directory of Alaska Native Plant Sources, Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Call Western Region - Source List of Native Plants for the West, Native Plant Society of New Mexico, P.O. Box 5917, Santa Fe, NM Nursery Sources for California Native Plants $10.00 to Division of Mines and Geology, P.O. Box 2980 Sacremento, CA Midwest Region - Midwest Native Plant Seed Sources, $5.00 to the National Wildflower Research Center, 4801 La Crosse, Austin, TX Midatlantic Region - Contact the Brandywine Conservancy, Northeast Region - Sources of Propagated Native Plants and Wildflowers, $3.00 to the New England Wildflower Society, Garden in the Woods, Hemenway Road, Framingham, MA Southeast Region - Nursery Sources of Native Plants of the Southeastern United States, $9.00 to Wildflower, 234 Oak Tree Trail, Wilsonville, AL Contact your state Native Plant Society and Nursery and Landscape Association for statespecific information and dealers. Contact the American Seed Trade Association ( ) for other seed growers in your state. 22

28 **Note: This Page has been updated as of 12/21/2004 World Wide Web: Use of the Internet system is rapidly becoming commonplace. Check home pages from herbicide and equipment manufacturers also. Some addresses which may help include: State DOT Sites United States DOT Federal Highway Administration Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW) Transportation Research Board (TRB) Washington State Roadside Maintenance General Services Administration Federal Supply Services Department of Interior Library of Congress Information Systems for Agriculture Flora of North America Natural Resource Conservation Service The Nature Conservancy Urban Forestry Council (State example) International Society of Arboriculture Integrated Pest Management Practioners Association National Pesticide Information Center Pesticide Education Resources National Roadside Vegetation Management Association **Note: This Page has been updated as of 12/21/

29 Computer Based Information Systems: Watch for development of "Expert Systems" that utilize high speed computer and compact disk(cd-rom) technology. Examples include: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Noxious and Nuisance Plant Management Information System which allows rapid access to a variety of information on 34 noxious and nuisance plant species including management options (call for information). The Minnesota Department of Transportation's Trees and Shrubs For Minnesota Landscapes and Roadsides which provides data and images for over 320 trees and shrubs applicable to roadside and landscape planting in Minnesota (call Shawn or Rose for information). Research: NRVMA maintains a Research and Development Subcommittee which serves as a source of roadside vegetation management research and information. If you are looking for any available research on a particular subject or if you have any research that you want to share with counterparts in other states, contact Paul Northcutt, Texas DOT at (512) The Tr~nsportation Research Board (TRB) promotes innovation and progress in transportation by stimulating and conducting research and encouraging the implemention of research results. Committees active in research applicable to roadside management include: A3C07-Committee on Roadside Maintenance, A3C53- Task Force on Environmental Maintenance, A3C53(1) Subcommittee on Environmental Maintenance on Travel Way Elements and A3C53(2) Subcommittee on Environmental Maintenance on Roadside and Winter Services. For further information or to obtain a catalog of TRB publications in print write to Transportation Research Board Business Office, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C (telephone ). NRVMA Proceedings: The National Roadside Vegetation Management Associ.ation publishesproceedings of its annual conferences including papers from each presentor. Copies of the annual proceedings are available from 1985 to the present. 24

30 Sl~~UI {BOD ~u~wj~modw3 UO!1~lO1S~"N mg1saso:j3 A1p8~1UJ A~!Sl~A!a ~Z S:J~Id 10 ~M01~ 10 :Ju~wdOI~A~P ~~ ~UI:JlqlquI10 ~UIII1){ 101 p~sn ~:J1W~q:J V ~P!:)!ql~H UO!S!;)~P 10J ~P!n~ e ~P!A01d pub ~U!1SeI ~UOI AI{t11~U~~ ~jp, A~~1U~wqS!IdUIo;);)e 10J S1~~jp,1 ~jp, s{t1 D l;)e 01 UO!1U~1U! ~UpnpU~ UV U~Id ~~.Jo}u~wdOI~A~P ~~ 8u!lnp sn:).j pub A}1nU1}UO:) SU1~} -U11:1W pub su01ssn:)s1p SI~uUBq:) OqM ~UO 'U01}~:)1unwwo:) P~}~I~l pububld ~ 8U1}U~W~Idw1 pub 8u1doI~A~P u1 S}S1SS~ OqM ~UO 'l~p~~i ss~:)old V lo~~~1i1:)~ti S~U11 -~P1n8 u1"b:ll~:) U1q:J1M S1U~m~pnr 1u~pu~d~pU1 ~~m 01 f.1potpn~ ~P1AOld oj. (17661'UO!~ -elo~s~"m IU:>!~010~ lad f..~~!:>os)>~ snou~~!pu! JO s:>!weuf..p pub f..~!sl~a!p ~q1 o~ SUBwnq f..q p~sne:> ~~ewep ~UP!"Bd~l JO ss~:>old ~q.l {B:)!goI :)3 s~oddns ~I s~i1iu -nunuo:) ~q:j puu puui ~q:j)0 q:jjti~q ~q~ 10) ){10h\ O~ 1~q:J~~0~Ido~d s~upq puu 's~d ~q:j ~snr ~Ou 'W~~SAS ~Ioqh\ ~q~ Sl~PISUO:) ~eq:j q:)e01dde uy ~U~lli~~eUBW p~seg lli~~saso:)3 ~!un ~ s~ P~l~P!S -uo:) '~U~WUOl!AU~ fb:)!saqd S~! q~!m. l~q1~~o~ A~!UnWWO:) fb:)!~oio:)~ uy p~w~:)uo:)~80~ JO 180m Aq 1U p~a!jlu 1u~m~pnr ~~ ~p10:)uo:) 10 1u~m~~1~U fb1~u~d snsu~suoj ~sad ~~q1 Jo IJt110 :JJBd AU~ lip! li!/'t\. s~sad 1aq10 10 UOn -~~a~aa ~a~jp,~ O~ Apad01d pa!idd~ uaq/'t\. 'q:)!q/'t\. punodwo:) :)!~aq1uas V ~~!W~qJ sa!~ads ua!jt! lo a{qnl!sapun Jo uo!}~npoj1u! aq:j f.q pa~nnodun 'najb aq~ o~ aa!~nu ajb q~!qa\ sa!~ads asoq:j f.{uo su!t1~uo~ najb un q~!qa\ U! ~u!aq JO a~n~s V (~~m U~A!~ ~ 10) }~~Id ~q1 UO (S{t:1W!UB 'S}~Id) SWS!UB~lO ~U!A!I JO A}!I!q~!l"BA p~ A}~!l"BA ~q} O} Sl~J~"M p:1:ji8oioih P:!:)!~OIO!H AHVSSO~~

31 Landscape Local Native Integrated Roadside A decision-making and quality management process for maintaining Vegetation Management roadside vegetation that integrates the following: -the needs of local communities and highway users -the knowledge of plant ecology and natural processes -design, construction, anq maintenance considerations -monitoring and evaluation procedures -government statutes and regulations -technology with cultural, biological, mech~al, and chemical pest control methods to economically manage roadsides for safety plus environmental and visual quality Allor any portion of the surface features of the earth, including natural and built elements Character That visual quality or combination of qualities that distinguishes one landscape from another Genotype Mission Statement Plant The genetic constitution shared by all individuals of a species in a particular locale Answers the question "why do we exist?" from a customer's perspective. It usually describes products, services, and the customers who use them. (Also referred to as a "purpose statement") A plant (species) which occurs naturally in a particular area without human cause or influence. Known to exist in an area prior to European settlement Native Plant Community A diverse group of native plants which grow together in the same general place and have mutual interactions Objective Pesticide Policy A specific, measurable result to be achieved by a specific point in time. Objectives are often established annually and stem directly from goals Any substance or mixture of substances intended for controlling insects, rodents, fungi, weeds, and other fomls of plant or animal life that are considered to be pests A guideline for action that is intended to coordinate decision-making and action-taking across an organization 26

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33 Frank, Integrated Pauly, Utah REFERENCES -AASHT6~way Subcommittee on Design A Guide for Transportation Landscape and Environmental Design. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Arnebeck, Richard (March Edition). Integrated Vegetation Management-Is It For You? Public Works Magazine. Milo O How to Run A Successful Meeting In Half The Time. Simon & Schuster. Humes, Durward How Storyboarding With Ideas Can Help Your Work Team Plan, Solve Problems, Make Better Decisions. Kendal1/Hunt Publishing Company. Humes, Durward, G.W. Thompson, David G. Noyes Make Your Meetings Count! Integrated Roadside Vegetation Management Technical Manual. em Iowa. Vegetation Management For Roadsides, Washington DOT. and Bio-Integral Resource Center. University of North- Washington DOT Wayne R How To Manage Small Prairie Fires (Prescribed Burns). Friends of Dane County Parks, Madison, Wisconsin. Randall, John and Janet Marinelli, Invasive Plants (Brooklyn Botanic Garden Series), Storey Publishing, Pownal, Vermont. Successories Incorporated Your Attitude Determines Your Altitude & Winning With Teamwork. Successories Publishing. Stubbendieck, Et at Agriculture, Lincoln. Weeds of Nebraska and the Great Plains. Nebraska Department of Tagliere, Daniel A How to Think and Work to Consenus. Pfeiffer & Company. Tracy, Brian. nar Series. Successful Management Semi Managing Meetings That Get Results.Nightingale-Conant. Vegetation Management Manual. DOT. Wakefield, Robert C., Carl D. Sawyer Roadside Vegetation Management. of Rhode Island Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 432. University Whitson, Tom D Weeds of the West. University of Wyoming, Jackson. 28

34 ~ 6'(; c~~~ ON~ S3A.' ION I JOI!UOV\l I 4 I wej6ojd IU~e.J.L ~lddv I S 3 A ON -t JOJ!UOI/IJ I~ (AIUO ~Idw~X3) (uo:j~u!qsbm Jo a:jb:js) ~U!}fBW-UO!S!~a<I :Juama~BUBW uo"b:ja~aa pa:jb.i~a:jui aq.t- 1 XI<IN:iIddV

35 APPENDIX 2 -Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Threshold Level Concept (State of Washington DOT) The Relationship Between Injury Level and Action Threshold High Injury Level c 0 ~ CO :J c0 Action Th reshold ~ CO +-' Q) 0) Q) > E Q)..Q 0~ \ Treat here to avoid damage 0- Low Early Time of the Season Late Injury Level -The number, area of cover, or quantity of some plant characteristic which will cause unacceptable functional, economic, aesthetic, or environmental damage when reached by a type of vegetation. Action Threshold -The point when the number, area of cover, or quantity of some plant characteristic reaches a level when treatment action must be taken to avoid reaching the injury level. 30

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37 0 0 Group leader and facilitator should collaborate on the meeting agenda-agenda should be distributed in advance and should include the following: I:) one sentence objective of why you are meeting I:) topics organized by priority so that most important items are covered first Group leader should run a meeting using the following guidelines: 0 begin on time and assume the late comer is not showing up 0 clearly state the purpose of the meeting in the introductory comments 0 announce the duration of the meeting 0 encourage open discussion-perhaps start with a round robin 0 leader should not dominate the meeting 0 keep discussion on track and press for closure 0 avoid "group think"-groups often move like a herd to hasty decisions 0 welcome conflict- "The more conflict the more likely a good solution" 0 summarize at the end-make sure members are clear on their assignments 0 distribute minutes within 24 hours An IRVM steering committee develops the IRVM Program and Annual Plan with a relatively small core of people in primarily problem-solving meetings. "Storyboarding With Ideas" can be a very effective and time-saving exercise to maximize participation and reach better solutions to problems during these meetings. Once the IRVM Program/Plan is in place information meetings for the purpose of bringing other roadside vegetation workers up to speed on the program will be necessary. Allow ample time for these people to express their feelings and opinions on the program. In some cases informational meetings may include other interested parties. 32

38 SJ8MOI!PI!M pue slueld 81\!leU 8/\J8SUO~ pue 81\J8S8Jd 0 S8!l!l!ln p8lepowwo~~e 0 lel!qelj 8!!IPI!M pue spuell8m 81\J8S8Jd 0 Al!lenb lens!1\ 8~UeLjU8 pue U!elU!eW 0 UO!SOJ8 lu81\8jd 0 Sp88M IOJlUO:> 0 ueld UO!le~!!!ssel~ 8p!SpeOl:l 8Ljl!O S81\!l~8rqO pue sieo6 8Ljl l88w Ol s6u!punojjns lu8~erpe U88J~S Jo/pue pu81q 0 S8!l!UnWWO~ lueld 8~UeU8lU!eW MOl 8l0WOJd 0 (gu!i Mm 01 Z guoz WOll) auoz UO!I!SUBJ.l :e auoz 1.~!lenb lens!a e~ue4ue 0 Se!~!I!~n punoj6jepun e~epowwo~~e 0 ~!uej~ l.empeoj 4~!M elq!~edwo~ eje4m ~e~!qe4 e!!ipi!m ep!aojd 0 UO!SOJe ~ueaejd 0 SpaSM IOJ~UO~ 0 (l.em46!4 e4~ 6u!pe4S seej~ pub) seej~ pjeze4 e~eu!w!le 0 Se4~~!p!O I.~!~ede~ ~!lnejpi.4 u!e~u!ew 0 suo!~~esje~u! ~e pub '6u!ddo~s '6u!ssed JO! e~ue~s!p ~46!s ep!aojd 0 eeje I.JeAO~eJ el~!4ea u!e~u!ew 0 (sp~~u ~UO!!~l~dO!~~W O! I ~uoz wall) auoz IBUO!IBJado :'l euoz e5pe ~uewel\ed e4~ ~e pues Je~U!M pue S!Jqep UMOlq PU!M ~O dnpl!nq e4~ ~uel\ejd t) SUo!~~eSJe~u! ~e pue '5u!ddo~s '5u!ssed JO~ e~ue~s!p ~45!s ep!l\ojd 0 s~ueld el\!sei\u! /i.q dn>teejq ~uewel\ed ~uel\ejd 0 ejempje4 ep!speoj ~O e~ueue~u!ew pue /i.~!i!q!s!1\ JO~ ep!l\ojd 0 le!~ue~od ej!~ e~npej 0 e5eu!ejp ~~el.lns JO~ ep!l\ojd 0 (:Ju~m~Aud mol] Z O:J.0) 9UOZ aaj~ UO!lela6aA : ~ auoz (AIUO ~Idwex3) }da~uo3 auoz }UaWa~RURW ap!sproh -17 XI<lN:fIddV

39 APPENDIX 5 -Roadside Prioritization Matrix (Adapted from Washington DOT) The following roadside priority matrix and description illustrate how one State DOT used a matrix in prioritizing roadside maintenance activities. The weighting and scores in this appendix are not a NRVMA recommendation but are simply to illustrate the use of the matrix. In Washington State, the biennium transportation maintenance budget reduced funding for roadside maintenance activities by approximately 30%. The budget also included language that directed the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) to look at methods for providing a consistent maintenance level of service throughout the state. Using Quality Managementools, the Team developed a Roadside Maintenance Activity Priority Matrix. The matrix is a reference tool that maintenance people could utilize in planning and budgeting their work. It can also be used as a basis to develop policy aimed at providing consistency in the delivery of the roadside maintenance program. The matrix shows the contribution each roadside maintenance activity makes toward the objectives and goals of the maintenance program and prioritizes the activities into groups from the highest to the lowest priority work. In order to develop a matrix the team had to identify basic program objectives. The program objectives are the criteria that the activities are evaluated against to determine how important they are to program delivery. The objectives answer the question " Why do we maintain highways?" The other things the team needed to identify were the individual maintenance activities. The activities are the "What we do to maintain the roadsides." By evaluating the "what" in terms of achieving the "why", it could then be determined what activities were most important to deliver the overall program. The activities could then be ranked in order of importance and the resulting prioritized list would provide a logical basis for consistent management decisionmaking. The WHY; Identifying Program Objectives First, each team member, on their own, identified what they felt the overall big picture objectives of the program were. Everyone's ideas were then reviewed by the team for commonalty. All the identified objectives, upon review, were ultimately combined into seven basic program objectives. It should be emphasized that the team identified objectives of the entire highway maintenance program, nq.t just the objectives for roadside maintenance. Since the majority of maintenance personnel have to deal with all highway maintenance issues, such as snow and ice control, pavement repair and others, it was important to identify the total maintenance program objectives so it could be determined how the roadside activities fit within the overall program. The highway maintenance program objectives identified by the team are: 0 Provide safe, reliable transportation 0 Maintain the investment at its lowest life cycle cost 0 Support commerce and economic viability 0 Comply with legal mandates 0 Be a responsible member of the community 0 Be environmentally responsible 0 Contribute to a positive appearance 34

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41 1 0 Contribute to achieving the objective rating = 1 Any activity that provides some support to achieving an objective, no matter how small the contribution, should receive a rating of 1. There is no limit to how many items can contribute. I:J No contribution toward achieving the objective rating = 0 If an activity makes no contribution toward an objective it should receive no value. Limits are placed on the number of activities that were "critical" or "significant" because it is important to identify the very most consequential activities and to insure they are equal in importance. If there were no limits all activities would tend to be of equal value. Computing The Priorities The next step is simply a mathematical calculation to determine the weighted value of each activity. The rating given each activity is multiplied by the weighted importance value of the objective. This gives a weighted value of that activities contribution to achieving each objective. The weighted values under each objective are added together to obtain a total score for each activity. The activities are then sorted by total score. The activities receiving the highest scores are the highest priority activities. Repair major slide and erosion Q).'" ~ -="'" Q) ~ := e u ~ ~..= Q)U Q)O»- """p = U 011 I 011 '" ~ = Q).g 0.a ;E ~ ="" ~10 ~j7 (Ij, 0 ~ p. ~ ~.E ',= > = 0 "' u& 2 i- u os.~ '" >, 'P.. e 0u 5 ~1 "t;o os ::I Z ~ 0"" 0 '" u = 0 0 c- '" I... e,b ~ s ~ I ~ >- '] = ~~ 0,0.!=.~ > = = 0 Q) p. Q) "' ~ ~ 3 ~ u00 Maintenance of cross culverts I ' Control noxious weeds I 9 ~45.ol High risk brush & grass control ~45.ol Eliminate danger trees ! Remove roadkill hazards 9 ~9o.ol 0.0 I I Repair or clean ditches & culverts (> 50%) : ~ Promote long-term plant communities 3 ' ~ Irrigation operation & repair for plant survival Repair fences for safety reasons I I I ~ ~117.0 Continued on page

42 O'g~ o.~gi O'~GI 0'6 o'~~1 o.g~ O.G~ O'8~' o.8~ ~~d pub SIU!odMa!!\ 'SI!eJIIO a:>ueuaiu!ew ~ J!eda~ I L.S98L -SOL -09 }B nop;}3s 3P!SPBOH J..O<I no} -~n!qsba\ 3q} };}B}nO;} X!.I}BW nopbzp.lo!.ld 3AOqB 3q} )0 nopbnbldx3 p31!b}3p 3.10W B.l0.{.1~q~!q APUR;)!J!U~!S S! W~I -q01d ~qt SS~1ppR t tso;) ~qt pub 'MOllOWOt ){SP q~!q ~q II!M SW~Iq01d ){SP ~tr1~pow S,ARpO.L.SW~Iq01d 10fRW ~lb A~qt IItun ~U!t~M trqt ~A!t;)~JJ~ tso;) ~low q;)nw os S! IJRWS ~lb A~qt U~qM SW~lq01d UO!tRt~~~A qt!m ~U!IR~a.~;)UBU~tU~W JO R~lB l~qto AUB 10J S! t! SR S~P!SPR0 10J tubt -lodw! SR S! ~;)UBU~tU~W ~A!tU~A~ld.SS~1ppR t s~;)mos~l ~qt ~ARq toll op tnq '~U!qt tq~p ~qt S! MOll{ ~Ido~d ~;)UBU~tU~W tsow trqt ~U!qt~WOS pub ~;)UBU~tU~W ~AItU~A~ld S! S!q.L."S~!t!U -nwwo;) tubid WJ~t-~UOI ~towold" S! f.10~~tr;) Atpopd q~!q ~qt U! dn p~pu~ trqt S~It!AIt;)R ~qt JO ~UO.~Uop ~U!U~~ ~q toll ARW trqt S~U!qt tq~p ~WOS tno Stu!od OSJR tl 'Op t "S~U!qt tq~p" ~qt ~lb trqm AJ!tU~P! di~q PInoqs XptRW ~qt 'AtPopd ts~q~!q ~lb S~It!A!t;)R trqm ~U!AJ!tU~P! Ag s3u!ll.l Ill3!N all.l 3u!oa O'6~ 0' ~ O'v ~ O'G ~ 0'0 0.0 O'O~ (suoseaj :J!laljlsae 6u!pnl:Jul) I IOJIUO:J ssej6 ~ ljsnjq )js!j MOl' o.t7~ '0' a'v ~ : O'G ~ 0' '0 UO!jeJjs!u!wpe wej6ojd "em46!h-~-jdop~ O'PC '0' O'v ~ O'S ~ O"g 0'9 ~ 0'0 O'O~ ~ dn-jj:j!d Ja»!1 ":JS!W O'L& '0" ~ O'v ~ O'S ~ O'G ~ 0'9 ~ O'L ~ O'O~ ~ (%05» sjja"ln:j ~ sa4:ji!p ueal:j JO J!edaH O'OP 0'0 0 O'G~ I O'S ~ O'g 0.0 O'L ~ O'O~ ~ suoseaj Ja410 JOI sa:>ual J!eda~ I O'~p 0' ~ O'v ~ O'S ~ O'G ~ 0'9 ~ : 0.0 sbu!iueld palls!lqelsa U! J!edaJ ~ UO!leJado UO!leB!JJI I O'PS f; C'v 0'0 0 OOG ~ o'b~1 0'0 pade:>spuel u! juawa:>e4ua I!OS 0'99 0" ~ O'v : 0'9 : O"g ~ O' ~GI 0'0 aje:> jjnll 0'09 O'G~ I (; O'S o'b~1 6 0'9 ~ 0'0 O'O~ ~ lesods!p pue dn-jt:>!d 6eq Ja»!ll 0'99 I 0'6 O'LL 10" ~ O'v O'S COG ~ O'g ~ O' ~GI O'O~ ~ ~ 0'9 : o'9~1 : O' ~GI c O'O~ ~ a6ewep i UO!SOJa pub adois JOU!W J!eda~ O' ~8 I 0"6 O'v ~ O'S ~ O'g 0'9 ~ O' ~GI 0.0 O'L8 '0' ~ o'g~1 O'S ~ O'B~' 6 8 ~ I O' ~GI O'O~ O.~6 '0'6 : I ~ O'S~ 0'9 O' ~GI O'O~ ~ IOJIUO:J ssej6 '8 ljsnjq >ls!j alejapow1 6U!de:>spuel lewjol U! IOJjuo:> 4sruq ~ paam / spaam a:lues!nu IOJjUO:), O'90~,ooLll 6 O'G~ I O'g~ O'g ; 00 n VG G 3!" 0 ~ ~3 ~ g'~ '"1 cn 0'0...,0 n = 0 ~. 3 a- 3 ;- = S. -< g = (") ~ 0 8..g ~-< '" ~ e: {I 0' I!>lpeOJ )0 asods!o ~!Pi -;;; L ~I" o~ S' ~ '0'" g. ::3 ~ ~(")~ _. : o' =' 8'" '",,, ::3."" ~ ~I

43 May~~ ~As!!!.. RYM,~~'!Vs RVM, I~~ I ACCOMPliSHED WHO APPENDIX 6 -Example of Annual Work Plan Fayette County Iowa ACfION WEED CONTROL PROGRAM WHO WHEN Spot treat Canada Thistle and other Roadside Vegetative Manager noxious weeds (RYM) Asst., Crews July -August, 1989 Evaluat effectiveness of Weed Control Pro~ RVM, Asst. Jul -Au st, 1989 Return or store excess chemicalá¹£. RVM, Asst. Se tember, 1989 Evaluate new chemicals and October, applications Asst. March, 1990 Train new employees and start ACCOMPLIS~- ACllON mixtures for 1990 SEEDING NATIVE GMSSES ~ RVM Febru~ -March, 1990 Evaluate stand density of 1989 nursery seedings ~ RVM, Asst.J~ April- May, 1990 Seed new nursery areas Asst., Crews April- May, 1990 July -August, 1989 Provide necessary weed control B-YM, Asst., Crews April- June, 199JL ACCOMPUSHED ArnON INTERSEEDING A~ CONTROLLED BURNI~ ~ Identify and evaluate ditches showing appreciable prairie indicators RVM, As~~ 1!!!Y-,_1989 -June, 1990 Identify and evaluate ditches needing reseeding July,)989 -June,1!l9SL 38

44 **NOTE: This page has been updated as of 02/07/2005** APPENDIX 7 State DOT and Federal Contacts for Roadside Programs State Department of Transportation (DOT) contacts are found in environmental, landscape, erosion, and maintenance units. Listed also are contacts in the State offices of the FHWA known as Divisions*. They are often environmental specialists. (2004) STATE DOTS AND FHWA DIVISIONS*: AL - Keith Sowell, John Lorentson, *Bill Van Luchene, AK Diane Regan, Jeffery Ottesen, *Tim Haugh, AR - Phillip Moore, Charles Flowers, *Randal Looney, AZ - Leroy Brady, Bruce Eilerts, *Steve Thomas, CA Sheree Edwards, Jack Broadbent, John Hayes, Greg Erickson, 916 * Maryann Rondinella, CO Cathy Curtis, Ed Fink, Mike Banovich, *Mike Vanderhoof, CT Bruce Villwock, Delois Barnes, Kimberly Lesay, *Robert W. Turner, DE Chip Rosan, *Bob Kleinburd, District Mark Buscainoil, Bill Beck, *Michael Hicks, FL Jeff Caster, Tim Allen, *George Hadley, GA - Ray Dorsey, Abbe Hocter, *Katie Allen, HI - Richard Dapololu, George Tonaki, *Jodi Chew, IA - Mark Masteller, Steve Holland, *Janice Thompson, ID Cathy Ford, *Brent Inghram, IL Rick Nowak, *J. D. Stevenson, IN - Rick Phillabaum, Dave Lamb, *Joyce Newland, KS - Fred Markham, * Patrick Arno, KT - Michael Clarke, David Cornett, Bill Green, *Anthony Goodman, LA Clay Swift, *Robert Mahoney, MA - George Batchelor, *Rick Marquis, MD - Ken Oldham, Charlie Adams *Dan Johnson, ME Bob LaRoche, Sylvia Michaud, 207, *Mark Hasselman, MI - Bob Zelski, Mark Pearson, *Abdelmoez Abdalla, MN - Bob Jacobson, Scott Bradley, Bob Wryk, *Cheryl Martin, MO - Stacy Armstrong, Rand Swanigan, *Peggy Casey, MS - Robert Moseley, Jim Vinson, *Cecil Vick, MT - Phil Johnson, Dan Williams, *Carl James, x238 NC Don Lee, Charlie Tomlinson Derek Smith, *Michael Dawson, ND Annette Lalka, Jerry Horner, *Calvin Larson, NE - Art Thompson, Richard Gray *Edward Kosola, NH Guy Giunta, Mike Pillsbury William Hauser *Bill O Donnell, NJ - David Byers, Henry Renelli, *Jeanette Mar, NM - Grady Stem, An *Greg Heitmann, NY Charlie Nagel, Kyle Williams, Rick McKeon, *Bill Gates, NV - Dennis Covel, Frank G. Taylor, Don Payne, *Ted Bendure, OH - Barney Howard, John Baird, Christine Hunt, *David Snyder, Ok - Joanne Orr, Laurie Stillings Effinger *Shannon Dumolt, OR Will Lackey, Bill Jablonski, *Elton Chang, PA - Joe Demko, John Whaley *Karyn Vandervoort, Puerto Rico Flores, *Jose Luis Torres, RI - Barbara Petrarca, Sheleen Clarke, *Michael Butler, SC - Timothy Edwards, Kelly Jo Swygert, *Shane Belcher, SD - Sharon Kayser, *Ginger Massie, TN - Pat Thurman, Beverly Wilson, *Leigh Ann Tribble, TX - Mark Mathews, Dennis Markwardt, *Sandy Allen, UT - Ira Bickford, Terry Johnson, *Greg Punske, VA - Ken Oristaglio, Brian Waymack, *Ed Sundra, Vt - Craig Dusablon, Chris Slesar, *Ken Sikora, WA - Mark Mauer, Ray Willard, *Sharon Love, WI - Leif Hubbard, Richard Stark, *Jacki Lawton, WV - Norse Angus, Jim Riggs, *Jeannie Simms, WY - John Samson, Kevin Powell, *Rodney Vaughn, FEDERAL LANDS DIVISIONS: Western Terri Thomas, Central Rick Cushing, Eastern Jack VanDop,

45 ADOT EROSION AND POLLUTION CONTROL MANUAL WISCONSIN'S STATE HIGHWAY MOWING POLICY " ~--"' '---""" These brochures, posters and manuals are examples of educational materials available for public and agency use in promoting Integrated Roadside Vegetation Management practices. 40

46 'p~l~pu~l S~:J!Al~S loj UO!~RSU~dUIO:J ~IqRuosR~l ARd o~ p~l~modui~ pur p~z!l q:jnr ~q IfBqs UO!~R!:JOSSV ~q:j ~Rq~ ~d~:jx~ 'suos -l~d ~~RA!ld l~q:jo lo 'Sl~:J1JJO 'SlO~:J~l!P 'Sl~qUI~UI S~! O~ ~IqR~nq!IJs!p ~q lo Jo ~y~u~q ~q:j o~ p~sn ~q IIRqs UO!~R!:JOSSV ~q:j JO S~U!UJR~ ~q:j JO ~d on.s1:jnp01d 11~q:J ~1RJ:JSUOW~pUB ~:JnpoJ:Jul 01 A11un:)lOddO UB 1u~wdlnb~ pur SIRll~1RW JO Sl~ln1,:JRJnUBW ~q:j P10JJR 01 (~) pub 'SII1){S 1u~uodwo:J S11 pur 1U~W~~RUBW ~PISpR01 JO S~:J11:JR1d ~q1 JO UOI1R1U~W -~Idwl pub UO1:JIU~O:J~l JO SpmpUB1S 1~1S1U1WPR pub qsliqr1s~ 01 ('\7)'1U~W~~RUBW uo1:jm~~~a ~PISpR01 ul p~~r~u~ pub P~1S~1~1ul ~soq:j ~uoum S:tl JJ~ P~1RUlp100:J 1~11~q pub ~low ~10W01d 01 ( ) 'SS~U -panos IR:JI~OIO:J~ pub 's:j1:j~q:js~r pub UOI1R:JYI1nR~q ~PISpR01 'AWOUO:J~'S:J11sll~1:JRmq:J IRUOI1R1~do pub IRu 1:J:JunJ 'A1~JBS ~ulpm~~l S~111A1:J:JR 1U~W~~RUBW UOI1m~~~A ssn:jsip 01 (z) 'UOI1RUUOJUI pur 's~:ju~ll~dx~ 'SUO1Uldo 'SR~PI ~~URq:JX~ 01 (I) ~m UOI1RI:Jossy ~q:j Jo s~sodjnd ~q.l '~UlsIPUBq:J1~W 10 '~Ullm:JRJnUBW '~UI1:JRJ:JUO:J 'UO1:JRIn~~l'U 1:JR:Jnp~'q:Jm~s~l '1U~WAOIdw~ q~nojq1 1U~W~~RUBW UOI1R1~~~A ~PISpR01 UI P~1S~1~1UI suos1~d ~soq1 1~q:J~~01 ~Ullq 01 P~qsIIqR1s~ sl UOI1RI:Jossy ~q.l asod.idd

47 "Beautiful Roadsides -The Key To A Beautiful America" For More Information Contact: Tumey Hernandez National Roadside Vegetation Management Association 218 Rhett Drive Adams Run Newark, Delaware 19702

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