wat zullen we de virtuele ruimte noemen, en wat de reëele ruimte? 3/26/2012 een echte virtuele ruimte produceren Voor opa was het doodgaan

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1 een echte virtuele ruimte produceren Janet Cardiff, Forty-Part Motet 2001, Thomas Tallis Spem in Alium nunquam habui, jctv Spem in alium nunquam habui præter in te, Deus Israel: qui irasceris et propitius eris, et omnia peccata hominum in tribulatione dimittis. Domine Deus, Creator cæli et terræ, respice humilitatem nostram Mijn hoop is slechts op U gesteld, God van Israel, die toornig is en toch genade toont en de zonden vergeeft van mensen die lijden. Heer God, schepper van hemel en aarde, zie om naar ons in onze nederigheid responsorium uit Sarum Rite, adapterdd from the Book of Judith. Voor opa was het doodgaan [...] niet zoiets als nacht: Het was de steeds grotere ruimte Die hij voor zichzelf had bedacht. Architectuur en (beeldende) kunst Stijl als product van ons cognitief en kennis-organiserend vermogen Stijl als zelf techniek Patroon herkenning: de fenomenologie van het waarnemen: herkenning, typering Portret als relationeel en hiërarchiserend vermogen: De retoriek van het beeld: compositie en strategie Masker als ruimtelijk instrument Het eigen maken van betekenis: jouw portret van het andere is tevens een portret van jezelf Ruimte-tijd als relationeel organiserend vermogen Ruimte en organisatie: narratieve ruimte en ruimtelijke narratieven (Kant) Ruimtelijke praktijk: de representatie van ruimte en representatieve ruimte (Lefebvre) Licht en donker, kleur en textuur: de ware aard van vorm Willem Wilmink, (1936) Opa uit: ik had als kind een huis en haard (1996) The Substance of Space Empty Space: Nothingness Full Space: Ether The In-Between Mythical Space: Breaking Space Epiphany/ Hierophany Event & Initiation Sacred and Profane: Hierarchy Axis Mundi Transcendence & Allegory Erotic Space: Desire/Voyeurism/Fantasy & Film Dimensional Space: Space-Time & Measurement Carving, Moulding, Shaping and Cutting Space: Ontology of Matter & Style Flowing Space: Movement and stillness, Continuity and Division Conceptual Space: Thought and Memory as Landscape; Narrative, Travel and Architecture Measuring Space: Space-Time & Light Philosophical Space Simile & Metaphor Analogy A history of Space Virtual space and Real space wat zullen we de virtuele ruimte noemen, en wat de reëele ruimte? 1

2 en wat is het verschil precies? The brain in the vat, Hilary Putnam David David Summers, Real Spaces, World Art History and the Rise of Western Modernism, Phaidon, 2003 Foto uit Vossische Zeitung, 19, , radio maakt officiele verkiezingsuitkomst bekend Cumberland Station in Chicago, Filmstill of Slow Space, the film in construction Bruce Berrien, Bridgeport, end 2

3 Student van Peter Hans, zwemmer 1929 Student van Peter Hans, plein, 1929 UMBO Otto Umbehr, Onheilspellende straat 1, 1928 Gotthart Itting, Bauhaus, Dessau, hoek trappenhuis ateliers, 1927 Rachel Whiteread, Untitled -house Rachel Whiteread, Basement,

4 Untitled Paperbacks by Rachel Whiteread, 1997 Rachel Whiteread, Monument, 2001 Gordon Matta Clark, , Circus of the Caribbean Orange, 1978 Gordon Matta Clark, , Circus of the Caribbean Orange, 1978 Gordon Matta Clarke, Splitting, 1974 Gordon Matta Clark, , Office Baroque, Antwerp,

5 Gordon Matta Clark, Big-go-ne By 1-9ths Gordon Matta Clark Kasimir Malevich, Suprematism, 1915 Anish Kapoor, Mother as a solo, 1988 Adolfo Natalini, Superstudio, 1966, continuous monument 5

6 Ruimte Consumeren Waarnemen Ervaren/gewaarworden/ondergaan Beschrijven Produceren August Schmarsow Schmarsow, August: Das Wesen der architektonischen Schöpfung : Antrittsvorlesung, gehalten in der Aula der K. Universität Leipzig am 8. November 1893 / August Schmarsow. - Leipzig : Hiersemann, S. Schmarsow, August: Der Werth der Dimensionen im menschlichen Raumgebilde. - Leipzig : Hirzel, S Raumgestalterin Raumgefühl und Raumphantasie drängen zur Raumgestaltung und suchen ihre Befriedigung in einer Kunst; wir nennen sie Architektur und können sie deutsch kurzweg als Raumgestalterin bezeichnen. Jede Gestaltung des Raumes ist zunächst Umschließung eines Subjekts, und dadurch unterscheidet sich die Architektur als menschliche Kunst wesentlich von allen Bestrebungen des Kunsthandwerks. Apeiron. (ἄπειρον) = Infinity without a direct suggestion of space. Anaximander, the younger compatriot of Thales, denoted by it a generative substance of the universe (Kirk and Raven, Ch. 3). Aristotle's Physica. Book 4 of this treatise is made up of three essays, on place (Chs. 1-5), on void (Chs. 6-9), and on time (Chs ). Now, immediately preceding these essays (Book 3, Chs. 4-8) is an essay on apeiron, as if to indicate that there is a close link between infinity and space (and void). 6

7 Makom & Topos. Hebrew makom and Greek topos (τόπος). The literal meaning of these two terms is the same, namely place, and even the scope of connotations is virtually the same Either term denotes: area, region, province; the room occupied by a person or an object, or by a community of persons or arrangements of objects. Chaos. (Physica, Book 4, Chs. 1-5) Aristotle suggests (208b 29) that Hesiod's Chaos (χάος) was one of the earliest (Greek) designations for space, or perhaps universe, and he also quotes line 116 of Hesiod's Theogony: First of all things was Chaos, and next broad-bosomed Earth. Cosmos. (κόσμος) Homeric, The basic meaning in Homer is order, and throughout the length of antiquity this original meaning remained active amidst many figurative ones. This order began to be universe, by way of world-order, in the following saying of Heraclitus of Ephesus (Diels, frag. 30): This cosmos [κόσμον τόνδξ] did none of the gods or men make, but it always was and is and shall be; an ever living fire, kindling in measures and going out in measures (Kirk and Raven, p. 199). Chora & Topos. In Plato's creation myth in the Timaeus space-in-the-making, that is, space in its cosmogonic nascency and formation, is called chora (χω ρα), but after its creation has been completed it is called topos. Kenon ( Void ). Early Pythagorean philosophy, identified space with kenon (κενόν), which literally means void. in the Physica, Aristotle has a passage about Pythagoreans which links kenon with apeiron ( infinity ), pneuma ( breath ), ouranos ( heaven ), and arithmos ( number ): The Pythagoreans, too, held that the void exists and that breath and void enter from the infinite into the heaven itself, which as it were inhales; the void distinguishes the nature of things, being a kind of separating and distinguishing factor between terms in series. This happens primarily in the case of numbers; for the void distinguishes their nature (Physica 4, 6; 213b 22-28; Kirk and Raven, p. 252). Lao Tzu (c. 550 BC) Chapter 11 of Tao Teh Ching Thirty spokes converge upon a single hub; It is on the hole in the centre that the use of the car hinges We make a vessel from a lump of clay; It is the empty space within the vessel that makes it useful We make doors and windows for a room; It is these empty spaces that make the room liveable Thus while the tangible has advantages It is the intangible that makes it useful 7

8 Spatium. Latin, space (English), espace (French), spazio (Italian), espacio (Spanish), etc. Cicero uses the expression spatium praeteriti temporis, in the meaning of: the space (i.e., interval) of time gone by, een psychologie van de ruimte i. kant: das ding an sich 45 Immanuel Kant (1724 Königsberg 1804) De Igne 1755 Principiorum Primorum Cognitionis Metaphysicae Nova Dilucidato (1755) Untersuchung über die Deutlichkeit der Grundsätze der natürlichen Theologie und der Moral (1764) Beobachtungen über das Gefühl des Schönen und Erhabenen (1764) Träume eines Geistersehers erläutert durch Träume der Metaphysik (1766). Kritik der reinen Vernunft 1781 & 1787 Kritik der praktischen Vernunft (1788) Kritik der Urteilskraft (aesthetic and teleological) (1790) 3 steps for the mind to work on experience: sensibility, understanding and reason. The things in themselves (German: das ding an sich) the causes of our sensations, are, as Berkeley had shown us, unknowable. These unknowable causes of our sensations do not inhabit space or time, they are not substances, nor can they be classified or described by any categories (Or at least we cannot know that they are ) For two events to be thought of as causally related, they must be perceived in temporal succession. But many pairs of events exhibit succession in time without being in a causal relationship. To comprehend two events in a causal relationship therefore, one must add to perception the faculty of the understanding. Ruimte = de sociale ruimte Ruimte mijn ruimte- is voor alles mijn lichaam : het beweeglijke snijvlak tussen dat wat het aanraakt, penetreert, bedreigt of goed doet. Henri Lefebvre (16 June June 1991) La production de l espace (1974) 8

9 Henry Lefebvre: De productie van ruimte La production de l espace (1974) Ruimte voor representatie Hoe is dit: Een voorbeeld van een ruimtelijke praktijk? Een voorbeeld van de ruimte voor representatie? Een voorbeeld van de representatie van ruimte? Sociale Ruimte Barbados, Chattel House Ruimtelijke praktijken De representatie van de ruimte Aalten, hervormde kerk, Late Gotic with 19th C seating arrangement Nieuwe Kerk Haarlem, Nieuwe Lutherse Kerk Amsterdam Wells kathedraal, kapittelzaal, interieur, A fabulous emblem of space... St Stephen Walbrook & a Project for St Martin in the Fields 9

10 Topics covered so far.. Merleau Ponty, le visible et le invisible, 1964 (1968) Virtual space versus real space Summerson Spacetime as our way of organising the world around us Kant Spatial Practice [AND] Representation of space [AND] space as representation Lefebvre The construction of social space Lefebvre The body unites us directly with the things through its own ontogenesis, by welding to one another the two outline of which it is made, its two laps: the sensible mass it is and the mass of the sensible wherein it is born by seggregation and upon which, as seer, it remains open. Le Chiasme, P.136 representations of perfect space: a perspective on the control of space and spatial control Leonardo da Vinci, the five platonic solids, from Lucia Pacioli's Divina Proporzione, Venice, 1509 Piero della Francesca, De quinque corporibus regularibus, 1480 s 10

11 Johannes Kepler, , PLatonic Solids composing the universe Tycho Brache, in zijn sterrenwacht Ptolemaisch universum, Andreas Cellarius, Atlas Coelestis seu Harmonica Macrocosmica, Amsterdam 1660 Johannes Kepler, , PLatonic Solids composing the universe Nicolaus Copernicus, 16th C Copernicus, own handwritten diagram of the universe,

12 Copernicaans universum, Andreas Cellarius, Atlas Coelestis seu Harmonica Macrocosmica, Amsterdam 1660 Tychonisch universum, Andreas Cellarius, Atlas Coelestis seu Harmonica Macrocosmica, Amsterdam 1660 Robert Fludd, The primeval duality, 1629 Tycho's Hven Island, 1586, Uraniborg is at the centre Robert Fludd, The Great Darkness, The Macrocosm, 1624 Robert Fludd, Let there be light, The Macrocosm,

13 Robert Fludd, The The Appearance of Light, The Macrocosm, 1624 Robert Fludd, The Division of the Waters, The Macrocosm, 1624 Robert Fludd, The Chaos of the Elements, The Macrocosm, 1624 Robert Fludd, The Central Sun, The Macrocosm, 1624 Robert Fludd, The creation of the sun 1, The Macrocosm, 1624 Robert Fludd, The creation of the sun 2, The Macrocosm,

14 Robert Fludd, The elemental sphere 1, Fire, The Macrocosm, 1624 Robert Fludd, The elemental sphere 2, Earth, The Macrocosm, 1624 Robert Fludd, The elemental sphere 3, Water, The Macrocosm, 1624 Robert Fludd, The creation of the Primium Mobile, The Macrocosm, 1624 Claude Nicolas Ledoux, Meditation on the birth of the world, 1804 Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Design for Mozart's MAgic Flute,

15 EL Boullée, Monument destiné aux hommages dûs àletre Suprême, c 1793 Ed anch io son pittore Etienne Louis Boullée, Architecture, Essai sur l'art, Etienne Louis Boullée, Essai sur l'art, design for a cathedral, Etienne-Louis Boullée, Ontwerp voor een Metropool, , interieur Etienne-Louis Boullée, Ontwerp voor een nationale bibliotheek, 1785, binnenaanzicht Etienne-Louis Boullée, Cenotaaf A Newton,

16 Etienne-Louis Boullée, Ontwerp voor een cenotaaf voor Isaac Newton, 1784, dagaanzicht EL Boullée, Monument to Newton at night Our daily Bread van Nikolaus Geyrhalter William Blake, Ancient of Days, 1794 Our daily bread Hans Vredeman de Vries, Perspective,

17 Filippo Brunelleschi, Reconstructie van Perspectiefdemonstratie Theme No. 3: The Organisation of Information Florence, Het Baptisterium, San Giovanni, 10e of 11e eeuw Willekeurig systeem: plaatsing horizontale lijnen a,b,c,d telkens 2:3 Florence, Het Baptisterium, San Giovanni, 10e of 11e eeuw Systematische benadering van Alberti Sebastiano Serlio, tutte l'opere, 1619, perspective 17

18 Sebastiano Serlio, tutte l'opere, 1619, perspective Sebastiano Serlio, tutte l'opere, 1619, perspective Sebastiano Serlio, tutte l'opere, 1619, perspective Sebastiano Serlio, tutte l'opere, 1619, perspective Sebastiano Serlio, tutte l'opere, 1619, perspective Masaccio, La SS Trinita, , Santa Maria Novella, Florence 18

19 Massolino, Herod s Feast, 1435 Jacoppo Bellini, Preek van Johannes de Doper, ca 1450 Piero dell Francesca, Flagellation of Christ, 1455 Paolo Ucello, perspetivische studie van een kelk Paolo Ucello, , De zondvloed, Hans Holbein, The Ambassadors 19

20 Samuel van Hoogstraten, , Peepshow Interior, Johann Jacob Schübler, Perspectiva, pes picturae, part II, 1720, longimetric perspective Bolognese School, 18th c, exercise in perspective Caramuel, Architectura Recta y obliqua, 1678 Pozzo, Perspectiva, Andrea Pozzo, Allegorie op het missiewerk van Jezuïeten, San Ignazio, Rome,

21 Andrea Pozzo, St Ignatius in Glory, 1691 Pozzo, S. Ignazio Cures Victims of the Plague, 1688, Rome Andrea Pozzo koepel Johann Michael Rottmayr, Koepelfresco, , Melk Stiftskirche Putting the body in Cosmas Damian Asam, Weltenburg, Benedicteinenabdij, 1716 the building 21

22 Walter Roseblum, Hopscotch, NY, 1952 De landmeter K in Kafka s Het Kasteel Ruimte machines Warren Chalk, Peter Cook, Dennis Crompton & Ron Herron, Control & Choice, 1967 Deluxe maternity pen Squeeze Shute The Alabama Cooperative Extension service list four basic types of headgates: self-catching, scissors-stanchion, positive-control, and full-opening stanchion. A door for giving injections in an animal's neck is almost a necessity in order to avoid damaging expensive cuts of meat. A service door or palpation cage provides access to the rear of animals. Hydraulic squeeze chutes take some of the effort out of operation source: Alison and Peter Smithson, Small Pleasures of Life' Alison and Peter Smithson, Small Pleasures of Life' 22

23 The design of daily life Alison and Peter Smithson, Small Pleasures of Life' light and dark as the beginning and end form and composition a machine of rest tectonics: hearing space details and god: touch and feel material and cladding: a feast climate; inside-outside geometry: routing & oriëntation: the theatre of turning attitude to the street: living use and institution: memory and history: the foundation of the future truth: belief and reality: oh shit... fetish, weapon, treasure? Heidegger, dichterlijk woont de mens spacetime E=MC 2 space as movement Heidegger, dichterlijk woont de mens Cesariano, de Architectura, 1521, de kubus 23

24 Cesariano, de Architectura, 1521, proporties Vilmos Huszár, , Compositie De Stijl, 1916 & De Stijl Magazine Cover, 1917 Gerrit Rietveld, Red and Blue Chair, Gerrit Rietveld, Red and Blue Chair, Gerrit Rietveld, End Table, 1923 Gerrit Rietveld, Light fitting from the Schröder House,

25 Gerrit Rietveld, Sculpture Pavilion Sonsbeek, 1954, sketch model Gerrit Rietveld, , Isometrische projectie Rietveld Schröder Huis, ca 1924 G Rietveld & T schröder, Rietveld Schröderhuis, Utrecht, 1924, interieur Spatial representations : filmic space ruimte = raum = room = kamer = camera = A dynamic conception of architecture, which overcomes the traditional notion of building as a still, tectonic construct, allows us to think of space as practice. Giuliana Bruno: Movement is spatial practice Kino Eye, Vertov, poster by A Rodchenko,

26 Eadweard Muybridge, Animal Locomotion, plate 133, 1887 Étienn Jules Marey, Chronophotographic Study man pushing a cart, 1886 Étienn Jules Marey, Chronophotographic Study, 1886 Étienne Jules Marey, Chronophotograph, 1884 man in suit with stripes walking 2 Étienne Jules Marey, Chronophotograph, 1884 man in suit with stripes walking Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a staircase, no 2,

27 Pablo Picasso, Guitar and Violin, 1912 Pablo Picasso, Het Absintglas, 1914 & Kop van Fernanda, 1909 As in all forms of journey, space is filmically consumed Giuliana Bruno, Atlas of Emotion, Journeys in Art, Architecture, and Film, Verso, New York, 2002 Domestic space bears the mark of history, Giuliana Bruno Such is the pleasure of haptic wondering experienced by the film spectator: one imagines oneself residing in a space, in someone else s place, and tangibly maps oneself within it. The perfect architectural dream is a filmic dream. Pictures become an environment. Architecture becomes a Film. Giuliana Bruno Andrei Tarkovsky, Nostalghia Andrei Tarkovsky, the mirror 27

28 Palazzo Davanzati, Florence, Florence Palazzo Davanzati, Sala dei Pavoni, Jean Marc Ibos, Myrto Vitart, Palais des Beaux Arts, Lille, Tony Fretton, Lisson Gallery, London 1991 Andrea Palladio, Teatro Olimpico, 1580, Vicenza Andrea Palladio, Teatro Olimpico, 1580, Vicenza, La Scena 28

29 Benevolo, II, 777, Palladio's Teatro Olimpico, Vicenza Andrea Palladio, Teatro Olympico, 1579, Vicenza Giulio Romano, Palazzo del Té, , mantua, voor en zijgevel Giulio Romano, Palazzo del Te, Mantua, For Federico Gonzaga, 1525, facade detail Giulio Romano, Palazzo del Té, , mantua, tuingevel Giulio Romano, Palazzo del Té 29

30 Giulio Romano, Palazzo del Te, Mantua, , Sala di Psyche Giulio Romano, , Room of the Giants, 1527, Mantua Giulio Romano, Sala dei Giganti, plafond, Palazzo del Te, Mantua, Giulio Romano, Sala dei Giganti, Palazzo del Te, Mantua, Sergei Eisenstein, Piranesi or the fluidity of forms, 1947 An architectural ensemble is read as it is traversed: At the basis of the composition of an architectural ensemble is the same dance which is at the basis of film montage

31 JJ Lequeu, Underground Chamber of the Gothic House Balthazar Neumann, Vierzehnheiligen, near Banz, Balthazar Neumann, Vierzehnheiligen, near Banz, 1743, plan and section Balthasar Neumann, Vierzehnheiligen, Beieren, midden 18e eeuw Balthasar Neumann, Vierzehnheiligen, interior Balthasar Neumann, Vierzehnheiligen, interior,

32 Balthasar Neumann, Vierzehnheiligen, interior, Balthasar Neumann, Vierzehnheiligen, interior, Schönborn's Würzburg, 172 by Balthasar Neumann Balthasar Neumann, Vierzehnheiligen, interior, Balthasar Neumann et al, Würzburg Residentie, Balthasar Neumann et al, Würzburg Residentie, , trappenhuis 32

33 Balthasar Neumann et al, Würzburg Residentie, , Keizerzaal met frescoes van GB Tiepolo Baltahsar Neumann, Chapel of the Wurzburg Residenz, Balthazar Neumann, Brühl, Scholss Augustusburg, Trappehuis, Balthazar Neumann, Brühl, Scholss Augustusburg, Trappehuis, Dominikus Zimmerman, Wieskirche, 1743, vanuit ZW Balthazar Neumann, Neresheim, , interior 33

34 Dominikus Zimmerman, Wieskirche, 1743, interieur Domenikus Zimmerman, Steinhausen, St Peter und Paul, Charles Jencks over La Roche-Jeanneret Asam, The assumption of the virgin, Rohr, Open the door, go under a bridge, and the tight space explodes upwards and through punched-out voids that are mysteriously backlit. Go across the triple-height space, look at the Purist paintings, one of which you now seem to be moving through, turn left up a stair, and survey the pure prisms from a balcony......catch your breath, turn around, and proceed to the culmination, La Roche's curved gallery... Mount the brown ramp to the left, to Le Roche's top-lit library. The spatial sequence is remarkable and remained a constant preoccupation of Le Corbusier. It also became the stock in trade of subsequent Modern architects. Le Corbusier, La Roche-Jeanneret House, Paris,

35 Le Corbusier & Pierre Jeanneret, Villa Raoul La Roche, oostzijde Le Corbusier & Pierre Jeanneret, Villa Raoul La Roche, noord en villa Jeanneret Le Corbusier & Pierre Jeanneret, Villa Raoul La Roche, noord vanaf BG Le Corbusier & Pierre Jeanneret, Villa Raoul La Roche, Noord vanaf overloop naar 1e verd Le Corbusier & Pierre Jeanneret, Villa Raoul La Roche, noordzijde en woonkamer Le Corbusier, Villa La Roche

36 Le Corbusier & Pierre Jeanneret, Villa Raoul La Roche, trap met balkon op hal Le Corbusier & Pierre Jeanneret, Villa Raoul La Roche, woonkamer Le Corbusier, Villa La Roche Le Corbusier & Pierre Jeanneret, Villa Raoul La Roche, woonkamer en hellingbaan Le Corbusier, Villa La Roche Le Corbusier, Villa La Roche

37 Le Corbusier & Pierre Jeanneret, Villa Raoul La Roche, hellingbaan Le Corbusier, Villa La Roche Le Corbusier, Villa La Roche Le Corbusier, Villa La Roche, Paris, , library tenemos homogenous space and heterogenous space the spatial working of the sacred and the profane The production of social space: Spatial Practice Thinking about space Extracting information from space Wells kathedraal, kapittelzaal, interieur,

38 Mircea Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane;The Nature of Religion; The Significance of Religious Myth, Symbolism, and Ritual within Life and Culture, New York 1961 For religious man, space is not homogeneous; he experiences interruptions, breaks in it; some parts of space are qualitatively different from others. "Draw not nigh hither," says the Lord to Moses; "put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground" (Exodus, 3, 5). There is, then, a sacred space, and hence a strong, significant space; there are other spaces that are not sacred and so are without structure or consistency, amorphous. Nor is this all. For reiigious man, this spatial nonhomogeneity finds expression in the experience of an opposition between space that is sacred-the only real and really existing space- and all other space, the formless expanse surrounding it. Mircea Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane;The Nature of Religion; The Significance of Religious Myth, Symbolism, and Ritual within Life and Culture, New York 1961 religious experience of the nonhomogeneity of space is a primordial experience, homologizable to a founding of the world. It is not a matter of theoretical speculation, but of a primary religious experience that precedes all perception of the world. For it is the break effected in space that allows the world to be constituted, because it reveals the fixed point, the central axis for all future orientation. Mircea Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane;The Nature of Religion; The Significance of Religious Myth, Symbolism, and Ritual within Life and Culture, New York 1961 When the sacred manifests itself in any hierophany, there is not only a break in the homogeneity of space; there is also revelation of an absolute reality, opposed to the nonreality of the vast surrounding expanse. The manifestation of the sacred ontologically founds the world. In the homogeneous and infinite expanse, in which no point of reference is possible and hence no orientatior can be established, the hierophany reveals an absolute fixed point, a center. So it is clear to what a degree the discovery-that is, the revelation-of a sacred space possesses existential value for religious man; for nothing can begin, nothing can be done, without a previous orientation-and any orientation implies acquiring a fixed point. Mircea Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane;The Nature of Religion; The Significance of Religious Myth, Symbolism, and Ritual within Life and Culture, New York 1961 It is for this reason that religious man has always sought to fix his abode at the "center of the world. If the world is to be lived in, it must be founded-and no world can come to birth in the chaos of the homogeneity and relativity of profane space. The discovery or projection of a fixed point-the center-is equivalent to the creation of the world. Mircea Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane;The Nature of Religion; The Significance of Religious Myth, Symbolism, and Ritual within Life and Culture, New York 1961 For profane experience, on the contrary, space is homogeneous and neutral; no break qualitatively differentiates the various parts of its mass. Geometrical space can be cut and delimited in any direction; but no qualitative differentiation and, hence, no orientation are given by virtue of its inherent structure. Eliade, Mircea, 'The World, the city, the house,' Occultism, Witchcraft and Cultural Fashions; Essays in Comparative Religions, Chicago/London, 1976 The manifestation of the sacred ontologically creates the world. (..) So it is clear to what a great degree the discovery - that is, the revelation- of a sacred space possesses existential value for religious man: for nothing can begin, nothing can be done without a previous orientation -and any orientation implies acquiring a fixed point. it is for this reason that religious man has always sought to afix his abode at the 'center of the world' If the world is to be lived in it must be founded. (..) The discovery or projection of a fixed point -the center- is equivalent to the creation of the world. Ritual orientation and construction of sacred space has a cosmoonic value, for the ritual by which man constructs a sacred space is efficacious in the measure which it reproduces the work of the Gods, i.e. Cosmogeny. 38

39 C.S. Lewis Because the medieval universe is finite, it has a shape, the perfect spherical shape, containing within itself an ordered variety. Hence to look out on the night sky with modern eyes is like looking out over a sea that fades away into the mist, or looking about one in a trackless forest - trees forever and no horizon. To look up at the towering medieval universe is much more like looking at a great building. The "space" of modern astronomy may arouse terror, or bewilderment or vague reverie; the spheres of the old present us with an object in which the mind can rest, overwhelming in its greatness but satisfying in its harmony. That is the sense in which our universe is romantic, and theirs was classical. C.S. Lewis, quoted in W.H. Auden, A Certain World, A Common Place Book, 1970 C.S. Lewis The Medieval Model [of the Universe] is vertiginous. And the fact that the height of the stars in the medieval astronomy is very small compared with their distance in the modern, will turn out not to have the kind of importance you anticipated. For thought and imagination, ten million miles and a thousand million are much the same. Both can be conceived (that is we can do sums with both) and neither can be imagined; and the more imagination we have the better we shall know this. The really important difference is that the medieval universe, while unimaginably large, was also unambiguously finite. And one unexpected result of this is to make the smallness of the Earth more vividly felt. In our universe she is small, no doubt; but so are the galaxies, so is everything - and so what? But in theirs there was an absolute standard of comparison. The furthest sphere, Dante's maggior corpo, is, quite simply and finally, the largest object in existence. The word "small" as applied to earth thus takes on a far more absolute significance. C.S. Lewis, quoted in W.H. Auden, A Certain World, A Common Place Book, 1970 St Denis, Paris,1136?-44 (Choir) originated as a small chapel at the graveyard of Saint Denis in the 5th century. During the Merovingian era ( ) Saint-Denis became the royal abbey church. The 3rd Basilique was rebuilt in 775 of Carolingian era. St Denis, Choir Abbot Suger ( ) began to reconstruct the church in 1137, completed west facade and narthex in the 1140 and completed choir in He continued to reconstruct the nave but he died in 1151 before he finished it. The nave, including the upper part of the choir and transept, was reconstructed probably by Pierre de Montreuil (about ) and others (possibly one of those was Jean de Chelles;?-1270) from 1231 to 1281 Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, ) repaired the church from 1836 to Saint Denis, Kooromgang, tussen 1140 & 1144 St Denis, Paris, en later ramen in lichtbeuk van het midden- en dwarsschip

40 Praag, Hradschin, Wladislaw Zaal, , door Benedikt Ried Graz, dubbele wenteltrap, Bernard van Clairvaux, , Troyes Kathedraal Dagrooster volgens St Benedictus Royaumont, Ile de France, latrines boven afvoer kanaal Pontigny, Abbey, 1 van de eerste vier dochter abdijen 40

41 Clairvaux Abbey, Champagne, Dormter van lekenbroedersgebouw, Pontigny, Kooromgang, Fontenay Abbey, Burgundy, France Fontenay, Marmagne Côte d' Or, Bourgondië, 1119, kerk 1139 De 55 kruiken van Vitruvius, Loc Dieu, Frankrijk Noirlac, Bruere Allichamps, Cher, 1136,

42 Dom van der Laan, Vaals, , Before and after alterations in the 80's Dom van der Laan, Dom van der Laan, Vaals, , exterior Dom van der Laan, Vaals, , exterior Dom van der Laan, Vaals, , exterior Dom van der Laan, Vaals, , gallery 42

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