1 Contributing to European police cooperation through learning
3 Contributing to European police cooperation through learning
4 Writer and editor: Joanne Barnett, with special thanks to all the CEPOL teams who contributed to this publication. Data of general information on country profiles is provided by: CIA The World Factbook: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about the European Union Freephone number (*): (*) Certain mobile telephone operators do not allow access to numbers or these calls may be billed. Photo credits: Berlin Partner/FTB-Werbefotografie, page 36; Digital Vision, pages 16, 18, 26, 32, 42, 44, 58, 66, 70, 72; European Communities, pages 20, 22, 24, 28, 30, 35, 38, 40, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, 60, 62, 64, 68, 74; PhotoDisc/GettyImage, page 76. More information on the European Union is available on the Internet (http://europa.eu). Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication. European Police College (CEPOL), 2010 Reproduction of the text is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2010 ISBN doi: /10756 Printed in Belgium PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE-FREE PAPER
5 Contents 3 Introduction Organisational structure and management Courses and seminars Exchange programme Common curricula Research and science External relations Electronic network (e-net) The future CEPOL contacts CEPOL in the member states Austria...16 Belgium...18 Bulgaria...20 Cyprus...22 Czech Republic...24 Denmark...26 Estonia...28 Finland...30 France...32 Germany...36 Greece...38 Hungary...40 Ireland...42 Italy...44 Latvia...46 Lithuania...48 Luxembourg...50 Malta...52 The Netherlands...54 Poland...56 Portugal...58 Romania...60 Slovakia...62 Slovenia...64 Spain...66 Sweden...68 United Kingdom...70 CONTENTS CEPOL s associated countries Iceland...72 Norway...74 Switzerland...76
6 4 Introduction Member States began to cooperate in the area of justice and home affairs (JHA) in the mid-1970s on an informal, intergovernmental basis outside the Community framework. In 1990, Germany, France and the Benelux countries signed the Schengen Agreement, which was an important step towards cooperation among the Member States in the area of freedom, security and justice. In the following years, several Member States acceded to the Schengen Agreement, the aim of which was to introduce genuine freedom of movement of persons without being controlled at internal borders, while providing flanking measures in the fields of external border controls, visa policy, police cooperation and judicial cooperation in criminal matters. The Treaty on European Union, which entered into force in November 1993, took a further step by incorporating justice and home affairs in its institutional framework, adding a further dimension to the construction of Europe. When the Amsterdam Treaty came into force in May 1999, it incorporated the Schengen rules into the institutional framework of the European Union. One of the main objectives of the Treaty was to maintain and develop the EU as an area of freedom, security and justice, in which there would be free movement for persons combined with suitable measures to the control of external borders, asylum, immigration, as well as the prevention and combating of crime. The Justice and Home Affairs Council bring together justice and interior ministers to discuss the development and implementation of cooperation and common policies in these areas. CEPOL the European Police College began operating in 2001 following a special meeting of the European Council in Tampere, Finland, in October 1999 where the Council agreed that a European Police College should be established to train senior officers of police forces. Established by Council Decision 2000/820/JHA, CEPOL became operational on 1 January 2001 with the seat of the CEPOL Secretariat temporarily based in Copenhagen, Denmark. The Council decision required CEPOL to create an educational strategy to strengthen the knowledge and harmonise the training of senior police officers across Europe. In 2002, CEPOL received its first budget of EUR 2.2 million, funded directly by 15 Member States which, at that time, made up the network. During 2002, CEPOL organised 10 courses and seminars. By 2004, with the enlargement of the European Union to include a further 10 Member States, CEPOL s budget grew to EUR 3.6 million. During 2004, CEPOL organised 49 courses and seminars. In July 2004, two Council decisions (2004/566/JHA and 2004/567/JHA) amended the original decision, stating that the seat of CEPOL shall be in Bramshill, United Kingdom, and that the Governing Board shall set up a permanent Secretariat to assist CEPOL with administrative tasks.
7 5 At the end of 2005, the 15 CEPOL Secretariat staff members took up residence at the new base in the United Kingdom hosted at the National Policing Improvement Agency at (NPIA) Bramshill, some 70 km west of central London. During 2005, 53 courses and seminars were organised from a budget of EUR 4.9 million. In September 2005, Council Decision 2005/681/JHA repealed Council Decision 2000/820/JHA and on 1 January 2006, CEPOL began operating as an agency of the European Union. CEPOL is one of three agencies that work in the area of freedom, security and justice; the other two being Europol and Eurojust. INTRODUCTION Since 2006, CEPOL has been directly funded by the European Community budget which covers staff, administrative, infrastructure and operational expenditure. Each year, the Governing Board adopts a draft budgetary estimate and forwards it to the Commission and to the budgetary authority (the European Parliament and the Council). The budgetary authority decides on the final CEPOL budget. CEPOL is the EU agency tasked with helping to train senior police officers of the Member States of the European Union by optimising cooperation between the police and other relevant agencies. CEPOL supports and develops a European approach to the main problems facing Member States in the fight against crime, crime prevention, and the maintenance of law and order and public security. CEPOL particularly focuses on the cross-border dimensions of those problems. Not a college in the physical sense, CEPOL functions as a network by bringing together the national training institutes in the Member States whose tasks include the training of senior police officers. CEPOL s core activities are implemented in and by the Member States predominantly by the national senior police training colleges with the support of the agency staff at the Secretariat. By the end of 2006, the agency had grown to 18 staff members and a budget of EUR 5 million. During 2006, 62 CEPOL courses, seminars and conferences were implemented. When Bulgaria and Romania joined the European Union in 2007, bringing the number of Member States to 27, CEPOL s budget had grown to EUR 7.5 million. In 2007, 85 CEPOL courses, seminars and conferences were organised and the Euromed Police II project and CEPOL/Agis Exchange Programme began. The budget increased to EUR 8.7 million in 2008 and by the end of that year, agency staff numbers had risen to 28. During 2008, 87 CEPOL courses, seminars and conferences were implemented. In 2009, CEPOL s budget was EUR 8.8 million and by the end of 2009, agency staff numbers had grown to 31. Ninety-eight CEPOL courses, seminars and conferences were planned in Today CEPOL s mission is: Contributing to European police cooperation through learning.
8 6 CEPOL s vision is: CEPOL is acknowledged by allied agencies and authorities in the policing and academic world to be the primary source of learning and development in the field of education and training for better cooperation and policing in Europe. CEPOL s activities can be divided into five main areas: courses and seminars; exchange programme; common curricula; research and science; and external relations. All the activities are underpinned by a state-of-the-art electronic network to aid communications and provide a platform to share knowledge and good practice. Since 2006, CEPOL has organised between 70 and 100 courses, seminars and conferences a year on key topics relevant to police forces across Europe today. Following the adoption of The Hague Programme in 2004, CEPOL created a multilateral exchange programme in Open to senior police officers and police training staff, the exchange programme aims to promote and develop coordination, cooperation and mutual understanding among law enforcement agencies and other bodies. Twenty-one Member States and one Candidate country are participating in the exchange programme. Initiated in 2005, the common curricula allows CEPOL to contribute to the harmonisation of police training within EU Member States while respecting national autonomy with regard to the organisation and implementation of police training and education programmes. There are currently 10 common curricula topics. In order to curb crime and safeguard the general public, police forces across Europe not only need access to up-to-date information, but also to develop good practice and share knowledge. The research and science arm of CEPOL s activities supports the exchange and development of knowledge and research in the field of policing. External relations forms a key part of CEPOL s activities. CEPOL not only develops and provides training for police authorities from Candidate countries, but also develops cooperation and working agreements with non-eu Member States, other law enforcement agencies, universities and research institutes. In 2009, over senior police officers attended a CEPOL activity and over 750 experts, lecturers and trainers contributed to activities. A vast majority of the experts, lecturers and trainers are senior police officers, who, together with the participants, form a competent and experienced network for future police cooperation. The acronym CEPOL is French and stands for Collège européen de police European Police College in English. For more information, visit:
9 Organisational structure and management 7 There are a variety of roles and responsibilities for those working in the CEPOL network. GOVERNING BOARD The CEPOL Governing Board usually meets four times a year and is responsible for driving CEPOL s strategy and for making organisational decisions. The CEPOL Governing Board is made up of one voting member from each EU Member State, usually the Directors of the National Senior Police Training colleges, as well as a number of permanent observers, such as the European Commission and Europol. The Chair of the Governing Board is a representative of the Member State holding the Presidency of the European Union and therefore rotates every six months. CEPOL SECRETARIAT Annual Programme Committee which focuses on CEPOL s annual work programme. Each committee can create working groups, project groups and sub-groups with the agreement of the Governing Board to concentrate on key issues and areas. Working groups are essentially permanent groups which have a specialised or expert role and report dir ectly to the committee they are assigned to. Project groups are essentially temporary groups which have a specialised or expert role for a limited period, depending on the subject matter. Sub-groups are assigned to working groups and have a highly specialised and expert role. The External Relations Working Group coordinates, makes proposals and recommendations to the Strategy Committee in the field of cooperation. ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE AND MANAGEMENT The CEPOL Secretariat, headed by a Director, is in the United Kingdom. The Director reports to the CE- POL Governing Board and runs the Secretariat which provides the network with administrative, budgetary and logistical support. The agency staff members carry out the day-to-day work within two units, a Programme Unit and an Administration Unit. COMMITTEES AND GROUPS There are four committees established by the Governing Board to support CEPOL s work. Each committee has a specific mandate and makes recommendations and proposals to the Governing Board. Each Member State has a representative in at least one of CEPOL s committees at any one time. Membership of committees (apart from the Strategy Committee) is rotated to limit membership to not more than three years. The four CEPOL committees are: Strategy Committee which focuses on policy advice and development of strategies; Budget and Administration Committee which focuses on CEPOL financial and administrative matters; Training and Research Committee which focuses on the development of CEPOL s training, learning and research strategies; The Research and Science Working Group deals with the relations between police experience and research findings and is assigned to the Training and Research Committee. One sub-group is assigned to the Research and Science Working Group, the Survey on European Police Education and Bologna Sub-group (SEPEB) which provides an overview of education and training programmes in the field of police and policing in Europe. The Common Curricula Coordination Working Group facilitates the acceptance of harmonised training programmes within the national police systems and is assigned to the Training and Research Committee. Ten common curricula sub-groups are assigned to the Common Curricula Coordination Working Group. Each sub-group is responsible for a key common curriculum topic. The Working Group on Learning aims to improve the educational environment and methods used within the CEPOL network. The group is assigned to the Training and Research Committee and gives advice about effective learning, learning methods and quality assurance, including evaluation.
10 8 NATIONAL CONTACT POINTS Each Member State appoints a CEPOL National Contact Point (NCP) who is the official link between the Member States and CEPOL. The main role of the NCPs is to disseminate CEPOL information to the police forces and other relevant bodies within their Member States as well as to provide information to the CEPOL Secretariat when required. Although the CEPOL NCPs are named individuals, in most Member States, they are supported by other staff members in the following CEPOL roles. NATIONAL TRAINING COORDINATORS National Training Coordinators are responsible for coordinating all the training information from CE- POL in their own countries, such as nominating participants to CEPOL courses and finding trainers for the courses they are organising on behalf of CEPOL or those being organised in other Member States. NATIONAL ADMINISTRATORS National Administrators support the National Contact Points in all CEPOL administrative and financial matters. COURSE MANAGERS Course Managers organise specific CEPOL courses and seminars in their respective Member States. NATIONAL EXCHANGE COORDINATORS National Exchange Coordinators are responsible for administrative and logistical tasks relating to the CE- POL Exchange Programme, as well as form the link between the CEPOL Secretariat and those participating in the Exchange Programme. NATIONAL E-NET MANAGERS National e-net Managers manage the applications, registrations and assigning of rights to CEPOL s electronic network from individuals in their respective Member State. The National e-net Managers also provide training and help-desk support to e-net users and course managers. RESEARCH AND SCIENCE CORRESPONDENTS The Research and Science Correspondents are responsible for establishing closer cooperation between scientists and researchers in their respective Member States and CEPOL trainers, lecturers and course organisers. They are also responsible for updating the research and science part of CEPOL s e-library on e-net. NATIONAL COMMON CURRICULA COORDINATORS The National Common Curricula Coordinators are responsible for supporting the implementation of the common curricula within their Member States and for raising awareness. They cooperate with the educational experts and module advisers during the development, validation, translation and implementation or updating of CEPOL s common curricula. MODULE ADVISERS (COMMON CURRICULA) Each common curriculum has a Module Adviser who is responsible for supporting national implementation and for updating the curriculum. EDUCATIONAL EXPERTS (COMMON CURRICULA) Each common curriculum has an Educational Expert who is appointed for the development of the Trainer s Guide and Study Guide. E-LEARNING e-learning plays an increasingly important part in CEPOL s activities. CEPOL currently has three expert groups working on the ICT learning tools: Europol, Police English and Prüm Treaty. Further topics proposed in 2010 include: Schengen; Cybercrime; and Train the Trainers.
11 Courses and seminars 9 Each year CEPOL draws up a work programme that, after consultation with the European Commission, is presented to the Council of the European Union for approval. The work programme contains all planned activities for the following year. Included in the work programme is the calendar of courses and seminars which take into account the priorities set by the Justice and Home Affairs Council, Chief of Police Taskforce, Member States and other relevant bodies. Training topics are chosen to reflect the topic areas that most affect Member States and are cross-border police related. Once the topics are agreed, the Annual Programme Committee is responsible for selecting organisers and supporters for all the training activities. During 2009, CEPOL planned 98 activities, each of which fell into one of the 16 different categories outlined below: Community policing Counter terrorism, terrorism and extremism Economic, financial and environmental crime Illegal immigration and border management Illicit trafficking of goods Organised crime Public order Crime prevention Police cooperation within the European Union Police cooperation with Third Countries Police systems and instruments within the EU Strategic management and leadership Violation of human rights Language development Learning and training Common curricula COURSES AND SEMINARS Since CEPOL began operating in 2001, over senior police officers have participated in a CEPOL course, seminar or conference.
12 10 Exchange programme In 2006, the CEPOL/Agis Exchange Programme was created as a two-year multilateral exchange of senior police officers and police training staff from EU Member States. The aim of the programme was to promote mutual trust between training staff and senior police officers, resulting in the support and development of a European dimension to police cooperation and training. The programme was set up in accordance with the adoption of Member States of The Hague Programme in 2004 which aims at strengthening freedom, security and justice, and emphasises the importance of the European Commission in developing, in close cooperation with CEPOL, systematic exchange programmes for police cooperation and training. Financial support for the 2007 and 2008 exchange programmes was provided by the European Commission s Directorate-General for Justice, Freedom and Security in the framework of the Agis Programme. Agis was a European Union framework programme funded by the European Commission. The activities of the Exchange Programme 2009/10 are co-financed by CEPOL and the European Commission, JLS, under the framework programme Prevention of and Fight against Crime. Twenty-two countries (21 Member States and one Candidate country) are participating in the new multilateral exchange programme each sending country also functions as a host country. Each country can send two senior police officers and one member of police training staff. Each exchangee goes to two countries and each exchange is organised around one priority topic; for senior police officers the topics are community policing or organised crime, and for police training staff the priority topic is learning environment. It is envisaged that by the end of the project in 2010, over 100 police officers and police training staff will have taken part in the exchange programme. Open to senior police officers and police training staff in the Member States, the CEPOL/Agis Exchange Programme provided participants with the opportunity to get to know colleagues and working methods in other countries. The programme began in December 2006 and ran for two years, ending in November In total, over 160 individuals from 22 Member States took part.
13 Common curricula 11 Initiated in 2005, the common curricula allow CE- POL to contribute to the harmonisation of police training within EU Member States while respecting the national autonomy with regard to the organisation and implementation of police training and education programmes. The subjects of common curricula are determined by CEPOL s Governing Board and are in line with the priorities outlined at a European level. They also provide ideas for CEPOL s courses and seminars. It is CEPOL s aim that all Member States implement CEPOL s common curricula in their own training systems in accordance with their national needs. Provisions are made to support Member States in this effort which ultimately aims at improving effective cross-border police cooperation. The common curricula provide an additional dimension to national police training that goes beyond national borders. They are designed so that all Member States will find their national training needs accounted for. They can be adapted to individual training and policing systems and philosophies. Cultural, social and legal actualities will be respected. Each common curriculum is developed by a group of experts from different Member States. An educational expert is appointed for the development of the Trainer s Guide/Manual and Study Guide. A module adviser is responsible for supporting national implementation and for updating the curriculum. In the development process, the use of good practice and police research findings is given particular consideration. The work on the common curricula is always closely connected with the content development of relevant e-learning modules. To date, the following topics have been covered by CEPOL s common curricula: 1. Counter terrorism 2. European police cooperation 3. Police cooperation and Europol 4. Police ethics and prevention of corruption 5. Domestic violence 6. Money laundering 7. Trafficking in human beings 8. Civilian crisis management 9. Drug trafficking 10. Management of diversity COMMON CURRICULA
14 12 Research and science Where police work was traditionally a hands-on profession, the 21st century has brought new and often complex crime threats which have created a need for more sophisticated tools and techniques for policing, as well as an increasing demand to approach crime problems in a more systematic manner. In order to curb crime and safeguard the general public, police forces across Europe not only need access to up-to-date information, but also to develop good practice and share knowledge. The research and science arm of CEPOL s activities, driven by the working group, supports the exchange and development of knowledge and research in the field of policing. CEPOL publishes the European Police Science and Research Bulletin. The bulletin is an electronic journal to disseminate information and knowledge about activities and new developments in police science and research in EU Member States. Contributions to the bulletin are accepted from all Member States. Since 2003, CEPOL has organised an annual European Research and Science Conference where experts discuss relevant topics in the field of police training and education at a European level. On occasion, CEPOL commissions and publishes reports in the field of police research and science. In the latest project, CEPOL asked a group of experts from six European countries to reflect on the following questions. Why do senior police officers need research and science? What kind of scientific knowledge fits their professional framework? How do they make use of it? The report, entitled Police science perspectives: towards a European approach, includes expert commentaries and ventures to provide some answers by exploring key questions. External relations External relations play a key part in CEPOL s activities. The External Relations Working Group drives CEPOL s policy and makes proposals to the Governing Board to conclude agreements with key agencies and non-eu Member States. CEPOL s external relations activities include: Providing training for police authorities from Candidate countries (Croatia, Turkey and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia); Cooperation agreements with associated countries (Icelandic National Police College, Norwegian Police University and Swiss Police Institute); A protocol of intent with Russia; Agreements with other law enforcement agencies, including Europol, Interpol and Frontex; Memorandum of understanding with Eurojust; Specialised projects, such as working with the MEDA regions through the Euromed Police II project; Organising seminars for Western Balkan countries. CEPOL has also built relationships with different universities and research institutes.
15 Electronic network (e-net) 13 CEPOL s state-of-the-art electronic network, or e-net as it is more commonly known, is a system developed specifically to enhance CEPOL s network and activities. At the top level is CEPOL s public website which is accessible to all and contains information about the agency and its work. Via the website, senior police officers, police training staff and members of the CEPOL network can apply for an account to access the systems that are not visible to all. Each application is assessed by the National e-net Manager in the respective Member State and approved or rejected. Once applications are approved, users are granted access to a range of different systems, dependent on their roles within the network. These include a restricted website to facilitate the exchange of secure information relevant only to CE- POL s network, an e-library containing good practice, research findings and scientific studies from in and around the Member States, Courses (a learning management system) where users can access CEPOL s e-learning modules and where CEPOL courses are supported online, Workspace (a document management system) to support the workflow of documents and information through CEPOL s organs and bodies, a discussion forum where users can exchange information on policing issues, and a live chat facility where users can have group discussions in real-time. ELECTRONIC NETWORK (E-NET) THE SYSTEMS OF CEPOL S ELECTRONIC NETWORK (E-NET) Public Website/Log-in Restricted Website e-library Workspace (Document Management System) Courses (Learning Management System) Discussion Forum Live Chat
16 14 The future The Stockholm Programme will define the framework for EU police and customs cooperation, rescue services, criminal and civil law cooperation, asylum, migration and visa policy for the period The Stockholm Programme will replace the current Hague Programme, which was adopted in November 2004 and expires in December The programme was discussed at the informal ministerial meeting in Stockholm in July 2009 to be adopted by EU Heads of State or Government at a summit in December There is no doubt that the Stockholm Programme will influence the future direction of CEPOL, as will the outcome of CEPOL s five-year report. Under the terms of the Council decision establishing CEPOL, an independent evaluation of CEPOL must be carried out within five years of the decision taking effect (no later than 1 January 2011). CEPOL s priorities for the next year include: Finalisation of the Exchange Programme; Ensuring the implementation at national level of CEPOL s common curricula; Implementing courses and seminars in key topics relevant to police forces in Europe today; Disseminating police good practice and research findings; Continuing to develop cooperation with key bodies and countries; Finalisation of the Euromed Police II project with MEDA countries; Developing key e-learning modules; Improving and further developing the electronic network in order to support the needs of the network. CEPOL contacts CEPOL NATIONAL CONTACT POINTS IN THE MEMBER STATES: NATIONAL CONTACT POINTS IN CEPOL S ASSOCIATED COUNTRIES:
17 15 CEPOL SECRETARIAT ORGANISATIONAL CHART (including project staff and Seconded National Experts) Governing Board Directorate Director Quality Management Officer Internal Control Standards Coordinator Management Support Officer CEPOL CONTACTS Programme Unit Head of Programmes Programme Coordinator Programme Officer Programme Officer Project Officer Training and Learning Officer Research and Knowledge Management Officer External Relations Officer Administrative and Common Curricula Support Officer Programme Records Support Officer Finance Support Officer Communications Officer Web and Communications Assistant Seconded National Expert (e-learning) Secretarial Support Senior Secretary Secretary Administration Secretary Programmes Receptionist Logistics Assistant Administration Unit Head of Administration Finance and Budget Officer Accounting Officer ICT Officer ICT Assistant Human Resources Officer Human Resources Assistant Procurement Support Officer Finance Assistant Euromed Police II Project Project Manager Project Coordinator Course Manager Project Assistant Accounting and Finance Assistant Secretary CEPOL Secretariat CEPOL House Bramshill Hook Hampshire RG27 0JW UNITED KINGDOM Tel Fax Internet: Exchange Programme Project Manager NB: Not all posts are currently filled
18 16 CEPOL in the Member States Austria Official name State system Area Republic of Austria Federal republic sq km Population (est. 2009) Capital Official languages Monetary unit Vienna International telephone code +43 Number of national police officers Number of senior police officers German, Croatian, Hungarian (Burgenland) and Slovene (Carinthia) Euro (EUR) (plus in police administration) 640 (plus 250 in police administration)
19 17 CEPOL Austria Unit for International Affairs Sicherheitsakademie Federal Ministry of the Interior Herrengasse Vienna AUSTRIA Tel or CEPOL IN THE MEMBER STATES Austria has been part of the CEPOL network since it began in The CEPOL Austria team is based at the Federal Ministry of the Interior and forms part of the Unit for International Affairs at the Austrian Security Academy (Sicherheitsakademie). The team not only deals with CEPOL matters, but also works with MEPA, the Association of European Police Colleges (AEPC), with Frontex training matters, training for the Austrian liaison officers, and training cooperation at bilateral and international levels (UN, OSCE and twinning projects). In 2009, the CEPOL Austria team organised five CE- POL activities and three preparatory meetings. The CEPOL Austria team consists of two full-time staff members and six part-time staff members working on CEPOL matters. THE CEPOL AUSTRIA TEAM INCLUDES: Norbert Leitner Governing Board voting member János Fehérváry National Contact Point, Chair of Research and Science Working Group, Training and Research Committee member Gerhard Haberler Course Manager, National e-net Manager and CEPOL Administrator (full-time CEPOL) Denise Hautzinger Assistant for Course Manager and CEPOL Administrator (full-time CEPOL) Angelika Widowitz Finance matters Ludwig Zwickl National Common Curricula Coordinator Hans Ditrich Research and Science Correspondent Christina Widowitz Secretariat
20 18 Belgium Official name State system Area Kingdom of Belgium Federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy sq km Population (est. 2009) Capital Official languages Monetary unit Brussels Dutch, French and German Euro (EUR) International telephone code +32 Number of national police officers Number of senior police officers 647
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