Experiences Deploying and Operating a Large-Scale Monitoring Infrastructure

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1 1 Experiences Deploying and Operating a Large-Scale Monitoring Infrastructure 25 th NORDUnet conference Arne Øslebø

2 Outline Background and motivation Typical setup Deployment map Applications Active Passive Deploying and operating the infrastructure Software and hardware deployment Problems and lessons learned 2

3 Background and motivation Deployed as part of the GigaCampus project 4 year program, Address key networking challenges on campus networks in Norway Monitoring infrastructure for passive and active monitoring Motivation for monitoring probes Service to our customers Debug network problems Measure end-to-end performance Multicast quality Network awareness Network security 3

4 Typical setup GPS Passive monitoring card 4 Splitter UNINETT

5 Why specialized hardware? Performance <1% CPU Accurate timestamps GPS synchronization Packet loss Loss counters Adjustable snap length Hardware processing BPF, string search, netflow Endace, Napatech, INVEA-TECH 5

6 Deployment map 6

7 Software User frontend Stager Active Rude/Crude Multicast beacon asmping Network DiagnosticTool (NDT) Mping Qstream Passive MAPI Qflow DNS monitoring mapidump 7

8 Stager A web based tool for aggregating and presenting most types of network statistics Store high level reports in database Stable version NetFlow Qflow Development version Qstream Mping Asmping Rude/Crude High performance Netflow database > 1TB in size 8

9 Stager architecture Netconf Backend1 Backend2 Backend3 SQL Frontend www Netconf 9 Raw netflow

10 Qstream Analyses quality of media streams Measures packet jitter, loss, throughput, burstiness and packet sizes Unicast and multicast RTP jitter, sequence and timing errors MPEG sequence and timing 10

11 Routing convergence statistics Rude/crude sends 2 packets per second Measurements Number of packets lost Time between first packet lost and first new packet received Routing convergence time 11

12 MAPI Monitoring Application Programming Interface Developed in SCAMPI and LOBSTER Make it quick and easy to implement new monitoring applications Low overhead Support for multiple concurrent users and applications Transparent support for different hardware adapters Easy to extend 12

13 Qflow Extended IPFIX New attributes Application classification Packet size distribution Packet interarrival time distribution Burstiness 1s, 100ms and 10ms TCP properties Congestion window Out of sequence Direction RTP, SIP and MPEG 13

14 Qflow collector Qfdump Based on nfdump Supports the extra attributes in Qflow Adds combined prefix/as report Also ported to standard nfdump 3 collectors in our network Uses anycast Processes data every hour High level reports inserted into Stager Stager automatically handles collector failures 14

15 Qflow summary plot 15

16 Qflow multicast report 16

17 Passive DNS Fast flux domains Domains with very short TTL Often used to control bot-nets Spammers DNS cache poisoning Guess transaction ID and port number Spoof IP address of real DNS server Set up a DNS database historical DNS data query, response, resource record type, TTL, time first seen, time last seen and counter 17

18 DNS database query 18

19 Software and hardware distribution Servers run Debian All software distributed as Debian packages Cfengine Policy based system that provide automated configuration and maintenance of computers Easy maintenance and distribution of common configuration files Controls server specific configuration files Easy to reestablish a server in case of hardware problems Preconfigured servers, GPS antenna and optical splitter is sent to customers who do the actual installation 19

20 Infrastructure health check Hobbit Server monitoring based on alarms Standard alarms Missing processes, CPU load, disk usage, memory usage etc. Special alarms: Monitoring card link status Monitoring card GPS synchronization Munin Server monitoring using graphs NTP synchronization CPU, memory and disk Monitoring card packet loss 20

21 What can go wrong? GPS Passive monitoring card UNINETT Splitter Everything! 21

22 GPS antenna We use Trimble Acutime RS-422 interface Long cable runs Monitoring cards also uses RS-422 for pps input Standard cable is 15 meter We have installations that require >300m of cable 22

23 GPS antenna cable Ideal world Real world GPS Lightning protection 23 Trimble box DB9 to server DB25->RJ45 RJ45->DB25+RJ45 RJ45 to monitoring card Original cable Cat5 cable Trimble box DB9 to server

24 Optical splitter Splitter built into a rack mountable chassis Issues: Dust Splitters connected wrong % 80% 20% Router Switch Monitoring card

25 Lessons learned We are now firm believers in Murphy's law: If anything can go wrong, it will Check everything twice before sending equipment to customers Even better, go to the customer and help with the installation Use same or as similar hardware as possible We have monitoring cards from two different vendors. 25

26 Summary and future work We have now deployed 29 monitoring probes Used for both passive and active measurements Proved very useful for network debugging Multicast Routing convergence time Qflow for monitoring QoS Several problems and delays in deploying the probes. Future work: Share data between monitoring probes Focus on software/hardware for 10Gbps and beyond New monitoring cards with Tilera 64 core CPU. Runs Linux on the card 26

27 Any questions? 27 Arne Øslebø

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