1 Bureauof Eco nomicgeo logy Geological Circular 73-1 Asbestos in the Allamoore Talc District, Hudspeth and Culberson Counties, Texas BY R. G. Rohrbacher The University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas W. L. Fisher, Director 1973
2 Bureau of Economi cgeology Geological Circular 73-1 Asbestos in the Allamoore Talc District Hudspeth and Culberson Counties, Texas BY R. G. Rohrbacher TheUniversity of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas W. L. Fisher, Director -«P73
3 Contents Introduction. 1 Geology... 3 Regional setting, 3 Allamoore district " 4 Talc deposits " Asbestos 6 Blue amphibole rock Richterite-talc rock , Occurrences... 9 North-central part of district Other parts of district... f «. 12 Origin and geologic significance 13 Potential 15 References 16 Illustrations 1. General geology and asbestos deposits, Allamoore talc district Geologic map and structure section of Diablo asbestos prospect.. 10 Table Chemical analysis of cross-fiber richterite asbestos from the Diablo prospect 8
4 Asbestos in the Allamoore Talc District, Hudspethand Culberson Counties, Texas R. G. Rohrbacher Introduction The Allamoore district of Hudspeth and Culberson counties, Texas has become one of the most significant talc -producing areas of the United States. Exploitation of talc deposits in the district began in 1952 with a cumulative production of 120, 000 tons through 1957 (Flawn, 1958). With continued growth, annual production exceeded 160,000 tons in 1968, making the district second only to New York State in national output, Moderate- to large-sized deposits have been developed with near-surface parts inexpensively extracted. Talc reserves are estimated in the tens of millions of tons. Long-fiber asbestos was first found in association with talc deposits of the Allamoore district in 1960 during exploratory drilling of what became the Buck claim. Small amounts of asbestos were noted in subsequent development of this large talc deposit. Later, small amounts of white asbestos were encountered in the T. &P. No. 1 mine and recently at the Neal-Mann prospect (fig. 1). Early in 1971, Albert Gregory of Van Horn, Texas, discovered an asbestos deposit now known as the Diablo prospect. Subsequently, the Van Horn Soapstone and Talc Corporation was formed and preliminary exploratory work at the prospect indicated the possible presence of commercially exploitable amounts of asbestos McKean Road, San Jose, California
5 2 district. talc Allamoore deposits, asbestos and geology General 1. Fig.
6 3 This evaluation of asbestos deposits is based on a current study of the stratigraphy, structure, and mineral deposits of the talc district. A subsequent report will detail the mineralogy of metasomatic rocks of the district, including talc and asbestos deposits, and will present a geochemical model for their origin. Geology Regional Setting Talc and associated asbestos occur in Precambrian rocks in a deformed belt previously described by King and Flawn (1953) and P. B. King (1965). From north to south, the gently dipping but strongly jointed sandstone and conglomerate of the Hazel Formation change within several miles into a severely deformed mixture of Hazel Formation and the carbonate and volcanic rocks of the Allamoore Formation (fig. 1). Adjoining on the south are the metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks of the Carrizo Mountain Group. The rocks of these three divisions grade from practically unmetamorphosed in the northern part to greenschist and amphibolite facies in the southern part. Metamorphism of the central division was mostly dynamic, with varied degrees of recrystallization and metasomatism taking place primarily in carbonate rocks. Mineral associations in the central division suggest that metamorphic grade increases southward, representing pressure-temperature conditions equivalent to both zeolite and greenschist facies. There are minor occurrences of Allamooretype carbonate rocks, some of which are altered to talc, in the Carrizo Mountain Group. The carbonate rocks may have been originally interstratified with the Carrizo Mountain sedimentary rocks.
7 4 Allamoore District The talc district includes an area about 20 miles long in an NW-SE. direction, and about 5 miles wide in an NE-SW. direction. The stratigraphic and structural relationships between the Allamoore and Hazel Formations are complex. It was previously suggested that the Hazel Forma tion, with its conglomeratic portion derived from Allamoore rocks, was tectonically mixed with the Allamoore Formation in a complex structure of folds and thrusts (King, hi King and Flawn, 1953). However, remapping in the district suggests that the two formations were originally interbedded and that the rocks constitute a single formation. In this tentative interpretation, the district is viewed as an upside-down sequence that is of general homoclinal form and that includes folds and faults. The carbonate rocks comprise limestone and dolomite in varying proportions. Layers with a high ratio of dolomite to calcite contain the most chert; vertical and lateral sedimentary facies changes in carbonate and chert layers occur over short distances. Volcanic rocks include mafic flows and pyroclastic and volcaniclastic types. Mafic flows now directly associated with other volcanic rocks cannot always be distinguished from diabase sills. Alteration of mafic rocks is intense; alteration products include chlorite, mica, calcite, dolomite, hematite, and epidote. Talc Deposits Talcose rocks include talc (or talc rock) and talc -carbonate rock. Talc rock contains less than 20 percent carbonate minerals; talc -carbonate rocks contain more than 20 percent carbonate minerals. This division roughly separates commercial (talc rock) from noncommercial (talc-carbonate) material.
8 5 Deposits range from talcose streaks to zones of talcose rocks up to 600 feet wide and a mile long. Most are steeply inclined lens-shaped or tabular bodies. Some have been contorted or deformed into isoclinal folds with adjacent carbonate and mafic rocks. Minerals of talcose rocks are mostly talc and dolomite, with some deposits containing both dolomite and calcite, or rarely dolomite and magnesite. Small amounts of quartz are widespread. Amphibole and poorly to well-crystallized layer silicates occur in varying but generally minor quantities. Relict sedimentary features and incomplete replacement of some layers clearly indicate that the talcose rocks were originally carbonate rocks. Internal structure of talc bodies is commonly more complex than external form. The purest talc tends to be near the center of talcose units, with increasing amounts of talc-carbonate rock and layers of slightly altered and unaltered carbonate rock and chert toward the margins. Foliation is well developed in many talc deposits and is generally parallel to original bedding of the host rock. Whereas talc was deformed largely by shear folding and differential movement along foliation planes, many included layers of carbonate rock and chert were folded and broken into segments that were tectonically separated in the talc. The systematic regional change of metamorphic grade, together with the foliation of much of the talcose rock and the lineation of amphiboles in associated rocks described below, suggest that hydrothermal metamorphism was syntectonic. Altered diabase occurs adjacent to or in the vicinity of talc deposits and may have served as a source of heat in generating the hydrothermal solutions which selectively reacted with favorable carbonate layers.
9 6 Asbestos Nearly all of the world's commercially valuable asbestos is chrysotile and most of it occurs in serpentinized ultramafic igneous rocks. Amphibole asbestos is found in a wide variety of igneous and metamorphic rocks, including serpentinite, carbonate rocks, and iron formations. Although its share of the commercial market is small in comparison to that of chrysotile, amphibole asbestos has many uses. The bundles of long, delicate fibers of white asbestos from the Allamoore district look very much like chrysotile, but x-ray diffraction studies and chemical analyses indicate that the asbestos is an amphibole type. In the discussion that follows, the occurrence of amphiboles and amphibole asbestos is considered in detail appropriate to the purpose of this report, which is to briefly describe the occurrence and geology of the asbestos as a guide to further prospecting. Blue Amphibole Rock Blue alkali amphibole and tremolite-actinolite occur in rocks within and near talc bodies in some areas. The total amount of rock containing blue amphibole is insignificant compared with that containing talc; blue amphibole has not been noted at many deposits. The alkali amphibole varies from pale blue to black; x-ray diffraction and optical study suggest that the amphibole may be magnesioriebeckite-riebeckite of differing compositions. Albite and K-feldspar are apparently more abundant than the amphiboles but are difficult to recognize in the field and may be mistaken for carbonate minerals, with which they are intergrown. Associated minerals that generally occur in trace or accessory amounts include alkali pyroxene, mica,
10 7 chlorite, talc, tourmaline, rutile, pyrite, hematite, and magnetite. The suite of minerals occurs in different combinations and proportions, and no constituent, including blue amphibole, is always present. Amphiboles vary in form from fibrous to prismatic and are contained for the most part in carbonate rocks; some thin layers were partially and selectively metasomatized to blue amphibole rock for tens of feet. However, patchy replacements and thin irregular veins largely filled with slip-fiber blue amphibole are the typical modes of occurrence. Fibrous varieties of magnesioriebeckite-riebeckite are known as crocidolite and have been used as asbestos. However, the blue amphibole in the Allamoore district has only been found in small amounts and generally mixed with large quantities of impurities. Richterite-Talc Rock The white fibrous amphibole asbestos present in the Diablo prospect and adjacent areas is richterite, as shown by its chemical composition (table) and verified by comparison of x-ray powder diffraction patterns with the calculated pattern for a K-richterite from western Australia given by Borg and Smith (1969). Richterite may be considered the alkali- rich analog of tremolite, and its composition regarded as the result of substituting two alkali ions for one of the two calcium ions of tremolite. Some richterite contains significant amounts of potassium, probably accommodated by the relatively large A structural site. The percent K~O in the Diablo prospect amphibole is a higher percentage than most richterites contain. However, richterites from volcanic rocks from Murcia, Spain and the Leucite Hills, Wyoming (Carmichael, 1967), and from
11 8 West Kimberley, western Australia (Prider, 1939) contain from 4.4 to 6. 5 percent K2O. Suchhigh concentrations of potassium may represent complete filling of the A site (Papike et al., 1969). Table. Chemical analysis of crossfiber richterite asbestos from the Diablo prospect. (Collected by C. G. Groat; analysis by J. T. Etheredge and D. A. Schofield, Mineral Studies Laboratory, Bureau of Economic Geology. ) Percent SiO A1 2 O Fe 2 O 3 (total Fe) 0.41 TiO P2P 2 O CaO MgO MnO Na 2 O K 2 O H 2 O~ Ign. Loss at 1050 C Numbers of ions on the basis of 23 oxygens Si Al Fe Mg 4.81 Ca 0.68 Na X 0. 64
12 9 Occurrences North-central part of district, -As previously mentioned, only small amounts of impure blue amphibole asbestos have been found in the Allamoore district. Most of the richterite asbestos discovered to date is in a 2- square-mile area of small hills separated by alluvium (fig. 1). The carbonate rocks have been deformed so that the common east-trending strike and southward dip are now a north- trending strike and moderate to steep westward dip. Mafic igneous rocks are plentiful and many are probably diabase sills. Several small talc bodies and numerous talc showings in outcrops are present. The main occurrence of richterite is at the Diablo prospect, a low hill of dolomite in which two layers of richterite-talc rock were exposed by trenching (fig. 2). The two trenched richterite-talc layers vary from about 4 feet to perhaps as much as 10 feet thick, and are at least 135 and 60 feet long, respectively. Asbestos content varies from a trace to about 75 percent. The carbonate rocks contain easily recognizable blue amphibole for about 35 feet west of the longest layer. Blue amphibole fills thin irregular fractures, and intervening carbonate has been partially replaced by alkali feldspar and other minerals. Asbestos occurs as thin discontinuous seams and lenses in gray foliated talc,generally parallel or at a low angle to the foliation of the talc. The fibers are up to 5 inches long and the higher the asbestos content of the talc rock, the greater the length. Rarely asbestos occurs in veins in thin dolomite layers in the talc. Slip-fiber generally predominates' but cross-fiber and bent-fiber forms
13 10 Fig. 2. Geologic map and structure section of Diablo asbestos prospect.
14 11 are also common, Some layers of asbestos have been shear folded and with subsequent differential movement along foliation planes in the talc, the layers of asbestos were broken and separated. The complex, small-scale structure is probably the result of deformation which preceded, accompanied, and followed formation of asbestos. Drill holes in and around the hill penetrated asbestos-bearing talc layers west of the strike line of the two exposed layers. Thickness of talc units ranges up to about 20 feet; some include interlayered dolomite. Lengths of talc units range from a few feet to 200 or more as suggested by drilling and by analogy with talc bodies in other parts of the district. Altered mafic rock was penetrated in two drill holes on the north side of the hill and one on the south side. Although there are probably five or more talc layers, parts of which contain more than 10 percent asbestos and others which contain 1 to 10 percent asbestos, the wide variation in dimensions of individual layers and the relatively widely spaced drill holes do not permit accurate correlation of units. For this reason, the structure section (fig. 2) is not entirely accurate. Because of the extreme variation in asbestos content within individual layers, a unit showing only a trace of fiber where intersected in drill holes may contain much more in its other parts. Some x-ray diffraction patterns of apparently pure fiber show the presence of small amounts of talc. This may represent a replacement of richterite during the final stage of metasomatism. Variable but minor amounts of other minerals are closely associated with the richterite. These include talc, tremolite (? ), white mica, dolomite, and a poorly crystallized layer silicate. These accessories are white or rarely pink, inmarked distinction to the gray talc rock in which
15 12 this second association of minerals formed. The gray foliated talc itself consists of talc, dolomite, quartz, and poorly crystallized layer silicate. In addition to the Diablo prospect there are reports of four other separate occurrences of richterite asbestos in the Allamoore district; three of these describe traces of white asbestos noted in drill cuttings from thin talcose layers. About 1, 200 feet west- southwest of the Diablo prospect, a 65-foot-deep drill hole near the base of a small hill of vertical-bedded dolomite penetrated talc with 75 percent long-fiber richterite asbestos occurring between 38 and 60 feet. Several shallow trenches near the hole exposed talc -carbonate rock. Some blue amphibole rock is scattered along the crest of the hill. Several other holes were drilled and although some talc was intersected, asbestos was not found. Other parts of district. -Minor amounts of white asbestos were found during drilling and development of the relatively large talc body of the Buck mine (fig. 1) Several samples showed the asbestos to be cross-fiber seams up to about two inches thick and at least six inches long,which are concordant with the foliation of the talc. Very thin partings of talc are both roughly parallel and oblique to the margins of the asbestos layers. Bent-fiber asbestos and other deformational structures such as those found at the Diablo prospect are absent. The asbestos in the Buck mine area is richterite and is similar to that at the Diablo prospect and nearby occurrences. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that what appears to be pure fiber actually contains a small amount of talc. A little white asbestos was reportedly observed during extraction of talc at the T. & P. No. 1mine. Later, drill cuttings containing fibers up to about half an inch long were obtained. The fiber is richterite, although more brittle than in
16 13 the other occurrences. What appears to be pure fiber contains some chlorite, perhaps as pseudomorphous replacement. There is an unconfirmed report of white asbestos from the relatively small talc body of the Neal-Mann prospect (fig. 1). Very small masses of nearly pure asbestiform actinolite also occur within the talc. Origin and Geologic Significance Blue amphibole and richterite-talc rocks are thought to be concentrations of constituents, mainly aluminum, iron, sodium, and potassium, originally present as minor impurities in carbonate rocks that have been replaced by talc. During metasomatism, these constituents first may have been incorporated into new forms such as layer silicates, then mobilized and either concentrated in carbonate layers, in another talc body, or in another part of a single talc body. Formation of richterite-talc rock also involved concentration of alkalies relative to aluminum and iron. The effect of structural controls, though perhaps important, is unknown. Because the impurities may have constituted only a small percentage of the original carbonate rock, concentrations of these elements such as at the Diablo prospect suggest that much more talc may occur in the vicinity. Richterites have been recognized in a wide variety of rocks, but unlike the relatively low- temperature Allamoore richterite, most occurrences are suggestive of relatively high temperatures of formation. In addition, many richterites are compositionally intermediate between alkali and calcium amphiboles, with < Ca<l. 50 per formula unit, further suggesting high-temperature hypersolvus conditions (Ernst, 1968). However, richterites with calcium contents of less than
17 14 about one calcium per formula unit, such as the Diablo prospect amphibole, may be considered simply as alkali amphiboles and may be reasonably expected to form at relatively low temperatures. Examples of asbestiform richterite are rare; however, greenish-gray richterite asbestos with calcium content of per formula unit, both disseminated and occurring as cross-fiber veins up to 5 cm thick, has been reported in tremolite-actinolite-bearing rocks and in other lithologies in the Aldan region of Siberia (Ivanov and Sidorenko, 1965). Although rock compositions rich in alkalies relative to aluminum are also comparatively rare and preclude the common occurrence of richterites, the lack of low-temperature examples especially asbestiform ones-may be due in part to incomplete and inaccurate identifications. For example, veins of cross-fiber asbestos similar in appearance to chrysotile and occurring in serpentinite were described as "soda-rich anthophyllite" by Laudermilk and Woodford (1930). However, the amphibole contains percent CaO and 7.40 percent Na^O, suggesting that it may be richterite. An assemblage of rocks similar to those in the Allamoore district occurs in the Roberts town-truro area of southern Australia. Magnesian crocidolite occurs in talcose dolomite and altered dolerite (Wymond and Wilson, 1951), and alkalirich tremolite asbestos in the talcose dolomite has also been prospected (D. King, 1955). The presence of large talc reserves in the area was recently announced (Industrial Minerals, 1970, 1971).
18 15 Potential Fibers of much of the richterite asbestos from the Allamoore district are greater than one inch in length, have very small diameters, and have relatively high tensile strength for amphibole fibers. The asbestos is white to light gray; some is greenish or rarely pink. When separated, the fibers form a white, semiharsh, fluffy mass. The richterite may be similar in its properties to tremolite asbestos which has been used in a wide variety of products; however, in devices like chemical filters, a pure product is required. Although the asbestos can be separated easily from most of the talc, it might prove difficult to remove all the very fine-grained platy particles of talc. In contrast to other types of asbestos, the richterite may have talc as a byproduct or coproduct. Preliminary work at the Diablo prospect suggests probable reserves of at least 5, 000 tons of asbestos in rock containing 10 percent or greater fiber. However, more closely spaced drilling is required to establish proved reserves, and might show considerably more asbestos. This includes additional asbestos at greater depth as downdip extensions of rocks known to contain richterite-talc layers, and also in deposits immediately outside the drilled area. Prospecting possibilities are excellent in the area surrounding the hill westsouthwest of the Diablo prospect, where there was a good showing of asbestos in a drill hole. There are about four square miles in the north-central part of the district where metasomatic rocks are known and where commercial amounts of associated richterite asbestos might be found. Estimation of possible reserves for this area, including the Diablo prospect, is speculative; 50,000 tons or more
19 16 might be proved by an adequate exploration program. In order to test this possibility, drilling through alluvium would be necessary; depth to bedrock in much of this area probably ranges from a few feet to about 30 feet. The very small amounts of asbestos found at the Buck and T. & P. No. 1 mines, and Neal-Mann prospect, considering the drilling and talc extraction already accomplished, suggest that further testing for asbestos alone might not be profitable. References Borg, I. Y., and Smith, D. X., 1969, Calculated x-ray powder patterns for silicate minerals: Geol. Soc. America Mem. 122, p Carmichael, I. S. E., 1967, The mineralogy and petrology of the volcanic rocks from the Leucite Hills, Wyoming: Contr. Mineralogy Petrology, v. 15, p Ernst, W. G., 1968, Amphiboles: New York, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., p. 29. Flawn, P. T., 1958, Texas miners boost talc output: Eng. Mining Jour., v. 159, p Industrial Minerals, 1970: London, Metal Bulletin, Ltd., no. 33, p. 37., 1971: London, Metal Bulletin, Ltd., no. 45, p. 29. Ivanov, I. P., and Sidorenko, G. A., 1965, Richterite asbestos: All-Union Mm. Soc. Mem., v. 94, p
20 17 King, D., 1955, Investigation of asbestos deposits in the Robertstown and Truro districts: Dept. Mines, South Australia, Mining Rev., no. 103, p King, P. 8.,1965, Geology of the Sierra Diablo region, Texas: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 480, 185 p., and Flawn, P. T., 1953, Geology andmineral deposits of Precambrian rocks of the Van Horn area, Texas: Univ. Texas Pub. 5301, 218 p. Laudermilk, J. D e, and Woodford, O. A., 1930, Soda-rich anthophyllite asbestos from Trinity County, California: Amer. Mineralogist, v. 15, no. 7, p Papike, J. J., Ross, M., and Clark, J. R., 1969, Crystal-chemical characterization of clinoamphiboles based on five new structure refinements: Mineralogical Soc. America, Spec. Pub. 2, p Prider, R. T., 1939, Some minerals from the leucite-rich rocks of the West Kimberley area, western Australia: MiningMag., v. 25, p Wymond, A. P., and Wilson, R. B., 1951, An occurrence of crocidolite near Robertstown, South Australia: Trans. Royal Soc. South Australia, v. 74, p
UNIT 3 EXAM ROCKS AND MINERALS NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire FRANCONIA, N.H. Crowds
DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer. Use GEOLOGIC VOCABULARY where APPLICABLE!
- A mineral is: 1. Natural. 2. Inorganic solid. 3. Has a chemical composition. 4. Has a crystalline structure. Geo 101 (Minerals - Unit 2) - The two important properties of a mineral are: 1. Chemical composition.
EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY DR. WOLTEMADE NAME: SECTION: MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY INTRODUCTION The identification of minerals and rocks is an integral part of understanding our physical
Earth Materials: 1 The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth 2 Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks Three main categories of rocks: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic The most common minerals
Name: Grade: Physical Geology 101 Lab #3 MINERALS Properties, Classification and Identification INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this lab is to learn the characteristics of minerals, and to identify minerals
P1: Rock identification (I) Examine the rocks specimens provided with the aid of these notes. All the rocks come from Ireland, as detailed on the attached map. Answer the short question on each specimen
Minerals and Rocks Name 1. Base your answer to the following question on the map and cross section below. The shaded areas on the map represent regions of the United States that have evaporite rock layers
MINERAL COMPOSITION OF THE AVERAGE SHALE By D. H. YAAtON Department of Geology, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem. [Received 7th October, 1961] ABSTRACT Mineralogical compositions have been calculated from
Please read chapters 10 and 5 CHAPTER 5 Sedimentary Rocks 1) Sedimentary rocks A) form by compaction and cementation of loose sediment. B) are widespread on the continents and ocean floor. C) are common
Crust: low density rocks Mantle: high density rocks Core: very high density metal core mechanical) layering mechanical layers lithosphere: rigid & strong asthenosphere: plastic & weak mesosphere: plastic
Lab 2: Mineral Lab notes. Minerals are inorganic, solid, naturally occurring substances that have a characteristic chemical compositions, distinctive physical properties, and crystalline structures. Chemical
MINERALS IN BATES LIMESTONE, LEWTSTON, MAINE* Llovn W. Frsnon, Bates College, Lewi.ston, Maine. INrnonucrton Location.-The city of Lewiston is located in the southwestern part of Maine, in Androscoggin
Presence of Asbestos in Talc 1 The Presence of Asbestos in Talc Courtney Hardy Quantitative Methods in Rocks and Minerals Steven Teeter and Assistant Sandie Brundin July 17, 2010 Presence of Asbestos in
OBJECTIVES: LAB 2: MINERAL PROPERTIES AND IDENTIFICATION 1) to become familiar with the properties important in identifying minerals; 2) to learn how to identify the common rock-forming minerals. Preparatory
Presents the Rock Test Study Resource Created by Simone Markus Published by EngLinks 1 Preface This is a free resource provided by EngLinks for students in APSC 151. This presentation is a supplementary
OBJECTIVES Learn to identify metamorphic rocks by structure and mineralogy. Identify major minerals contained within a metamorphic rock. Distinguish between foliated and non-foliated metamorphic rocks.
Geological Maps 1: Horizontal and Inclined Strata A well-rounded geologist must be familiar with the processes that shape the Earth as well as the rocks and minerals that comprise it. These processes cover
United Nations Secretariat ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2012/48 Distr.: General 11 April 2012 Original: English Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods and on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification
DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer Provide specific and detailed
Minerals in granite The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals Figure 2.1 What is a mineral? Naturally occurring solid Specific chemical composition Crystal structure
Class: Date: Minerals Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true.
Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks Deposited at the earth s surface by wind, water, glacier ice, or biochemical processes Typically deposited in strata (layers) under cool surface conditions. This is
THE COMPOSITION OF EARTH: ROCKS AND MINERALS Ruth Siddall University College London, UK Keywords: petrology, petrography, mineralogy, rock classification, crust Contents 1. Introduction 2. Minerals 2.1.
Asbestos General information Key Points Fire Non flammable and non combustible under normal conditions Chemically inert under normal conditions. Resistant to most solvents, acids and alkalis In the event
MINERALS Building blocks of rocks Mineral: is a homogeneous substance that has a definite chemical composition and an orderly geometric arrangement of atoms. 1 Minerals: Naturally occurring Inorganic solid
1 2 Earth Materials: Minerals What is a mineral? Properties/characteristics of different types of minerals Mineral structures and bonding Major categories of minerals Importance and uses of minerals What
Hot tpot tproject A Demonstration of How Groundwater Chemistry is being Used to Discover a Gravel Covered Gold Deposit April 2, 2009 General Cautionary Statement Warning! The business of Gold Exploration
The Mohs Scale of hardness of minerals and important rock building minerals to know Use all the tools to identify a mineral: Hardness (steel needle, coin, finger nail, glass and other minerals), Lustre,
DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer Provide specific and detailed
THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW OF THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing elements of the periodic table. LAB: Discovering properties of compounds. POST:
1 Igneous Geochemistry What is magma phases, compositions, properties Major igneous processes Making magma how and where Major-element variations Classification using a whole-rock analysis Fractional crystallization
IUCLID 5 COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: IRON ORES, AGGLOMERATES [EINECS NUMBER 265 996 3, CAS NUMBER 65996 65 8] IRON ORE PELLETS INTRODUCTION Each REACH registrant is required to file its
Plan for Geology 101 Lab (Online) John Turbeville, Earth Sciences MiraCosta College Description of course: This is an optional companion laboratory course for Geology 101, which is a survey level class.
Minerals Author: Rebecca Brindley CHAPTER 1 Minerals 1 Minerals Quartz: What is a Mineral? There are five things that must be true for a substance to be classified as a mineral. The five items are as follows:
GEOL 414/514 CARBONATE CHEMISTRY Chapter 6 LANGMUIR SOLUBILITY OF CALCITE CaCO 3 in nature: calcite & aragonite Reaction with strong acid: CaCO 3 + 2H + Ca +2 + H 2 O + CO 2 Reaction with weak acid: CaCO
CHAPTER 4 1 The Rock Cycle SECTION Rocks: Mineral Mixtures BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does
LECTURE 7 7.0 NATURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF METAMORPHIC ROCKS 7.1 INTRODUCTION Welcome to lecture 7. In the previous two lectures we covered the nature and classification of igneous and sedimentary rocks.
9 July 2015 EXTENSIVE GOLD IN SOILS TARGET IDENTIFIED AT MOMBUCA GOLD PROJECT, SE BRAZIL Open ended target zone up to 1.5km long identified Key Points Prospectivity of Centaurus recently secured Mombuca
Geological Visualization Tools and Structural Geology Geologists use several visualization tools to understand rock outcrop relationships, regional patterns and subsurface geology in 3D and 4D. Geological
Górnictwo i Geoinżynieria Rok 33 Zeszyt 4 2009 Savas Özün*, Ümit Atalay*, Yusuf Kagan Kadıoğlu** INVESTIGATION ON POSSIBILITY OF OPAQUE MINERALS REMOVAL FROM FOID BEARING ROCK 1. Introductıon Feldspathoids
Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a, substance which has a What would be the opposite of this? KEY CONCEPT #2: What causes minerals to have different physical properties?
Questions & Answers Proposed for Exam #3 GE50 Introduction to Physical Geology (Geology for Engineers) Missouri University of Science and Technology Fall Semester 2007, Leslie Gertsch (GertschL@mst.edu)
Page 1 of 6 skip navigational links This is an archive page. The links are no longer being updated. Statement by Gregory R. Wagner, M.D. Director, Division of Respiratory Disease Studies National Institute
Exploration Activities related to establishing a mineral deposit through geological, geophysical and geochemical methods. It is preceded by Prospecting and followed by Planning & Development. Geological
Asbestos Presence in a Factory that Produced Asbestos-Containing Products Hana Fajkovi Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac 95, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia, e-mail: (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Lab Activity on Minerals 2002 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Introduction Rocks are made of many mineral grains stuck together.
Sedimentary rocks: summary in haiku form Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks Earth, Chapter 7 Lithification - glue particles together. Was sand, now sandstone. What is a sedimentary rock? Products of mechanical
A mineral is any: Regents Earth Science Unit 10: Minerals and Rocks Minerals 1. naturally occurring 2. inorganic 3. solid, with a 4. definite chemical composition, and a 5. crystal structure Minerals are
Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Chemical and Morphological Comparison of Erionite from Oregon, North Dakota, and Turkey By Heather A. Lowers, David T. Adams, Gregory P. Meeker,
Channel and fracture indicators from narrow-band decomposition at Dickman field, Kansas Johnny Seales*, Tim Brown and Christopher Liner Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston,
Leapfrog : new software for faster and better 3D geological modelling Paul Hodkiewicz, Principal Consultant (Geology), SRK Consulting, 10 Richardson Street, West Perth WA 6005, Australia, email@example.com
GEOL 2311 Midquarter Exam I Name Crystal Chemistry Score: / 100 1. Chose a subdiscipline of geology and describe how mineralogy plays a central role in that field. (2 pts) Looking for reasonable answers
Igneous rocks: : Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and freezes solid. Can be intrusive (formed deep in the earth) or extrusive (formed at the surface of the earth). Magma: : Molten
GEOL1010 Hour Exam 1 Sample 1. The inner core of the Earth is composed of a) solid silicate b) liquid silicate magma c) liquid metal d) solid metal e) olivine. 2. The upper mantle of the Earth is composed
Asbestos The term asbestiform describes a mineral habit characterized by long, thin, strong, flexible fibers equivalent to hairs or whiskers How long? Definition varies Modern Uses of Asbestos Asbestos
Rock Identification Lab Name Mineral Hardness Objective: You will determine the relative hardness of common objects relative to the known hardness of index minerals. We will use fingernail, copper, glass,
The Earth is made up of rocks and minerals. The core of the Earth is molten rock. On the outside, there's a crust. Within this crust, the most abundant elements (by mass) are oxygen and silicon. Sometimes
Base your answers to questions 1 through 3 on the drawings of six sedimentary rocks labeled A through F. 1. Most of the rocks shown were formed by (1) compaction and/or cementation (3) heat and pressure
Lecture Notes 12.001 Metamorphic rocks O.Jagoutz Metamorphism Metamorphism describes the changes a rock undergoes with changing P, T and composition (X). For simplistic reasons we will focus here in the
A GIS BASED GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR LONG TERM MINERAL PLANNING Mauro Prado, Hydrogeologist - SRK Consulting, Perth, Australia Richard Connelly, Principal Hydrogeologist - SRK UK Ltd, Cardiff, United
Earth Sciences: Course Presenters 625-102 Geology Dr Stephen Gallagher Prof Andrew Gleadow Dr Malcolm Wallace Prof Ian Plimer Course Coordinator Room 214 Series - Lecture Topics 1. Mineralogy and Crystals
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Sedimentary rocks are formed near or at the surface of the earth. They are derived from preexisting source rocks. They are composed by sediments, this is material that has been weathered,
GEOLOGICAL REINTERPETATION LEADS TO MAJOR DRILL PROGRAM AT JUPITER Dacian Gold Ltd ( Dacian or the Company ) (ASX:DCN) is pleased to announce that it has completed a major geological review and reinterpretation
Lecture 16 Rare Earth Elements and Spider Diagrams Monday, March 21st, 2005 The Rare Earth Elements (REE) 1 Contrasts and similarities in the D values: All are incompatible Also Note: HREE are less incompatible
GEOL 5310 Advanced Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Fall 09 Igneous Lab 2: Geochemical Plots of Igneous Rocks Objective: In this lab, we will become familiar with geochemical databases associated with
Chapter 4 Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have undergone a change in texture and/or mineralogy due to high temperature or pressure, or through the action of chemical alteration induced
METAMORPHIC ROCKS Teacher Guide including Lesson Plans, Student Readers, and More Information Lesson 1 - Formation of Metamorphic Rocks Lesson 2 - Metamorphic Rock Classification Chart Lesson 3 - Metamorphic
Rocks and Rock-Forming Processes 3.4 How are the rock classes related to one another? The Rock Cycle Smith & Pun, Chapter 3 Processes link types Plate tectonics is driving force If we look closely we see
REPORT OF WORK GUIDELINES The following guidelines apply to a report of work submitted under section 56(1) of the Mining Act (http://laws.gnb.ca/en/showdoc/cs/m-14.1). 1 (1) A report of work shall be submitted
McLemore, V.T., 2014, Geology and mineral deposits in the Capitan Mountains district: New Mexico Geological Society, Guidebook 65, p. 60-61. GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS IN THE CAPITAN MOUNTAINS DISTRICT,
Endereço eletrônico http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/asbestos/asbestos_whatis.html Search Index Home Glossary Contact Us CONTENTS Asbestos What Is Asbestos? Polarized Light Microscopy Slide of Asbestos Fibers.
Structural Geology Laboratory 9 (Name) Geologic maps show the distribution of different types of structures and rock stratigraphic units generally on a topographic base such as a quadrangle map. Key structures
Igneous Rocks Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists Magma Compositions Ultramafic - composition of mantle Mafic - composition of basalt, e.g. oceanic crust. 900-1200 o C, 50% SiO 2 Intermediate
Rocks and Minerals Multiple Choice 1. The basaltic bedrock of the oceanic crust is classified as (1) felsic, with a density of 2.7 g/cm3 (2) felsic, with a density of 3.0 g/cm3 (3) mafic, with a density
ABN 47 116 648 956 ASX Announcement 4 July 2016 Chalice advances gold exploration initiatives in Australia and Canada Low-cost exploration planned to evaluate opportunities in two world-class gold provinces
REVIEW Key Concepts Unit 5 Planet Earth 1.0 Changes on the Earth s Surface Layers: Crust, Mantle, Core (Inner and Outer) Earthquakes and Volcanoes can suddenly change the Earth s surface Scientist s use