Kerosene soot genotoxicity: enhanced effect upon co-exposure with chrysotile asbestos in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Kerosene soot genotoxicity: enhanced effect upon co-exposure with chrysotile asbestos in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts"

Transcription

1 Toxicology Letters 114 (2000) Kerosene soot genotoxicity: enhanced effect upon co-exposure with chrysotile asbestos in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts Mohtashim Lohani a, Elke Dopp b, Dieter G. Weiss b, Dietmar Schiffmann b, Qamar Rahman a, * a Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Di ision of Fibre Toxicology, Post Box 80, M. G. Marg, Lucknow , India b Institute of Cell Biology and Biosystems Technology, Department of Biological Sciences, Uni ersity of Rostock, Rostock, Germany Received 20 July 1999; received in revised form 3 November 1999; accepted 4 November 1999 Abstract Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested an enhancement of asbestos-induced bronchogenic carcinoma by cigarette smoke. Further, our recent experimental and epidemiological studies have indicated that besides smoking, several other compounds including kerosene soot may accelerate disease processes in asbestos-exposed animals as well as in the humans. Incomplete combustion of kerosene oil generates large volumes of soot, which contains various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic compounds. As reported earlier, exposure to kerosene soot is known to cause biochemical and pathological changes in the pulmonary tissue, which may cause cardiopulmonary disorders. In this study we investigated genotoxic effects caused by kerosene soot and chrysotile asbestos as well as co-exposure of kerosene soot and chrysotile using Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts (SHE). The micronucleus assay revealed a significant increase of induced micronuclei (MN), (P 0.05) in SHE cells after treatment with kerosene soot ( g/cm 2 ) for 66 h (36 MN/1000 cells). Combined treatment with chrysotile and soot induced up to 110 MN/1000 cells (chrysotile alone: 80 MN/1000 cells; concentrations: 1 g/cm 2, exposure times: 66 h). Kinetochore staining revealed mainly clastogenic effects in all cases (soot: 21.3% CRMN + ; chrysotile: 27%; soot+chrysotile: 27.6%; control: 20.8%). This is the first study showing that kerosene soot is not only genotoxic but it can also elevate the genotoxic potential of chrysotile asbestos. This information may be of importance for workers occupationally exposed to asbestos and domestically exposed to kerosene soot Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Kerosene soot; Asbestos; Micronuclei; Kinetochores; Genotoxicity 1. Introduction * Corresponding author. Tel.: ; fax: address: q (Q. Rahman) The co-carcinogenic potential of asbestos in the development of bronchogenic carcinoma has been /00/$ - see front matter 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S (99)

2 112 M. Lohani et al. / Toxicology Letters 114 (2000) reported (Selikoff et al., 1980). Studies implicate an enhancing effect of cigarette smoke on asbestos-induced toxicity (Eastman et al., 1983; McFadden et al., 1986a; Kamp et al., 1998). In addition to cigarette smoke other environmental pollutants have also been shown to influence asbestos-induced disease processes. According to earlier experimental as well as epidemiological observations from this laboratory, the influence of kerosene and its soot on the development of asbestos-induced disease processes has been reported (Arif et al., 1992, 1993, 1994, 1997). Coexposure of kerosene soot and chrysotile asbestos has been shown to enhance cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in comparison to the separate exposure of kerosene soot or chrysotile asbestos alone (Arif et al., 1994, 1997). Oxidative stress caused induction of lipid peroxidation, production of reactive oxygen species, alteration in the enzymes regulating the oxidative balance in the system as well as depletion of soluble antioxidants. Incomplete combustion of kerosene oil produces large amounts of kerosene soot, which contains naphthalene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene as major constituents along with acenaphthalene, fluorene, chrysene, anthracene and phenanthracene (Arif et al., 1992). Some of the hydrocarbons like benzene, 1,3-butadiene, styrene and xylene are of main concern because of their carcinogenic properties (Noa and Illnait, 1987). Exposure to soot may lead to cardiopulmonary disorders (Arif et al., 1991). Kerosene soot and some associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have already been shown to be mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium (Kaden et al., 1979). In developing countries like India, a substantial portion of its population still uses kerosene oil as domestic fuel for cooking, heating and lighting purposes, because of its easy availability and low cost. Among these people, those working in asbestos-based factories are domestically exposed to kerosene soot and occupationally exposed to asbestos. According to our recent survey co-exposure causes increased pulmonary damage (unpublished). Kerosene oil is used commercially all over the world, and co-exposure with asbestos may cause problems in general. It seems possible that the co-exposure may increase the genotoxic potential in the exposed population. The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) micronucleus assay was used to investigate the genotoxicity of fibers and particles by us and other authors as a shortterm test with a high predictive value (Fritzenschaf et al., 1993; Dopp et al., 1995). Therefore, the present study is designed to investigate the genotoxicity of kerosene soot alone and in combination with chrysotile asbestos. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Cell culture and treatment conditions SHE fibroblasts were isolated from 13-day-old embryos as described by Pienta (1980). Cell cultures were grown in a humidified atmosphere containing 12% CO 2 at 37 C. The culture medium used was IBR-modified Dulbecco s Eagle s reinforced medium (Gibco Co.) supplemented with 15% fetal calf serum (Flow Laboratories, Meckenheim, FRG), 3.7 g/l NaHCO3 (7.5%), 1% glucose, IU penicillin, 10 mg/ml streptomycin and 0.01% tylosin. Kerosene soot was obtained by igniting kerosene oil (BP C) in a pressure stove under the conditions approximating those in a kitchen. Its composition was analyzed (Arif et al., 1997) and particles of a size less than 10 m were prepared (Zaidi, 1969). Information on particle size distribution was already published (Arif et al., 1997). Rhodesian chrysotile (UICC standard) was obtained from Dr Linnainmaa (University of Helsinki, Finland). Average length, diameter and number of fibers/ g were determined. Average dimensions of chrysotile were 0.10 m diameter, 2.24 m length and percentage of fibers greater than or equal to 5 m was approximately 5% (Dopp et al., 1997). Fibers and soot were sterilized by autoclaving (120 C for 2 h) and suspended in PBS (1 g/ l). Cells were treated with fibers according to the size of culture flasks (0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 g/ cm 2 ).

3 M. Lohani et al. / Toxicology Letters 114 (2000) Micronucleus assay The micronucleus assay was performed as described by Schmuck et al. (1988). SHE cells were grown on coverslips and after treatment with asbestos, soot, or asbestos and soot, then cells were fixed and stored in cold methanol ( 20 C) for at least 30 min. After washing of cells with PBS, nuclei were stained with bisbenzimide (Hoechst 33258, concentration: 1 g/ml, 4 min). The slides were coded to avoid bias, mounted for microscopy and examined for the presence of micronuclei. Each data point represents the mean of treated cultures from at least three different independent experiments with 2000 nuclei evaluated in each case. The frequency of micronuclei was determined microscopically at 630 magnification; only micronuclei smaller than 1/3 of the nuclear diameter were taken into account Kinetochore staining For further analysis of the induced micronuclei, kinetochores were stained by incubating the fixed cell preparations with CREST serum (Chemicon, Temecula, USA) for 1 h in a humidified chamber at 37 C. After rinsing with phosphate-buffered saline, the cells were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated goat anti-human antibodies (Sigma, Germany) before applying bisbenzimide (Hoechst). At least 100 micronuclei were examined for the presence of kinetochores in each case (CRMN + ) Statistical analysis The 2 -test was used to compare the results of the micronucleus assay of each treatment group with the control. 3. Results Fig. 1. Formation of MN in SHE fibroblasts after treatment (24, 48, 66 and 72 h) of cells with different concentrations of kerosene soot. Fig. 2. Formation of MN in SHE fibroblasts after treatment (48 and 66 h) of cells with different concentrations of chrysotile asbestos. Fig. 1 shows the formation of micronuclei in SHE cells after treatment with kerosene soot (exposure time: 24, 48, 66 and 72 h; concentration: 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 g/cm 2 ). The maximum number of micronuclei (MN) was observed at 5.0 g/cm 2 concentration and 66 h exposure (mean: 36 MN/1000 cells). At higher concentrations the number of micronuclei decreased probably due to increased cytotoxicity. Fig. 2 shows induction of micronuclei by chrysotile. The maximum number of micronuclei was induced at a concentration of 5.0 g/cm 2 and after 48 h of exposure (mean: 87 MN/1000) which is about four-fold higher compared to the control level (22 MN/1000 cells, 48 h; 22.5 MN/1000 cells, 66 h). After co-exposure of SHE cells to chrysotile and kerosene soot, additive genotoxic effects can be observed at a concentration of 0.5 g/cm 2 of each (mean: 90 MN/1000 cells, 48 h exposure; 95

4 114 M. Lohani et al. / Toxicology Letters 114 (2000) Discussion Fig. 3. Formation of MN in SHE cells after co-exposure of cells to chrysotile asbestos and kerosene soot (0, 0.5 and 1.0 g/cm 2 of each). The differences between treated and untreated cells are statistically significant (P 0.001) in all cases. MN/1000 cells, 66 h exposure) and 1.0 g/cm 2 concentration of each (mean: 104 MN/1000 cells, 48 h exposure; 111 MN/1000cells, 66 h exposure) which is up to five times higher compared to untreated controls (mean: 21 MN/1000 cells, 48 h; 21 MN/1000 cells, 66 h; Fig. 3). The kinetochore analysis revealed that the percentage of kinetochore positive micronuclei was not significantly increased after kerosene soot exposure (21.3%: 20.1% in control). Chrysotile-treated and co-exposed cells showed a slightly increased number of kinetochore-positive micronuclei (26.9 and 27.6%, respectively; Table 1). The induction of micronuclei by kerosene soot, chrysotile asbestos and co-exposure with kerosene soot and chrysotile asbestos was investigated in SHE fibroblasts. In addition, we investigated the presence of kinetochores in the induced micronuclei. Both kerosene soot and chrysotile asbestos were found to induce micronuclei in SHE cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxicity was observed after exposure of cells to higher concentrations of kerosene soot (10.0 g/cm 2 ) and chrysotile (10.0 g/cm 2 ). Chrysotile alone induced a significantly higher number of micronuclei than kerosene soot, when used in similar concentrations, revealing its higher genotoxic potential (Valerio et al., 1983). Co-exposure of kerosene soot and chrysotile induced higher numbers of micronuclei approximating the sum of the micronuclei induced separately by both these agents. It was shown in earlier investigations that amosite, chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos fibers induce micronuclei in SHE as well as in human amniotic fluid cells in a dose-dependent manner (Dopp et al., 1995, 1997). The micronucleus assay is a useful technique to assess genetic damage. The frequency of cells containing micronuclei reflects chromosomal damage and/or aneuploidy (Heddle et al., 1983). Further, the staining of kinetochores in micronuclei with anti-kinetochore (CREST) serum helps to discriminate between aneugenic and clastogenic effects. Kinetochore staining revealed an insignificant increase in kinetochore-positive micronuclei in kerosene soot treated cells indicating an involve- Table 1 Results of kinetochore staining of SHE cells after 48 and 66 h treatment with kerosene soot, chrysotile and chrysotile+soot Treatment Concentration No. of cells No. of CRMN + per CRMN per 1000 % CRMN +b ( g/cm 2 ) scored micronuclei a 1000 cells cells Kerosene soot (NS c ) Chrysotile (NS) Chrysotile+soot (NS) Control a Number of micronuclei scored for presence of kinetochores. b Percentage of detected micronuclei that reacted positively to anti-kinetochore serum. c NS, not significant.

5 M. Lohani et al. / Toxicology Letters 114 (2000) ment of mainly clastogenic events contributing to micronucleus induction, whereas chrysotile exposed cells showed slightly higher kinetochorepositive micronuclei. The co-exposed SHE cells revealed further increase in kinetochore-positive micronuclei compared to controls as well as compared to kerosene soot exposed cells. This study clearly indicates that loss of whole chromosomes is involved, but that mainly clastogenic events contribute to the formation of micronuclei. Our previous studies showed that both in vivo and in vitro co-exposure of kerosene soot and chrysotile asbestos resulted in significantly higher cytotoxicity, inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress (Arif et al., 1994, 1997). Asbestos fibers are phagocytosed by the cells within 24 h and accumulate in the perinuclear region after h (Hesterberg et al., 1986; Jensen et al., 1994). During mitosis, their physical presence results in missegregation of chromosomes. Therefore maximum numbers of micronuclei are produced at 66 h which is in agreement with the results of the present study. The possible cause of the aneugenic events may be a functional disturbance of the spindle apparatus, membrane components or centromere proteins (Mitchell et al., 1995) directly due to the presence of asbestos fibers or other particulates. Clastogenic events may be caused by reactive oxygen species (Kamp et al., 1992) generated as a result of the interaction between cell components and asbestos fibers or other particulates. Evidence has accumulated that reactive oxygen species produce stable clastogenic factors in response to the presence of fibres, causing genetic damage (Emerit et al., 1991; Kamp et al., 1992). As suggested by Kamp and Weitzman (1999), the production of free radicals may in this case also be due to polynuclear cation radicals. The most specific and representative marker for the damage caused by reactive oxygen species is 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (Dizdaroglu, 1991). It appears that according to the present findings the increased damage after co-exposure is attributed to an enhanced production of reactive oxygen species in addition to the physical presence of fibers/ particles in and around the mitotic apparatus. Asbestos fibres are found to facilitate the uptake and retention of benzo(a)pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into the hamster tracheal epithelial cells resulting in increased pathological effects (McFadden et al., 1986b). Presence of kerosene soot may also increase the penetration and retention of asbestos fibers from lung tissue. Thus, asbestos fibers stay longer in the lung, which results in enhanced pulmonary inflammatory reactions. Further, asbestos fibers may increase the absorption and retention of PAHs present in kerosene soot. Nevertheless, the whole mechanism still needs detailed studies. The occurence of increased pulmonary function abnormalities and respiratory impairments in asbestos-cement factory workers simultaneously exposed to cigarette smoke and kerosene soot together with asbestos, have clearly demonstrated the further deteriorating effects of the combined exposure (Rahman et al., 1998). Further studies in this direction are needed to prove a statistically relevant influence of kerosene soot on the development of bronchogenic carcinoma in the asbestos-exposed population. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that kerosene soot is a relatively weak, but effective genotoxic agent and induces micronuclei as a result of mainly clastogenic events. Co-exposure of kerosene soot and chrysotile asbestos results in additive genotoxic effects, which is quite alarming for the population simultaneously exposed to kerosene soot as well as to asbestos. Acknowledgements We would like to thank Ina Poser and Florian Schiffmann (University of Rostock, Germany) for technical support. The work was done under the Indian German collaborative program CSIR- DLR (project no. INI 086). References Arif, J.M., Khan, S.G., Aslam, M., Mahmood, N., Joshi, L.D., Rahman, Q., Early biochemical changes in kerosene exposed rat lungs. Chemosphere 22,

6 116 M. Lohani et al. / Toxicology Letters 114 (2000) Arif, J.M., Sikander, G.K., Aslam, M., Mahmood, N., Rahman, Q., Diminution in Kerosene-mediated induction of drug metabolizing enzymes by asbestos in rat lungs. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 71, Arif, J.M., Khan, S.G., Ashquin, M., Rahman, Q., Modulation of macrophage mediated cytotoxicity by kerosene soot: possible role of reactive oxygen species. Environ. Res. 61, Arif, J.M., Khan, S.G., Mahmood, N., Aslam, M., Rahman, Q., Effect of co-exposure of asbestos and kerosene soot on pulmonary drug-metabolizing enzyme system. Environ. Health Perspect. 102 (Suppl. 5), Arif, J.M., Khan, S.G., Ahmad, I., Joshi, L.D., Rahman, Q., Effect of kerosene and its soot on the chrysotile-mediated toxicity to the rat alveolar macrophages. Environ. Res. 72, Dizdaroglu, M., Chemical determination of free radicalinduced damage to DNA. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 10, Dopp, E., Saedler, J., Stopper, H., Weiss, D.G., Schiffmann, D., Mitotic disturbances and micronucleus induction in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblast cells caused by different types of asbestos fibers. Environ. Health Perspect. 103, Dopp, E., Schuler, M., Schiffmann, D., Eastmond, D.A., Induction of micronuclei, hyperdiploidy and chromosomal breakage affecting the centric/pericentric regions of chromosomes 1 and 9 in human amniotic fluid cells after treatment with asbestos and ceramic fibres. Mut. Res. 377, Eastman, A., Mossman, B.T., Bresnick, E., Influence of asbestos on the uptake of benzo(a)pyrene and DNA alkylation in hamster trachial epithelial cells. Cancer Res. 43, Emerit, I., Jaurand, M.C., Saint-Etienne, L., Levy, F., Formation of a clastogenic factor by asbestos-treated rat pleural mesothelial cells. Agents Actions 34, Fritzenschaf, H., Kohlpoth, M., Rusche, B., Schiffmann, D., Testing of known carcinogens in the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) micronucleus test in vitro; correlations with in vivo micronucleus formation and cell transformation. Mutat. Res. 319, Heddle, J.A., Hite, M., Krikhart, B., Mavournin, K., MacGregor, J.T., Newell, G.W., Salamone, M.F., The induction of micronuclei as a measure of genotoxicity. Mutat. Res. 123, Hesterberg, T.W., Butterick, C.J., Oshimura, M., Brody, A.R., Barrett, J.C., Role of phagocytosis in Syrian hamster cell transformation and cytogenetic effects induced by asbestos and short and long glass fibres. Cancer Res. 46, Jensen, C.G., Jensen, L.C.W., Ault, J.G., Osorio, G., Cole, R., Rieder, C.L., Time-lapse video light microscopic and electron microscopic observations of vertebrate epithelial cells exposed to crocidolite asbestos. In: Davis, I.M.G., Jaurand, M.C. (Eds.), Cellular and Molecular Effects of Mineral and Synthetic Dusts and Fibres. Heidelberg: NATO ASI series 85, pp Kaden, D.A., Hites, R.A., Thilly, W.J., Mutagenicity of soot and associated polycyclic hydrocarbons to Salmonella typhimurium. Cancer Res. 39 (10), Kamp, D.W., Weitzman, S.A., The molecular basis of asbestos-induced lung injury. Thorax 54, Kamp, D.W., Graceffa, P., Pryor, W.A., Weitzman, S.A., The role of free radicals in asbestos-induced diseases. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 12, Kamp, D.W., Greenberger, M.J., Sbalchierro, J.S., Cigarette smoke augments asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell injury. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 25, McFadden, D., Wright, J.L., Wiggs, B., Chrug, A., 1986a. Cigarette smoke increases the penetration of asbestos fibres into airway walls. Am. J. Pathol. 123, McFadden, D., Wright, J.L., Wiggs, B., Churg, A., 1986b. Smoking inhibits asbestos clearance. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 133, Mitchell, I., Lambert, T.R., Burden, M., Sunderland, J., Porter, R.L., Carlton, J.B., Is polyploidy an important genotoxic lesion? Mutagenesis 10, Noa, M., Illnait, J., Induction of Aortic plaques in guinea pigs by exposure to kerosene. Arch. Environ. Health 42, Pienta, R.J., Transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by diverse chemicals and correlation with their reported carcinogenic and mutagenic activities. In: de Serres, F.J., Hollaender, A. (Eds.), Chemical Mutagens, vol. 6. Plenum, New York, pp Rahman, Q., Prasad, R., Das, M., Pandey, U.S., Lohani, M., Ashquin, M., Follow up study in an asbestos cement factory with special emphasis on preventive and diagnostic measures: a project report submitted to Uttar Pradesh Council of Science and Technology Government of India. Schmuck, G., Lieb, G., Wild, D., Schiffmann, D., Henschler, D., Characterization of an in vitro micronucleus assay with Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts. Mutat. Res. 203, Selikoff, I.J., Seidman, H., Hammond, E.C., Mortality effects of cigarette smoking among amosite asbestos factory workers. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 65, Valerio, F., de Ferrari, M., Ottaggio, L., Repetto, E., Santi, L., Chromosomal aberration induced by chrysotile and crocidolite in human lymphocytes in vitro. Mutat. Res. 122, Zaidi, S.H., Experimental Pneumoconiosis. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD, pp

BE.104 Spring Evaluating Environmental Causes of Mesothelioma J. L. Sherley

BE.104 Spring Evaluating Environmental Causes of Mesothelioma J. L. Sherley BE.104 Spring Evaluating Environmental Causes of Mesothelioma J. L. Sherley Outline: 1) Toxicological mechanisms and causation evaluations 2) An environetics case: Asbestos and Mesothelioma Toxicological

More information

What are the causes of air Pollution

What are the causes of air Pollution What are the causes of air Pollution Pollutant Particulate Matter (PM-PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) Description and main UK sources Particulate Matter is generally categorised on the basis of the size of the particles

More information

Classification of Carcinogens: Aspects of the Mode of Action for genotoxic substances

Classification of Carcinogens: Aspects of the Mode of Action for genotoxic substances Classification of Carcinogens: Aspects of the Mode of Action for genotoxic substances Günter Speit Universität t Ulm Institut für f r Humangenetik D-89069 Ulm (Germany) Genotoxic carcinogens are mutagenic

More information

Asbestos, Asbestosis, and Lung Cancer

Asbestos, Asbestosis, and Lung Cancer Asbestos, Asbestosis, and Lung Cancer David Weill, M.D. Stanford University Medical Center Stanford, CA David Weill, M.D., is a professor of medicine in the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

More information

Lung cancer and asbestos

Lung cancer and asbestos Lung cancer and asbestos Bureau Veritas Training Bill Sanderson For the benefit of business and people To begin with.. There are known knowns, that is there are things we know that we know. There are known

More information

OCCUPATIONAL LUNG CANCER

OCCUPATIONAL LUNG CANCER OCCUPATIONAL LUNG CANCER Anwar Jusuf, Agus Dwi Susanto Department of Pulmonology & Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine University Of Indonesia - Persahabatan Hospital-Jakarta INTRODUCTION Occupational

More information

Molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Nik Hodges School of Biosciences

Molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Nik Hodges School of Biosciences Molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis Nik Hodges School of Biosciences N.Hodges@bham.ac.uk Aims What is cancer at the cellular level? How do chemical and physical agents cause cancer? How do we test for

More information

PROTOCOL. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

PROTOCOL. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT REQUIRED PROTOCOL Immunocytochemistry (ICC) 1850 Millrace Drive, Suite 3A Eugene, Oregon 97403 11-07 MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT REQUIRED Materials: MitoSciences primary monoclonal antibody/antibodies Fluorophore-conjugated

More information

June 20, 2002. 2002.06.20: Wagner Testimony on Workplace Exposure to Asbestos. This is an archive page. The links are no longer being updated.

June 20, 2002. 2002.06.20: Wagner Testimony on Workplace Exposure to Asbestos. This is an archive page. The links are no longer being updated. Page 1 of 6 skip navigational links This is an archive page. The links are no longer being updated. Statement by Gregory R. Wagner, M.D. Director, Division of Respiratory Disease Studies National Institute

More information

The Physiology of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy. Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species. I. Introduction Definition, Source, function and Purpose

The Physiology of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy. Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species. I. Introduction Definition, Source, function and Purpose The Physiology of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species I. Introduction Definition, Source, function and Purpose A. Definition of free radicals and reactive oxygen species

More information

ICH guideline S2 (R1) on genotoxicity testing and data interpretation for pharmaceuticals intended for human use

ICH guideline S2 (R1) on genotoxicity testing and data interpretation for pharmaceuticals intended for human use June 2012 EMA/CHMP/ICH/126642/2008 ICH guideline S2 (R1) on genotoxicity testing and data interpretation for pharmaceuticals intended for human use Step 5 Transmission to CHMP March 2008 Adoption by CHMP

More information

Combined effects of carcinogens

Combined effects of carcinogens Combined effects of carcinogens Institute of Environmental Medicine ulla.stenius@ki.se National Cancer Institute Ulla Stenius, IMM, KI 1 477 chemicals tested in NTP cancer test analyzed 278 rat carcinogens

More information

What is nanotoxicology?

What is nanotoxicology? What is nanotoxicology? How to estimate the potential hazard related to nanoparticles? Dissemination report October 2008 DR-225 200810-5 Project ID NMP2-CT-2005-515843 An European Integrated Project Supported

More information

Workers around the world who encounter hazardous substances are aware of the measures needed

Workers around the world who encounter hazardous substances are aware of the measures needed Introduction Workers around the world who encounter hazardous substances are aware of the measures needed to protect themselves from acute exposures to these chemicals. However, workers are often less

More information

Influence of Fiber Type, Size, and Number in Human Disease: Conclusions from Fiber Burden Analysis

Influence of Fiber Type, Size, and Number in Human Disease: Conclusions from Fiber Burden Analysis Influence of Fiber Type, Size, and Number in Human Disease: Conclusions from Fiber Burden Analysis Andrew Churg, MD Department of Pathology University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC, Canada Techniques,

More information

Sir William Osler: Listen to the patient; the patient tells you everything.

Sir William Osler: Listen to the patient; the patient tells you everything. Sir William Osler: Listen to the patient; the patient tells you everything. Jean-Martin Charcot: The patient is a liar. Epidemiology of Mesothelioma Jeffrey H. Mandel, MD, MPH Division of Environmental

More information

Uses and Abuses of Pathology in Asbestos-exposed Populations

Uses and Abuses of Pathology in Asbestos-exposed Populations Uses and Abuses of Pathology in Asbestos-exposed Populations Jerrold L. Abraham, MD Department of Pathology State University of New York Upstate Medical University Syracuse, NY, 13210 USA The term: Asbestosis,

More information

Multiple Mechanisms for the Carcinogenic Effects of Asbestos and Other Mineral Fibers by J. Carl Barrett,* Patricia W. Lamb,* and Roger W.

Multiple Mechanisms for the Carcinogenic Effects of Asbestos and Other Mineral Fibers by J. Carl Barrett,* Patricia W. Lamb,* and Roger W. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 81, pp. 81-89, 1989 Multiple Mechanisms for the Carcinogenic Effects of Asbestos and Other Mineral Fibers by J. Carl Barrett,* Patricia W. Lamb,* and Roger W. Wiseman*

More information

Update of the scientific evidence on asbestos and cancer. Kurt Straif, MD MPH PhD. The IARC Monographs

Update of the scientific evidence on asbestos and cancer. Kurt Straif, MD MPH PhD. The IARC Monographs Update of the scientific evidence on asbestos and cancer Kurt Straif, MD MPH PhD International Agency for Research on Cancer Lyon, France World Health Organisation Asturias, 17 March 2011 The IARC Monographs

More information

Asbestos and Mesothelioma in Thailand

Asbestos and Mesothelioma in Thailand MD, DScMed, FRCP, FRACP, hon. FACP Emeritus Professor and Fellow of the Academy of Science, the Royal Institute of Thailand Abstract Chrysotile, a serpentile asbestos, has been used in a number of Thai

More information

Occupational respiratory diseases due to Asbestos. Dirk Dahmann, IGF, Bochum

Occupational respiratory diseases due to Asbestos. Dirk Dahmann, IGF, Bochum Occupational respiratory diseases due to Asbestos Dirk Dahmann, IGF, Bochum Contents Introduction Diseases Further Effects Preventive Strategies Conclusion Asbestos minerals Woitowitz, 2003 Imports (+

More information

Asbestos. Toxicological overview

Asbestos. Toxicological overview Asbestos Toxicological overview Kinetics and metabolism Key Points Short asbestos fibres are deposited in the upper respiratory tract where they are cleared by mucociliary action Longer fibres are carried

More information

National Asbestos Meeting June 23-24, 2011 Asbestos Exposure and Disease

National Asbestos Meeting June 23-24, 2011 Asbestos Exposure and Disease National Asbestos Meeting June 23-24, 2011 Asbestos Exposure and Disease Christopher P. Weis, Ph.D., DABT. Senior Toxicologist Office of the Director National Institute of Environmental Health Science

More information

Pathologist s Discussion of Plaintiffs Latest Theories

Pathologist s Discussion of Plaintiffs Latest Theories Pathologist s Discussion of Plaintiffs Latest Theories Mary Beth Beasley, MD Mt. Sinai Medical Center Annenberg Building 15th Floor Room 50 1468 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10029 (212) 241-5307 mbbeasleymd@yahoo.com

More information

Quantification of Non-Fibrous and Fibrous Particulates in Human Lungs: Twenty Year Update on Pneumoconiosis Database

Quantification of Non-Fibrous and Fibrous Particulates in Human Lungs: Twenty Year Update on Pneumoconiosis Database Ann. occup. Hyg., Vol. 46, Supplement 1, pp. 397 401, 2002 2002 British Occupational Hygiene Society Published by Oxford University Press DOI: 10.1093/annhyg/mef694 Quantification of Non-Fibrous and Fibrous

More information

CARCINOGENICITY TESTING OF ASBESTOS FIBRES - A PRELIMINARY STUDY

CARCINOGENICITY TESTING OF ASBESTOS FIBRES - A PRELIMINARY STUDY CARCINOGENICITY TESTING OF ASBESTOS FIBRES - A PRELIMINARY STUDY Extensive data is available on lung cancer and pleural mesothelioma caused by asbestos in man and animals. The object of the present work

More information

Remarks on the cancer risk values of 1,3-butadiene (draft Dutch Health Council 2012)

Remarks on the cancer risk values of 1,3-butadiene (draft Dutch Health Council 2012) Remarks on the cancer risk values of 1,3-butadiene (draft Dutch Health Council 2012) Author: Wil ten Berge Date: 19 January 2013 1 Introduction The Dutch Health Council (DHC) has issued a proposal for

More information

OPINION of the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety

OPINION of the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety The Director General Maisons-Alfort, France, 9 February 2009 OPINION of the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety Relating to "taking into account the dimensional criteria for

More information

Current Approaches in Risk-Based Evaluation of Chemical Carcinogens

Current Approaches in Risk-Based Evaluation of Chemical Carcinogens Current Approaches in Risk-Based Evaluation of Chemical Carcinogens Institut für Angewandte Biowissenschaften, Lebensmittelchemie und Toxikologie Prof. Dr. Andrea Hartwig Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

More information

Cancer Risk Factors in Ontario. Dusts and Fibres

Cancer Risk Factors in Ontario. Dusts and Fibres Cancer Risk Factors in Ontario Dusts and Fibres dusts ANd fibres risk factor/exposure Cancer The context where high risks were reported Magnitude of risk* Strength of evidence a Asbestos Larynx Occupational

More information

1) Aug 2005 In Vitro Chromosomal Aberration Study Cytotoxicity (File: TS39) Conclusion No cytotoxicity can be detected at concentrations up to 100%.

1) Aug 2005 In Vitro Chromosomal Aberration Study Cytotoxicity (File: TS39) Conclusion No cytotoxicity can be detected at concentrations up to 100%. Endotoxicity and Cytotoxicity Studies 1) Aug 2005 In Vitro Chromosomal Aberration Study Cytotoxicity (File: TS39) Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were grown in monolayer with and without metabolic activation.

More information

PROPOSED. State of California AIR RESOURCES BOARD

PROPOSED. State of California AIR RESOURCES BOARD PROPOSED State of California AIR RESOURCES BOARD Co-Exposure to Particulate Matter and Ozone: Pulmonary C-Fiber and Platelet in Activation Decreased Heart Rate Variability RESEARCH PROPOSAL Resolution

More information

Health effects of particulate matter and implications for policy in Europe

Health effects of particulate matter and implications for policy in Europe Health effects of particulate matter and implications for policy in Europe Marie-Eve Héroux Technical Officer, Air Quality and Noise WHO European Centre for Environment and Health Bonn, Germany Presentation

More information

The British Occupational Hygiene Society Faculty of Occupational Hygiene INTERNATIONAL MODULE SYLLABUS W504 ASBESTOS AND OTHER FIBRES

The British Occupational Hygiene Society Faculty of Occupational Hygiene INTERNATIONAL MODULE SYLLABUS W504 ASBESTOS AND OTHER FIBRES The British Occupational Hygiene Society Faculty of Occupational Hygiene INTERNATIONAL MODULE SYLLABUS W504 ASBESTOS AND OTHER FIBRES Aim: Learning Outcomes: This module enhances the student s knowledge

More information

Aberrations of chromosome 19 in asbestos-associated lung cancer and in asbestos-induced micronuclei of bronchial epithelial cells in vitro

Aberrations of chromosome 19 in asbestos-associated lung cancer and in asbestos-induced micronuclei of bronchial epithelial cells in vitro Carcinogenesis vol.29 no.5 pp.913 917, 2008 doi:10.1093/carcin/bgn068 Advance Access publication March 13, 2008 Aberrations of chromosome 19 in asbestos-associated lung cancer and in asbestos-induced micronuclei

More information

Current Usage and Health Significance of the Modern Use of Chrysotile Products: Review of Recently Published Evidence

Current Usage and Health Significance of the Modern Use of Chrysotile Products: Review of Recently Published Evidence Current Usage and Health Significance of the Modern Use of Chrysotile Products: Review of Recently Published Evidence John Hoskins Health & Safety Consultant, Haslemere, Surrey, UK ASBESTOS SERPENTINE

More information

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES Division of Extramural Research and Training

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES Division of Extramural Research and Training NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES Division of Extramural Research and Training NATIONAL ADVISORY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES COUNCIL May 12-13, 2010 Concept Clearance Small Business

More information

Influence of Asbestos on the Uptake of Benzo(a)pyrene Alkylation in Hamster Trachea! Epithelial Cells1

Influence of Asbestos on the Uptake of Benzo(a)pyrene Alkylation in Hamster Trachea! Epithelial Cells1 [CANCER RESEARCH 43. 1251-1255, March 1983] 0008-5472/83/0043-OOOOS02.00 Influence of Asbestos on the Uptake of Benzo(a)pyrene Alkylation in Hamster Trachea! Epithelial Cells1 and DMA Alan Eastman,2 Brooke

More information

Genotoxicity of chrysotile asbestos on Allium cepa L. meristematic root tip cells

Genotoxicity of chrysotile asbestos on Allium cepa L. meristematic root tip cells Genotoxicity of chrysotile asbestos on Allium cepa L. meristematic root tip cells RESEARCH ARTICLES A. K. Trivedi 1,2, * and I. Ahmad 1 1 Fibre Toxicology Division, CSIR Indian Institute of Toxicology

More information

Pharmacology of the Respiratory Tract: COPD and Steroids

Pharmacology of the Respiratory Tract: COPD and Steroids Pharmacology of the Respiratory Tract: COPD and Steroids Dr. Tillie-Louise Hackett Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics University of British Columbia Associate Head, Centre of Heart

More information

19/03/2012 Toxicologicalcharacterizationof PM10: case study Genk-Zuid. R. Van Den Heuvel

19/03/2012 Toxicologicalcharacterizationof PM10: case study Genk-Zuid. R. Van Den Heuvel 19/03/2012 Toxicologicalcharacterizationof PM10: case study Genk-Zuid. R. Van Den Heuvel Introduction» Assessment of potential risk to human health associated with environmental air» Fysico-chemical characterization»

More information

Biological importance of metabolites. Safety and efficacy aspects

Biological importance of metabolites. Safety and efficacy aspects Biological importance of metabolites Safety and efficacy aspects Bernard Walther Technologie Servier Biological importance of metabolites Safety testing of drug metabolites Bioanalytical strategy Structural

More information

Criteria for Attributing Lung Cancer to Asbestos Exposure

Criteria for Attributing Lung Cancer to Asbestos Exposure Criteria for Attributing Lung Cancer to Asbestos Exposure Philip T. Cagle, MD The article by Mollo and coworkers 1 examines the criteria for attribution of lung cancers to asbestos exposure, suggesting

More information

Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) General Overview

Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) General Overview Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) General Overview Lee R. Shull PhD Health, Ecology and Risk Practice MWH Global Sacramento, CA CASH NOA Workshop January 24, 2006 Presentation Outline Brief background

More information

Human Adult Mesothelial Cell Manual

Human Adult Mesothelial Cell Manual Human Adult Mesothelial Cell Manual INSTRUCTION MANUAL ZBM0025.01 SHIPPING CONDITIONS Human Adult Mesothelial Cells Orders are delivered via Federal Express courier. All US and Canada orders are shipped

More information

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HARMONISATION OF TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS FOR HUMAN USE S2(R1)

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HARMONISATION OF TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS FOR HUMAN USE S2(R1) INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HARMONISATION OF TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS FOR HUMAN USE ICH HARMONISED TRIPARTITE GUIDELINE GUIDANCE ON GENOTOXICITY TESTING AND DATA INTERPRETATION

More information

Biological effects of naturally occurring and man-made fibres: in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenesis in mammalian cells

Biological effects of naturally occurring and man-made fibres: in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenesis in mammalian cells British Journal of Cancer (1999) 79(9/10), 1319 1324 1999 Cancer Research Campaign Article no. bjoc.1998.0213 Biological effects of naturally occurring and man-made fibres: in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenesis

More information

ASBESTOS AWARENESS. For workers and building occupants

ASBESTOS AWARENESS. For workers and building occupants ASBESTOS AWARENESS For workers and building occupants Asbestos Awareness Asbestos is a serious health hazard commonly found in our environment today. This module is designed to provide an overview of asbestos

More information

D.M. Bernstein * WHO review Page 1 of 8

D.M. Bernstein * WHO review Page 1 of 8 A review of the WHO s document on the adverse health effects of exposure to asbestos and WHO's recommendations on the prevention of asbestos-related diseases D.M. Bernstein * The WHO s Programme on Occupational

More information

The Need for a PARP in vivo Pharmacodynamic Assay

The Need for a PARP in vivo Pharmacodynamic Assay The Need for a PARP in vivo Pharmacodynamic Assay Jay George, Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer, Trevigen, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD For further infomation, please contact: William Booth, Ph.D. Tel: +44 (0)1235

More information

An Overview of Cells and Cell Research

An Overview of Cells and Cell Research An Overview of Cells and Cell Research 1 An Overview of Cells and Cell Research Chapter Outline Model Species and Cell types Cell components Tools of Cell Biology Model Species E. Coli: simplest organism

More information

Risk assessment and regulation of tattoo inks in the EU

Risk assessment and regulation of tattoo inks in the EU Risk assessment and regulation of tattoo inks in the EU Paul Janssen Current situation: Tattoo application in a regulatory vacuum : Is not a medical treatment Is not a cosmetic treatment No EU-regulation

More information

All About Asbestos. Read this booklet to learn more about:

All About Asbestos. Read this booklet to learn more about: All About Asbestos Read this booklet to learn more about: identifying asbestos-containing material in you home the health risks of asbestos what you can do about asbestos. What Is Asbestos? Asbestos is

More information

THE TIMES OF OCCURRENCE OF MESOTHELIOMAS IN RATS FOLLOWING INOCULATION WITH ASBESTOS

THE TIMES OF OCCURRENCE OF MESOTHELIOMAS IN RATS FOLLOWING INOCULATION WITH ASBESTOS 582 THE APPLICATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL DESCRIBING THE TIMES OF OCCURRENCE OF MESOTHELIOMAS IN RATS FOLLOWING INOCULATION WITH ASBESTOS G. BERRY AND J. C. WAGNER From the Medical Research Council's

More information

Safety Report of GelRed and GelGreen

Safety Report of GelRed and GelGreen Safety Report of GelRed and GelGreen A Summary of Mutagenicity and Environmental Safety Test Results from Three Independent Laboratories Last updated: October 16, 2013 Overview Ethidium bromide (EB) has

More information

Chapter 8. Summary and Perspectives

Chapter 8. Summary and Perspectives Chapter 8 Summary and Perspectives 131 Chapter 8 Summary Overexpression of the multidrug resistance protein MRP1 confer multidrug resistance (MDR) to cancer cells. The contents of this thesis describe

More information

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF THE COMPOUND RIBOXYL ON THE ATP LEVEL AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION FROM HUMAN DERMAL FIBROBLASTS

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF THE COMPOUND RIBOXYL ON THE ATP LEVEL AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION FROM HUMAN DERMAL FIBROBLASTS EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF THE COMPOUND RIBOXYL ON THE ATP LEVEL AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION FROM HUMAN DERMAL FIBROBLASTS FINAL REPORT OF THE STUDY GT050923 Study promoter: LUCAS MEYER COSMETICS ZA Les

More information

Investigating cells. Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells).

Investigating cells. Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells). SG Biology Summary notes Investigating cells Sub-topic a: Investigating living cells Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells). Cells

More information

Asbestos. General information

Asbestos. General information Asbestos General information Key Points Fire Non flammable and non combustible under normal conditions Chemically inert under normal conditions. Resistant to most solvents, acids and alkalis In the event

More information

Asbestos: health effects and risk. Peter Franklin Senior Scientific Officer, EHD Senior Research Fellow, UWA

Asbestos: health effects and risk. Peter Franklin Senior Scientific Officer, EHD Senior Research Fellow, UWA Asbestos: health effects and risk Peter Franklin Senior Scientific Officer, EHD Senior Research Fellow, UWA What is asbestos Naturally occurring mineral that has crystallised to form long thin fibres and

More information

Pulmonary interstitium. Interstitial Lung Disease. Interstitial lung disease. Interstitial lung disease. Causes.

Pulmonary interstitium. Interstitial Lung Disease. Interstitial lung disease. Interstitial lung disease. Causes. Pulmonary interstitium Interstitial Lung Disease Alveolar lining cells (types 1 and 2) Thin elastin-rich connective component containing capillary blood vessels Interstitial lung disease Increase in interstitial

More information

Section 4. Toxicology

Section 4. Toxicology Section 4 Toxicology Occupational Health Any chemical you use incorrectly can result in over-exposure leading to adverse health effects immediately or in the future. All hazardous materials can be handled

More information

Producing Analytical Data, Microscopy and Analytical Procedures

Producing Analytical Data, Microscopy and Analytical Procedures 1 The Role of Fiber Analysis in Asbestos Induced Lung Disease: TEM vs. SEM. Is There Controversy Elizabeth N. Pavlisko, M.D., Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center I. Introduction to

More information

- Compensation issues

- Compensation issues Charité- Universitätsmedizin Berlin Institut für Arbeitsmedizin Prof. Dr. med. X. Baur Prevention, recognition and compensation of asbestosinduced diseases (AD) - Which diseases are asbestos-related? -

More information

Cell Phone Radiation and Genomic Damage: In Vitro Exposure and Assessment

Cell Phone Radiation and Genomic Damage: In Vitro Exposure and Assessment Cell Phone Radiation and Genomic Damage: In Vitro Exposure and Assessment Chinar Shah 1, Anu Nair 1, Mehul Naik 2, Sonal Bakshi 3 Institute of Science, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India 1 Electronics

More information

Malignant Mesothelioma

Malignant Mesothelioma Malignant Malignant mesothelioma is a tumour originating from mesothelial cells. 85 95% of mesotheliomas are caused by asbestos exposure. It occurs much more commonly in the chest (malignant pleural mesothelioma)

More information

Malignant Mesothelioma

Malignant Mesothelioma Malignant mesothelioma is a tumour originating from mesothelial cells. 85 95% of mesotheliomas are caused by asbestos exposure. It occurs much more commonly in the chest (malignant pleural mesothelioma)

More information

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Page 1 of 6 1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE SUBSTANCE/PREPARATION AND THE COMPANY/UNDERTAKING Pfizer Inc Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Group 235 East 42nd Street New York, New York 10017 1-212-573-2222 Emergency telephone

More information

ASBESTOS FIBRES IN THE LUNGS OF CHRYSOTILE MINERS AND MILLERS A PRELIMINARY REPORT

ASBESTOS FIBRES IN THE LUNGS OF CHRYSOTILE MINERS AND MILLERS A PRELIMINARY REPORT Ann. occup. llyy.. Vol.. Mos. I 4. pp. 4-4. 98. Primed in Great Bnlain. Inhaled Panicles V 0003 4878/8,004-OSO3.00/O Pergamon Press Lid. (' 98 British Occupational Hygiene Society. ASBESTOS FIBRES IN THE

More information

Testimony of. Dr. James Crapo. April 26, 2005

Testimony of. Dr. James Crapo. April 26, 2005 Testimony of Dr. James Crapo April 26, 2005 Written Statement of Dr. James D. Crapo, Professor of Medicine, National Jewish Medical and Research Center and University of Colorado Health Sciences Center

More information

HANDLING LUNG CANCER CLAIMS

HANDLING LUNG CANCER CLAIMS HANDLING LUNG CANCER CLAIMS JENNIFER S. KILPATRICK SWANSON, MARTIN & BELL, LLP 330 North Wabash Avenue Suite 3300 Chicago, Illinois 60611-3604 (312) 321-3517 (312) 321-0990 jkilpatrick@smbtrials.com 1

More information

ASBESTOS AWARENESS TRAINING. For workers and building occupants

ASBESTOS AWARENESS TRAINING. For workers and building occupants University of Nevada, Reno ASBESTOS AWARENESS TRAINING PROGRAM For workers and building occupants John A Braun, CSP Asbestos Awareness OSHA Standards for Asbestos are: 29 CFR 1910.1001 applies to all occupational

More information

Asbestos & Cancer: An Update. Suresh H. Moolgavkar, M.D., Ph.D.

Asbestos & Cancer: An Update. Suresh H. Moolgavkar, M.D., Ph.D. Asbestos & Cancer: An Update Suresh H. Moolgavkar, M.D., Ph.D. Fiber Type and Cancer Epidemiological data clearly indicate that not all fiber types have the same potency as carcinogens. With respect to

More information

The Impact of Polyphenolic Compounds on Apoptosis in Epithelial Cells

The Impact of Polyphenolic Compounds on Apoptosis in Epithelial Cells The Impact of Polyphenolic Compounds on Apoptosis in Epithelial Cells Mayson Husband, 12 th grade, Latta High School Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether polyphenolic compounds

More information

Toxicity of Amphibole Asbestos

Toxicity of Amphibole Asbestos Toxicity of Amphibole Asbestos Disclaimer: The material presented in these slides has been reviewed by the U.S. EPA and approved for presentation. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily

More information

Mesothelioma. Mesothelioma and Asbestos 11/21/2009

Mesothelioma. Mesothelioma and Asbestos 11/21/2009 Mesothelioma Michele Carbone, M.D.,PH.D. Director Cancer Research Center of Hawaii Professor and Chairman, Dept. of Pathology J.A. Burns Medical School University of Hawaii Honolulu, HI 96813 Mesotheliomas

More information

Phytic Acid, an Iron Chelator, Attenuates Pulmonary

Phytic Acid, an Iron Chelator, Attenuates Pulmonary Phytic Acid, an Iron Chelator, Attenuates Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis in Rats after Intratracheal Instillation of Asbestos * DAVID W. KAMP, 1VATCHE A. ISRABIAN, 1ANJANA V. YELDANDI, 3 RALPH J.

More information

EXPOSURE OF FIRE INVESTIGATORS TO THE PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION

EXPOSURE OF FIRE INVESTIGATORS TO THE PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION 1 EXPOSURE OF FIRE INVESTIGATORS TO THE PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION Chris Szpara Eastern Michigan University School of Fire Staff and Command August 22, 2003 2 ABSTRACT The purpose of this research paper was

More information

NISG Asbestos. Caroline Kirton

NISG Asbestos. Caroline Kirton NISG Asbestos Caroline Kirton 1 The Control of Asbestos Regulations 2012, Regulation 10 requires every employer to ensure that adequate information, instruction and training is given to their employees

More information

ASBESTOS CEMENT DRINKING WATER PIPES AND POSSIBLE HEALTH RISKS REVIEW FOR DWI PUBLISHED MAY 2002

ASBESTOS CEMENT DRINKING WATER PIPES AND POSSIBLE HEALTH RISKS REVIEW FOR DWI PUBLISHED MAY 2002 ASBESTOS CEMENT DRINKING WATER PIPES AND POSSIBLE HEALTH RISKS REVIEW FOR DWI PUBLISHED MAY 2002 ASBESTOS CEMENT DRINKING WATER PIPES AND POSSIBLE HEALTH RISKS REVIEW FOR DWI Report for Contract 70/2/135

More information

Carcinogens in the Construction Industry

Carcinogens in the Construction Industry Carcinogens in the Construction Industry BENGT JÄRVHOLM Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden ABSTRACT: The construction industry is a complex work

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

Disease/Illness GUIDE TO ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER. What Is Asbestos Lung Cancer? www.simpsonmillar.co.uk Telephone 0844 858 3200

Disease/Illness GUIDE TO ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER. What Is Asbestos Lung Cancer? www.simpsonmillar.co.uk Telephone 0844 858 3200 GUIDE TO ASBESTOS LUNG CANCER What Is Asbestos Lung Cancer? Like tobacco smoking, exposure to asbestos can result in the development of lung cancer. Similarly, the risk of developing asbestos induced lung

More information

LECTURES IN OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES

LECTURES IN OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES LECTURES IN OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES الدكتورة سجال فاضل فرھود الجبوري M.B.Ch.B.(Babylon University) M.Sc.(Community Medicine-Al Nahrain) Asbestosis Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting

More information

What is Asbestos? Asbestos was also used in household items, such as: oven gloves ironing board pads simmer mats for stoves fire blankets.

What is Asbestos? Asbestos was also used in household items, such as: oven gloves ironing board pads simmer mats for stoves fire blankets. All About Asbestos Read this booklet to learn more about: identifying asbestos-containing material in your home the health risks of asbestos what you can do about asbestos. What is Asbestos? Asbestos is

More information

Lack of Interaction between Asbestos Exposure and Glutathione S-Transferase M1 and T1 Genotypes in Lung Carcinogenesis

Lack of Interaction between Asbestos Exposure and Glutathione S-Transferase M1 and T1 Genotypes in Lung Carcinogenesis Vol. 10, 1253 1258, December 2001 Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 1253 Lack of Interaction between Asbestos Exposure and Glutathione S-Transferase M1 and T1 Genotypes in Lung Carcinogenesis

More information

Mechanism of short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequencies. Biochemistry Journal. August 1, 2007 405, pp.

Mechanism of short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequencies. Biochemistry Journal. August 1, 2007 405, pp. Mechanism of short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequencies 1 Biochemistry Journal August 1, 2007 405, pp. 559 568 Joseph Friedman, Sarah Kraus, Yirmi Hauptman, Yoni Schiff

More information

Primary reason asbestos is used, is its special resistance to heat. Asbestos fibers are also virtually indestructible.

Primary reason asbestos is used, is its special resistance to heat. Asbestos fibers are also virtually indestructible. ASBESTOS AWARENESS Asbestos Awareness Asbestos is a serious health hazard commonly found in our environment today. This module is designed to provide initial education of asbestos and its associated hazards.

More information

Routine Assessment of Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity in a Novel Three Dimensional Culture Assay. Introduction

Routine Assessment of Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity in a Novel Three Dimensional Culture Assay. Introduction Routine Assessment of Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity in a Novel Three Dimensional Culture Assay Application Note 2 Introduction Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for around 7.6 million

More information

Costs of air pollution from European industrial facilities 2008 2012 an updated assessment

Costs of air pollution from European industrial facilities 2008 2012 an updated assessment Costs of air pollution from European industrial facilities 2008 2012 an updated assessment Summary In 2012, air pollution from European industrial facilities cost at least EUR 59 billion (and up to EUR

More information

Scientific Update on Safe Use of Asbestos. Robert P. Nolan, PhD International Environmental Research Foundation New York, New York www.ierfinc.

Scientific Update on Safe Use of Asbestos. Robert P. Nolan, PhD International Environmental Research Foundation New York, New York www.ierfinc. Scientific Update on Safe Use of Asbestos Robert P. Nolan, PhD International Environmental Research Foundation New York, New York www.ierfinc.org When We Talk about Asbestos What Do We Mean? Anthophyllite

More information

Guidance for Industry Safety Testing of Drug Metabolites

Guidance for Industry Safety Testing of Drug Metabolites Guidance for Industry Safety Testing of Drug Metabolites U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) February 2008 Pharmacology

More information

The Management of Asbestos at the University of Manitoba

The Management of Asbestos at the University of Manitoba The Management of Asbestos at the University of Manitoba WHAT IS ASBESTOS? Asbestos is a name given to a group of minerals which occur naturally as masses of long silky fibres. Asbestos is known for its

More information

Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis to Identify Priority Carcinogens

Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis to Identify Priority Carcinogens Priorities to Reduce Environmental Cancer Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis to Identify Priority Carcinogens Bernard W. Stewart Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales and Cancer Control Program,

More information

Francine Lortie-Monette, MD, MSc, CSPQ, MBA Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics University of Western Ontario 2003

Francine Lortie-Monette, MD, MSc, CSPQ, MBA Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics University of Western Ontario 2003 ASBESTOS Francine Lortie-Monette, MD, MSc, CSPQ, MBA Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics University of Western Ontario 2003 Asbestosis Asbestosis is a model for other dust diseases as well as

More information

Talcum Powder and Cancer

Talcum Powder and Cancer Talcum Powder and Cancer What is talcum powder? Talcum powder is made from talc, a mineral made up mainly of the elements magnesium, silicon, and oxygen. As a powder, it absorbs moisture well and helps

More information

485 Adopted: 23 Oct 1986

485 Adopted: 23 Oct 1986 OECD GUIDELINE FOR TESTING OF CHEMICALS 485 Adopted: 23 Oct 1986 "Genetic Toxicology: Mouse Heritable 1. I N T R O D U C T O R Y I N F O R M A T I O N P r e r e q u i s i t e s Solid, liquid, vapour or

More information

Knipholone anthrone from Kniphofia foliosa induces a rapid onset of necrotic cell death in cancer cells

Knipholone anthrone from Kniphofia foliosa induces a rapid onset of necrotic cell death in cancer cells Knipholone anthrone from Kniphofia foliosa induces a rapid onset of necrotic cell death in cancer cells Fitoterapia, 11/18/2010 Habtemariam S The present study examines the comparative cytotoxicity of

More information