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1 Article "Effects of soil insecticide treatments on northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi [Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae] populations and on corn yield" D. Cormier et P. Martel Phytoprotection, vol. 78, n 2, 1997, p Pour citer cet article, utiliser l'adresse suivante : Note : les règles d'écriture des références bibliographiques peuvent varier selon les différents domaines du savoir. Ce document est protégé par la loi sur le droit d'auteur. L'utilisation des services d'érudit (y compris la reproduction) est assujettie à sa politique d'utilisation que vous pouvez consulter à l'uri Érudit est un consortium interuniversitaire sans but lucratif composé de l'université de Montréal, l'université Laval et l'université du Québec à Montréal. Il a pour mission la promotion et la valorisation de la recherche. Érudit offre des services d'édition numérique de documents scientifiques depuis Pour communiquer avec les responsables d'érudit : Document téléchargé le 14 février :41

2 Effects of soil insecticide treatments on northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi [Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae], populations and on corn yield Daniel Cormier and Pierre Martel 1 Received ; acceptée! A 3-yr field study was conducted to détermine the effects of three soilapplied insecticides on northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) populations. In each plot, an émergence cage was placed over a corn (Zea mays) plant, and adult populations were monitored weekly. Larval damage to corn roots was evaluated and corn yield was recorded at the end of the growing season. Insecticide treatments significantly reduced the number of emerging adults in the first yr, but no différence was observed in the following yr. Root strength was negatively correlated to the number of emerging adults per plant. Each yr, corn yields in treated plots did not differ significantly from yield in untreated plots, which suggests that insecticide treatments can reduce the number of emerging adults without increasing yields. [Effets de traitements insecticides de sol sur les populations de la chrysomèle des racines du maïs, Diabrotica barberi [Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae]] Durant 3 ans, des essais au champ ont permis d'évaluer les effets de trois insecticides appliqués au sol lors des semis sur les populations de la chrysomèle des racines du maïs [Diabrotica barberi). Dans chacune des parcelles, une cage d'émergence a été placée au-dessus d'un plant de maïs {Zea mays) et les populations d'adultes ont été suivies hebdomadairement. Les dommages faits par les larves aux racines de maïs ont été évalués et le rendement en grains a été déterminé à la fin de la saison de croissance des plantes. Les traitements insecticides ont réduit significativement le nombre d'adultes émergeant durant la première année seulement. La force d'arrachage était reliée négativement au nombre d'adultes émergeant par plant. Chaque année le rendement en grains des parcelles traitées n'était pas significativement différent de celui des parcelles non traitées. Les traitements insecticides peuvent donc réduire le nombre d'adultes émergeant sans toutefois augmenter les rendements. INTRODUCTION The northern corn rootworm (NCR), Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence [Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae] and west- ern corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte [Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae], are the most serious pests of corn, Zea mays L., in the Midwestern United States (Levine and Oloumi-Sadeghi 1991). The NCR was 1. Centre de recherche et de développement en horticulture, Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada, 430, boul. Gouin, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu (Québec), Canada J3B 3E6. Contribution no. 335/ R 67

3 first mentioned in Québec in 1938 (Chagnon 1938). It was reported on corn in the Napierville area in 1975 (Guibord 1976) and is now found each yr in fairly large numbers throughout southwestern Québec. From 1975 to 1992 corn acreage in Québec increased from ha to over ha, an increase of over 500% which is responsible for the increased NCR population. Growers changed their crop rotation practices, growing corn on the same fields for more than 1 yr. This cropping practice and the increased acreage created favorable conditionsforthe rapid increase in rootworm populations (Chiang 1973). In Midwestern United States in 1977, 90% of the fields seeded to corn for more than 1 yr were treated with insecticides for corn rootworm (Foster et al. 1982). In Québec corn growers began to treat their corn fields in early 1980's despite no knowledge of the rootworm population densities and distribution among fields or its impact on yield. This study was designed to détermine rootworm population densities and if insecticide applications resuit in higheryields by protecting the roots from larval damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted from 1981 to 1983 in a field at the L'Acadie Expérimental Farm, L'Acadie (lat ' N, long ' W), Québec, where corn was planted in 1980 to ensure adéquate rootworm infestation (Hill and Mayo 1974). Soil type in the expérimental area was a Sainte Rosalie clay (60% clay, 20% silt, and 20% sand, with 4% organ- j ic matter). The test plots were seeded w with the corn hybrid Pioneer 3950 at a ^ rate of seeds per ha on the first O wkof May in 1981 and 1982, and on the {3 third wk of May in A standard w Buffalo four-row seeder and a driving- O wheel insecticide applicator were used. o_ Granular insecticides tested were f Furadan 10G (carbofuran; 2,3-dihydro- ^ 2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methyl- - carbamate), Thimet 15G (phorate; O, O-diethyl S-ethylthiomethyl phosphorodithioate) and Counter 15G (terbufos; S-(tert-butylthiomethyl) O,O-diethyl phosphorodithioate) applied atthe rate of 1 kg a.i. ha 1. Thimet 15G and Counter 15G are still registered in Québec to control NCR. In 1981 and 1982, plots were arranged in a randomized complète block design with blocks parallel to a road. Because no block effects were observed during thèse yr, we used a completely randomized design in Each yr, treatments were replicated four times. Plots were 3 m wide by 12 m long and consisted of 4 rows planted 75 cm apart with a plant spacing of 20 cm. To maintain high populations of rootworms, part of the field was planted each yr at the end of June in order to hâve fresh silk to attract ovipositing NCR adults in mid-august. Adult populations were monitored with émergence cages designed by Fisher (1980). In each plot, a cage (90 cm long by 15 cm wide) was placed over a plant located in one of the center rows. Each cage was placed perpendicular to the row and enclosed the area of one corn plant. Cages were placed in the field on 23 July 1981, 30 June 1982, and on 14 July 1983 and were removed on 29 September 1981, 20 September 1982, and on 11 October After adult émergence had begun, beetles were removed from cages and counted once or twice per wk until the end of the émergence perîod. Root strength of the plants was determined by pulling the plant vertically and recording the force required to remove the plant from the soil. This technique has been accepted as an adéquate measure of larval damage to the roots of the corn plants (Donovan et al. 1982; Ortman et al. 1968). The apparatus used to pull the corn plants from the soil was modified from the one described by Ortman et al. (1968). Plants were eut about 50 cm above the ground and the leaves were removed from the stub. A Kelms Grip was attached to the stub and to the bottom of a 200 kgcapacity dynamometer that was connected to the hydraulic System of a tractor. Depending on the corn stalk, grips of 2.5 and 4.75 cm in diameter were used. In each plot, the root strength of 68

4 CORMIER, MARTEL : NORTHERN CORN ROOTWORM 20 plants was recorded on 20 July At this date, it was assumed that populations of third instars had peaked and that most of the corn rootworm damage was done (Dominique and Yule 1984; Zuber et al. 1971). Since the maximum weight of the dynamometer was 200 kg, higher pulling weights were recorded as 100% and lower weights were assigned proportional values of this maximum. The apparatus was only available for testing root strength in Plants were harvested by hand from the two middle rows of each plot on 20 October 1981, 26 October 1982, and 26 October The seed was removed from harvested ears and weighed. The moisture content of the seed was determined and the final yield was reported as kg per ha of 15% moistureequivalent grain. Because soil moisture may influence the effectiveness of NCR control with soil insecticides (Getzin 1981; Gorder et al. 1982), data on précipitation were recorded daily at the meteorological station at L'Acadie, about 100 m from the expérimental plots. The number of adults per cage (X) and the relative values of plant root strength (Y) were transformed by log (X + 1 ) and arcsin Jv~ f to reduce dependence of variances on means (Sokal and Rohlf 1981). According to the expérimental design, either a one-way or a two-way Anova was performed (Proc GLM, SAS Institute, 1985). Significance among means was determined by Fisher's protected least significant différence test (PLSD) (P =0.05). Linear régression analysis was employed to quantify the relationship between root strength, corn yield and the number of NCR adult émergence. Ail values are presented as untransformed means ± SD. RESULTS Adult émergence was reduced among insecticide treatments in 1981 (F 35 = 6.66 P = 0.034) and in 1983 (F 312 '= 3.79 P= 0.040) but not in 1982 (F 39 = P= 0.562) (Table 1). The highest num ber of adults found in 1981 and 1982 were in the control plots and in phorate treated plots in The number of adults found in the control plots in 1981 and 1982 were similar (F 15 = 0.351; P= 0.580) but were about 75% lower in 1983, except in phorate treated plots. Root strength was significantly higher in insecticide treatments (F 39 = 13.83; P= 0.001) (Table 1) and was n'egatively related to the number of emerging adults per plant (Fig. 1). Each yr, the number of adults was not related with corn yields (1981: F, 10 = 2.95; P= 0.117; 1982: F 1U = 0.01; P= 0.912; 1983: F, 14 = 0.14; P= 0.714). Table 1. Mean number of adults per cage and root strength of corn plants in insecticide treated plots located at L'Acadie, Québec Treatments Emerging adults plant 1 ± SD Root strength ± SD a 1981 Carbofuran 49 ± 6 ab 63 ± 51 a 12 ± 6 b 147 ± 39 b Terbufos 28 ± 19 c 55 ± 22 a 8 ± 6 b 169 ± 34 a Phorate 33 ± 10 bc 44 ± 14 a 39 ± 20 a 159 ± 36 ab Control 64 ± 15 a 72 ± 20 a 12 ± 7 b 117 ± 34 c a Mean vertical pulling weight (kg) per plant. Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly différent at P > 0.05 (Fisher's PLSD test). 69

5 200 _ 180 i 160 X 140 m 120 O 100 Z IJ 80 D a. i < O ÛC LU > 60 H 40 "I 20 0 y = X R = NUMBER OF EMERGING ADULTS 80 Figure 1. Relation of root strength (vertical pulling weight) with the number of northern corn rootworm adults emerging from plots in Corn yields each yr were not significantly différent between treatments (1981: F 39 = 0.01; P= 0.999; 1982: F 39 = 1.17; P= 0.373; 1983: F 312 = 1.20; P= 0.353) (Table 2). Yields Were lowest in 1982 and were highest in Cumulative précipitation from the time of insecticide applications to the end of July was higher in 1981 than in 1982 (Fig. 2). Différence in précipitation was mostly observed in June (JD151- JD171) and July (JD181-JD212), periods in which dryer conditions occurred in During that yr most of the précipitation occurred around mid-june (JD170) and end of July (JD210). Table 2. Mean yields of corn grain in insecticide treated plots located at L'Acadie, Québec, in 1981, 1982 and 1983 M2Ï1 Yi elds ± SD (t ha 1 ) CTION li YTO PROTE Treatments Carbofuran 6.10 ± 0.25 a 5.43 ± 0.28 a 6.33 ± 0.38 a Terbufos 5.69 ± 0.38 a 5.31 ± 0.09 a 6.57 ± 0.27 a Phorate 5.68 ± 0.18 a 5.49 ± 0.45 a 5.78 ± 0.67 a Control 5.74 ± 0.55 a 5.34 ± 0.14 a 5.95 ± 0.96 a Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly différent at P> 0.05 (Fisher's PLSD test). 70

6 CORMIER, MARTEL : NORTHERN CORN ROOTWORM JULIAN DATE 220 Figure 2. Cumulative précipitation during May, June and July in 1981 and DISCUSSION The différences in the survival of larvae andthusthe number of emerging adults in the insecticide treatments in 1981 and 1982 may hâve been caused by différences in the dégradation of the insecticides. Chemical dissolution of soil-applied insecticides is affected by soil moisture (Levine and Oloumi-Sadeghi 1991). In 1981, cumulative précipitation from the time of insecticide application to the end of July, when NCR larvae feed on corn roots, (Dominique and Yule 1984), was about twice that of Harris (1967) found that insect mortality due to insecticide treatment increased with soil moisture. The insecticidal effects in 1981 on the number of emerging adults may be caused by more available dissolved insecticides. Moreover, the drier conditions of 1982 may hâve increased insecticide adsorption to soil particles, which lessened availability for larval contact or uptake (Levine and Oloumi-Sadeghi 1991). In 1983, the low number of emerging adults compared with previous yr may be related to the severe winter. Northern corn rootworm eggs are sensitive to low température and survival is reduced to 15% at - 23 C (Patel and Apple 1967). At the L'Acadie Expérimental Farm, minimum air température reached -25 C on 11 February 1983 and egg survival may hâve been severely affected by this low température. In Québec, low températures combined with low snow cover during winter can increase NCR egg mortality to more than 80% (Matin and Yule 1984). Ortman et al. (1968) observed that root strength is related to the number of roots and the development of secondary roots. Although we did not observe root characteristics, our data indicated that as the number of emerging adults decreased, the root strength or root System development increased (r = 0.77, n = 12). The lowest number of adults emerged in the terbufos and phorate treated plots. Therefore, fewer 71

7 larvae attacked the roots of plants in thèse treatments compared with carbofuran treated or untreated plots, and resulted in a higher root strength for thèse plants. The relation between the number of adults with root strength was not observed with corn yields. This suggests that plants can recover from larval injury or the larval density in the plots was too low. Jackson (1996) also did not observe corn yields to be related to the number of WCR adults between treatments. Plots had to be infested with at least 1200 WCR eggs per plant in order to show a significant yield réduction (Chiang et al. 1980; Sutter et al. 1990). Since NCR causes less damage than WCR (Fisher 1985), an even higher level of infestation is needed to observe yield réduction. In Québec, about 6% of the eggs found in the soil in spring will complète their development (Matin 1983). At a density of 1200 eggs per corn plant, we can expect about 72 adults to émerge as observed in the control plot in Fewer adults emerged in ail other plots, explaining the lack of yield response to insecticide treatments. Spike and Tollefson (1989) showed that regrowth of injured roots increased at a plant density of per hectare. Since the plant density in our plots was plants per hectare, regrowth of corn plant roots may hâve been enhanced. In Québec, many growers are uncertain about the need to apply soil insecticides to control NCR (P. Lachance, Personal communication). Phorate and terbufos are two soil insecticides currently recommended to control NCR ^ larvae (CPVQ 1996). In our study, thèse g chemicals reduced the number of Z. emerging adults during one of the 3 yr but corn yields were not affected by S treatments. Therefore, we estimate that the population density of NCR near JZ L'Acadie, Québec, has below levels that y significantly reduce grain yields. The number of adults found in control plots g in 1983 suggest that low température O during winter maintain NCR populations > at low levels. However, a more serious J pest, the WCR, is présent in Ontario and New York State, two corn-growing areas adjacent to Québec (Foott and Timmins 1977; Shields et al. 1991). If the WCR moves into Québec, rootworms may become a serious problem, if damage caused by WCR adds to that by NCR. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The technical assistance of Jacques Daneau, Martine Deschênes and Danielle Choquette is gratefully acknowledged. REFERENCES Chagnon, G Contribution à l'étude des coléoptères de la Province de Québec. Nat. Can. 65 : 19. Chiang, H.C Bionomics of the northern and western corn rootworms. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 18 : Chiang, H.C, L.K. French, and D.E. Rasimussen Quantitative relationship between western corn rootworm population and corn yield. J. Econ. Entomol. 73 : CPVQ Maïs grain et fourrager. Pages in Conseil des productions végétales du Québec inc. (éd.), Répertoire des traitements de protection des cultures Québec. Dominique, C.R., and W.N. Yule Bionomics of the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica longicornis (Say) (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae), in Québec. Rev. Entomol. Que. 29 : Donovan, L.S., P. Jui, M. Kloek, and CF. Nicholls An improved method of measuring root strength in corn {Zea mays L). Can. J. Plant Sci. 62 : Fisher, J.R A modified émergence trap for quantitative adult corn rootworm studies. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 53 : Fisher, J.R Comparison of controlled infestations of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and Diabrotica barberi (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae) on corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 78: Foott, W.H., and P.R. Timmins Observations on new insect pests of grain corn in Essex County, Ontario. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ont. 108: Foster, R.E., J.J. Tollefson, and K.L. Steffer Sequential sampling plans for adult corn rootworms. J. Econ. Entomol. 75 :

8 CORMIER, MARTEL : NORTHERN CORN ROOTWORM Getzin, L.W Dissipation of chlorpyrifos from dry soil surfaces. J. Econ. Entomol. 74: Gorder, G.W., P.A. Dahm, and J.J. Tollefson Carbofuran persistence in cornfield soils. J. Econ. Entomoi. 75: Guibord, M.O'c La chrysomèle des racines du maïs, Diabrotica longicornis (Say), au Québec. Ann. Soc. Entomoi. Que. 21 : Harris, C.R Further studies on the influence of soil moisture on the toxicity of insecticides in soil. J. Econ. Entomoi. 60: Hill, R.E., and Z.B. Mayo Trap-corn to control rootworms. J. Econ. Entomoi. 67 : Jackson, J.J Field performance of entomopathogenic nematodes for suppression of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae). J. Econ. Entomoi. 89 : Levine, E., and H. Oloumi-Sadeghi Management of diabroticite rootworms in corn. Annu. Rev. Entomoi. 36: Matin, M.A Development and application of population sampling methods for the stages of northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica longicornis (Say) (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae) in Québec corn fields. Ph.D. thesis, McGill University. Montréal, Québec. 303 pp. Matin, M.A., and W.N. Yule Population fluctuations of northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae) in a Québec cornfield. Rev. Entomoi. Que. 29 : Ortman, E.E., D.C. Peters, and P.J. Fitzgerald Vertical-pull technique for evaluating tolérance of corn root Systems to northern and western corn rootworms. J. Econ. Entomoi. 61 : Patel, K.K., and J.W. Apple Ecological studies on the eggs of the northern corn rootworm. J. Econ. Entomoi. 60 : SAS Institute SAS users' guide : statistics. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA. 956 pp. Shields, E.J., R.B. Sher, and P.S. Taylor Sequential sampling plan for northern and western corn rootworms (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae) in New York. J. Econ. Entomoi. 84: Sokal, R.R., and F.J. Rohlf Biometry : the principles and practice of statistics in biological research. 2 nd éd. W.H. Freeman Company, New York. 859 pp. Spike, B.P., and J.J. Tollefson Relationship of root rating, root size, and root regrowth to yield of corn injured by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae). J. Econ. Entomoi. 82 : Sutter, G.R., J.R. Fisher, N.C. Elliott, and T.F. Branson Effect of insecticide treatments on roots lodging and yields of maize in controlled infestations of western corn rootworms (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae). J. Econ. Entomoi. 83: Zuber, M.S., G.J. Musick, and M.L. Fairchild A method of evaluating corn strains for tolérance to the western corn rootworm. J. Econ. Entomoi. 64 :

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