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1 Proxy firewalls

2 Content Proxy Firewalls How Proxy Firewalls Work Forward / Reverse Proxies Application-Level Proxies Gateways (Circuit-Level Proxies) Protocols and Tools (SOCKS, PORTUS)

3 How proxy firewalls work Proxy acts on behalf of both the inside client and the outside server Proxy server runs few programs that can be secured and trusted

4 How proxy firewalls work Proxy interacts with its internal address on behalf of the external server as listener Proxy interacts with ist external address on behalf of the internal client as initiator Client and server never interact directly with each other Forwarding is disabled on the proxy server Intransparent Proxy firewalls require special clients or special configured networks

5 Proxy firewall - example 1. User requests an HTTP resource 3. Client software forwards the request to proxy 5. Proxy makes connection and acts as client by requesting the HTTP resource from the server 7. All ongoing traffic being routed between internal user and external system is processed through the proxy

6 Bastion hosts Since the proxy server is visible from the outside network it has to be hardened against attacks Proxy servers are usually dual-homed (two network interfaces) No direct connection - IP forwarding is disabled Internal structure of the network remains veiled for any outside party Passive fingerprinting impossible (OS detection by studying default settings of packets, such as TTL, window size, TCP options) Bastion host provides only essential services, providing maximum security

7 Forward / reverse proxy Forward proxy: Dominant form of proxies Connection initiated by internal client Reverse proxy: Connection initiated by external client Used to secure services - all inbound traffic is being monitored by the proxy

8 Application-level proxy Implemented for each service Policies permit particular traffic, such as Particular users (impossible with transparent firewalls) Particular addresses Particular computers

9 Circuit-level proxy Packet filtering inside the proxy is based on more specific rules Content will be examined Catchwords Size Viruses Data type Image detection Passwords Scheduled connections (times) Authentication / credentials

10 Advantages Internal structure / topology is shielded from the external world Traffic can be easily monitored User-based security is possible / authentication can be implemented Prevents spoofing (proxy generates entire traffic for the outer side)

11 Disadvantages Performance reduction Single point of failure Application specific proxies have to be developed Software has to be adapted Bastion host has to be hardened

12 Proxy firewalls and encrypted traffic IPSec End-to-end encryption impossible - packets are changed at the proxy Obviously impossible to examine payload Authentication causes problems SSL / TLS Payload is encrypted Proxy cannot change payload until it is decrypted Server authentication will fail if proxy is between client and server and proxy wants to examine traffic by decrypting on behalf of both sides Proxy can work as a client and deliver non-encrypted traffic to client while delievering encrypted traffic to the remote server

13 SOCKS Socks is a proxy toolkit Enables applications to be proxied without specific client-software SOCKS server performs client authentication and authorization Applications are socksified - modifications are necessary to communicate with the SOCKS server Configuration files are used to control any socksified program Proxy:

14 SOCKS protocol Client Sends request to proxy server containing its own identity and required destination address (outbound connections) or required port (inbound connections) Server Checks whether request should be granted Reponses with reply packet, containing the return code of the operation

15 SOCKS protocol SOCKS v.4 Defines message formats to support TCP connections SOCKS proxy grants access based on TCP header information (see other slides) ident authentication (RFC1413) also possible - identd returns owner of a connection (pair of TCP ports) 6193, 23 : USERID : UNIX : stjohns 6195, 24 : ERROR : NO-USER No strong authentication Applications have to be recompiled

16 SOCKS connect Client wants to connect to an external service Request VN CD DSTPORT DSTIP USERID NULL variable 1 VN - version CD - command Reply VN CD DSTPORT DSTIP : request granted 91: request rejected or failed 92: request rejected becasue SOCKS server cannot connect to identd on the client 93: request rejected because the client program and identd report different user-ids

17 SOCKS bind Client offers a socket for inbound connections VN CD DSTPORT DSTIP USERID NULL variable 1 VN - version CD - command

18 SOCKS SOCKS v.5 RFC1928 Strong authentication Support for address resolution (DNS) proxy Provides additional support for UDP UDP ASSOCIATE as new message

19 SOCKS The SOCKS v.5 request is formed as follows: VER CMD RSV ATYP DST.ADDR DST.PORT X'00' 1 Variable o VER protocol version: X'05' o CMD o CONNECT X'01' o BIND X'02' o UDP ASSOCIATE X'03' o RSV RESERVED o ATYP address type of following address o IP V4 address: X'01' o DOMAINNAME: X'03' o IP V6 address: X'04' o DST.ADDR desired destination address o DST.PORT desired destination port in network octet order

20 Portus Proxy system with Strong user authentication Smartcard based authentication / smart tokens Access can be allowed or denied on different criteria Time Addresses / ports User

21 Summary Proxies hide the internal structure of the network from the outside world Proxies protect against protocol attacks Reverse proxies are a means to control inbound connections SOCKS and Portus are protocols used by proxies

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