1 Lesson seven: COUNSELING INTRODUCTION TO LESSON (2 MINUTES): Team Captain: Today is our last day with you. We want to thank you and let you know how much we enjoyed our time together. Our final program is a discussion about how to prepare for life after high school and resources you can tap into to help achieve your career goals, including how to find money to get post-high school education and training. We will end by having you evaluate this year s 3Rs program. Let s break into our small groups and begin today s program. SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION (38 MINUTES): Career vs. Job In our first class period we discussed career opportunities and had you write down your interests, career goals, and the training needed to get there. Take out that sheet again if you have it in your folder. In The 3Rs Program video we showed you in our first visit, the statement was made that in order to play the game, you need to understand the rules. In this lesson, our goal is to help you better understand the rules that relate to career planning and the education and/or training needed to achieve your career goals, as well as how you can access resources to help you succeed. Graduation can seem like a long way off, but what you do NOW in school and out of school will help you set your course for the future. What is a career? What is the difference between a career and a job? [Have students volunteer their responses.] One definition is: The progress and actions taken by a person throughout a lifetime, especially those related to that person s occupations. A career is often composed of the jobs held, titles earned and work accomplished over a long period of time, rather than just referring to one position. In other words, a career is the overall path you will take in your work life, not just one particular job along the way. Statistics show that the average worker spends around 20% of his or her lifetime engaged in their work or occupational activities. Think about that one fifth of your life will be spent working. Surveys of workers reveal that over 50% are unsatisfied with their jobs or workplaces. Have any of you ever had a job that you loved? [Take a minute for the students to volunteer a response, and share a job you have loved as well if desired. Examples may include camp counselor or reading tutor.] Have any of you ever held a job that you didn t like? [Again, allow students to volunteer a response and share a job from your past you did not enjoy.] If you ve ever experienced either of these, you know the difference between a job you look forward to going to every day and one you don t. We all want to earn a living wage and to afford nice things, but a great career also is one that you enjoy doing. Working in a field you love can give you job satisfaction, personal fulfillment, and pride in your achievements. Career Planning High school is a critical time for you to do some self-exploration. At this stage in the career planning process, you should be focusing on discovering your skills and abilities, interests, and personal preferences related to future training, education, and work environment. What are some ways that you can discover your skills and talents? [Have the students respond, offering suggestions to supplement their responses, such as taking a wide range of classes; participating in clubs, music, sports, and other extracurricular activities; taking a part-time job; volunteering.] You can make a list of the skills you use in those positions and what you like/don t like about the work involved to help you narrow down what your talents are and what you would like to look for in a career. Once you have an idea of where your talents and interests lie, how do you match that with a possible career? [Have the students respond, offering suggestions to supplement their responses, such as researching careers and the training needed and talking to adults including advisors, teachers, counselors, family members.] You can also look at your Student Worksheet for other examples of books, websites, and other resources that can help you. There s a special place on The 3Rs page online devoted entirely to resources for students, so be sure to look through that at home or in the library the address is
2 [The following information applies ONLY to students at Cleveland Metropolitan School District Schools. Please skip to the next section if you are at Shaw High School.] One tool you might use for exploring your interests and careers that are related to those interests is the Naviance online system available for the CMSD. This platform includes a Do What You Are interest inventory that can help you identify careers that are well-suited to your interests. This online system will also be beneficial to you in later years for preparing a college application and/or a résumé. You can access Naviance online at www. Naviance.com, or you can find out more from the Student Resources tab on the 3Rs website mentioned previously. Educational Requirements In our first lesson, we asked you what your ideal job would be. [Review the goals briefly with the group, or ask them to say them again if necessary.] Raise your hand if you think that the career you chose would require a degree of education past college, like a juris doctorate for lawyers, a PhD, or a master s degree. [Help students if they are unsure.] Now raise your hand or keep it raised if you think your career requires a four-year college degree, a technical degree, or job training or certification. [Encourage students to keep their hands up if their career would require both.] Now raise your hand or keep it raised if you think your career would require at the very least a high school diploma. As you can see, every (or nearly every) career that you would like to have requires you to graduate from high school at the very least, and for most you need higher education or other training. It is important to understand that education degree levels and post-high school training matter; on average, people with more education make more money than those who have less education. Statistics show that the higher the level of education achievement, the greater the payoff over a lifetime. While it is vital to get your high school diploma, it is also critical to prepare for further education and/or training after high school. A person with only a high school diploma can expect to earn 84% less over a lifetime than someone who has earned a bachelor s degree. For perspective, let s take a look at recent statistics, compiled by the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce. [Review Expected Earnings Chart in Student Worksheet with the group.] While $973,000 the money you d earn with just a high school diploma seems like a lot, keep in mind that this is total lifetime expected earnings. That works out to about $20,700 on average annually, which is less than the federal poverty guideline levels for a small family. The handout also includes a chart that shows where different levels of household income compare with the rest of the American population. Maybe your chosen career will not require a college degree, but it could require other forms of post-secondary training. A variety of programs are offered by local schools such as the Ohio Technical College, Cuyahoga County Community College, and New Bridge Cleveland for training for positions in a wide range of industries including machinery repair, manufacturing, health care, technology, and green industries. Receiving a four-year college degree can have a tremendous impact on your overall earnings and help you advance your career. Once you have decided to seek higher education, you need to select a school. What are some factors that might impact where you want to go to college? [Have the students respond, offering suggestions to supplement their responses, such as location of school, admission requirements, strength in the student s chosen area of interest, costs, and scholarship opportunities.] Once you select a school, the school also must select you. Applying for college can be competitive. Colleges want to bring in students who they believe will go on to be successful in their careers, and you want to be able to demonstrate in your applications to colleges that you can be successful. What are some things you can do now to make yourself more competitive in college applications? [Have the students respond, offering suggestions to supplement their responses, such as graduating from high school, achieving higher grades, preparing for SAT or ACT, taking more difficult classes, athletics and extracurricular activities, employment during high school, and volunteer work.] Many extra-curricular activities can help you understand your career goals and interests, give you relevant experience toward a possible career, and make you more competitive in college applications. A great way to showcase all of your activities and accomplishments is to summarize them in a résumé we ve included a sample résumé for a high school student in your Student Worksheet that you should review on your own. The Student Resources tab in the 3Rs page online also has examples of résumés, and you can find more by searching for high school student résumé online.
3 Financial Aid Of course, the fact that college can increase your earnings over time does not mean that you have the money on hand now to pay for college expenses. Colleges offer a wide variety of financial aid options that are referenced in your worksheet. Remember, while the financial aid attachments reference college only, the information can apply as well to the other training programs mentioned in the handouts. [Review, in the worksheet, the articles How Financial Aid Works and How It Makes College Affordable for You and Financing Options, then review Ten Questions for the Aid Office and Financial Aid Myths. You can do so by having the students take turns reading them or by reviewing the highlights with them to save time. If any of the questions or answers raises questions or concerns, feel free to stop and discuss them.] Internships Internships are one option. What is an internship? [Answer: work-based learning opportunities between a student and employer designed to give the student direct, practical experience in a particular career.] Has anyone done an internship? [If so, discuss it.] Internships may be paid or unpaid, but they are usually unpaid. In your Student Worksheets is a document titled Student Internships discussing internships and listing those available through the Cleveland and East Cleveland public schools. The Cleveland Metropolitan Bar Association offers two programs designed to give students internship opportunities: The Stephanie Tubbs Jones Summer Legal Academy for students in the summer between their 11th and 12th-grade years, and the Louis Stokes Scholars Program for students just graduating high school or currently in college. You can find out more information online on the Diversity and Inclusion page of the Bar Association s website: These are only two of the many internship opportunities available. Do a little research online and you will be able to find other programs, many of which you will be able to participate in this year or next. School Counselor A valuable asset in your career journey may be your school counselor. Also included in the Student Worksheets for today s lesson is a handout titled Tools for Post-Secondary Education Planning, which includes Questions to Ask Your School Counselors and Reality Check. [Review each section as you have time.] Are there questions that you would add to the list of Questions to Ask Your School Counselors, and if so, what? For the Questions to Ask Your School Counselors, who would you ask those questions of at your school? How would you get in to see that person? Have you ever discussed your career with your counselor at school? Why not, if that is the case? Do you plan on doing so? Why or why not? If you don t have a counselor or don t want to use one at the school, are other people available to play that role, such as teachers and/or administrators? [Raise and discuss each question with your group. To the extent counselors and College Now representatives may be available, be sure the students know that they need to take the initiative to meet with them and possibly have other counseling resources (such as teachers or administrators) they can utilize.]
4 Conclusion It is important to start your career planning NOW because there are a lot of steps along the way. The good news is you have time, but you need to use time wisely and don t put off planning for your future. No doubt, you have concerns and worries about things that might be considered barriers or obstacles to your achievement. Some barriers might include how to afford college, how to take part in apprenticeships or internships, tests like the SAT or ACT, or other steps to prepare for post-high school training or education. All of these can be overcome with planning and dedication, and we know that you are capable of doing so. We ll conclude our program this year by having you evaluate our 3Rs program. Included in your Student Worksheets is a survey form for you to complete. If we have time left today, we will discuss your responses if you want to share them. Please note that there is an opportunity for you to sign up for The 3Rs+. The 3Rs+ is a program designed to connect 11 th and 12 th graders who have completed The 3Rs with mentors and to provide them with connections to college/university. alumni. If you would like to continue your link to community mentors next year and beyond, please sign your name and provide an address, and the Bar Association will follow up with you next year. [Have students complete the evaluation form and discuss their opinions if time permits. Collect the forms and turn them into your Team Captain, who will return them to the Cleveland Metropolitan Bar Association. If students have signed up for The 3Rs+, it is very important that the CMBA receive their form.] Optional but strongly encouraged: Instructors can, if they wish, give their contact information to the students if they would like help or have questions after lessons have ended.
5 Lesson Seven: STUDENT WORKSHEET Over a lifetime, expected earnings are as follows at these education levels: Education Level Lifetime Expected Earnings Examples High school dropout ($973,000): Mechanic; Welder; Truck driver High school diploma ($1.3 million): Customer service; Dental assistant; Manicurist/pedicurist Some college but no degree ($1.5 million): Executive assistant; Court reporter; Insurance agent Associate s Degree ($1.7 million): Registered nurse/paramedic; Preschool teacher; Computer technician Bachelor s Degree ($2.3 million): Social worker; Biomedical engineer; Forensic science technician Master s Degree ($2.7 million): Computer engineer; Psychologist; Physical therapist Doctoral Degree ($3.3 million): Lawyer; Medical scientist; Financial analyst Professional Degree ($3.6 million): Veterinarian; Psychiatrist; Pediatrician Source: The following chart shows the distribution of household income in the United States in Each percentile shows the percentage of households that make the stated income or less. For example, the 50th percentile is $51,017, which means half of American households make more than that amount, and half make less. The next column shows the total earnings of that household if those earnings stayed the same over a 40-year career. These numbers reflect household income, which could include more than one working adult. Percentile Annual Income 40-Year Career Earnings Notes 20 th $20,952 $838,080 Households in at the 20 th percentile or lower are below federal poverty guidelines for a family of four. 40 th $39,735 $1,589,400 Households between the 20 th and 40 th percentiles might be called working class and tend to have hourly wage jobs and vocational training. 60 th $64,553 $2,582,120 Households between the 40 th and 60 th percentiles might be called middle class and tend to have a college degree but perhaps not the additional education to advance to higher-earning positions 80 th $104,086 $4,163,440 Households between the 60 th and 80 th percentiles might be called upper middle class and tend to have an advanced degree (e.g., Master s, doctoral, or professional). 95 th $191,150 $7,646,000 Households at this level would be called the upper class and may include professionals, business owners, and others.
6 sample High school résumé
7 CAREER AND COLLEGE RESEARCH RESOURCES What career or occupation might be right for me? What Color is Your Parachute? For Teens, by Carol Christen and Richard N. Bolles Now What? The Young Person s Guide to Choosing the Perfect Career by Nicholas Lore Do What You Are: Discover the Perfect Career for You Through the Secrets of Personality Type by Paul D. Tieger and Barbara Barron-Tieger How can I find out more about specific careers? Helpful Websites: The U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Handbook College Board Information about apprenticeships for 850 trades and occupations Information about military careers U.S. Department of Labor website with videos about different careers University System of Ohio website with career assessment tests and information about careers that are in-demand in the State of Ohio How can I find more information about college? Comprehensive glossary of college terminology and definitions (for example, find out the difference between colleges and universities, associates and bachelors degrees, etc.) Answers to common questions about college Information and resources including schedules, calendars and other tools to help you navigate through college research and college choices, paying for college, what to take to college, etc. Look at YOU CAN GO! a series of video testimonials from students like you who have successfully overcome barriers to going to college. College/University websites (example - Ohio State University s website is How can I find out about Financial Aid? If you are researching specific colleges or universities, be sure to look at their website pages related to admissions and financial aid (including grants, scholarships, loans). Example:
8 What resources can I access in my high school? Teachers and Guidance Counselor: Ask them for information about your career and college planning; high school curriculum, internships and enrichment experiences; college fairs and other programs. College Now Greater Cleveland: Their mission is to increase college attainment through college access and success, advising, financial aid counseling and scholarship services. They have advisors in your school as well as a College Now Resource Center in Tower City downtown that is open to the public for research and assistance. See Naviance: Students in the Cleveland school district can access Naviance.com, a comprehensive college and career readiness tool online for middle and high schools that helps align student strengths and interests to post-secondary goals, and improve student outcomes. School Library: Find materials related to career and college planning. The 3Rs and 3Rs+ Program: Take advantage of your connection to volunteers in The 3Rs program we are here to help you! The 3Rs+ is a program designed to help 11 th and 12 th graders who have completed The 3Rs with mentors and to provide them with connections to college/university alumni. In addition to The 3Rs and 3Rs+, the Cleveland Metropolitan Bar Association offers enrichment programs for Cleveland and East Cleveland students through the following programs: The Stephanie Tubbs Jones Summer Legal Academy This program is coordinated by a collaboration including the CMBA, Norman S. Minor Bar Association, Case Western Reserve University School of Law and Cleveland-Marshall College of Law. Minority students from schools throughout Cuyahoga County are provided the opportunity to participate in this summer program between their 11 th and 12 th grade years of high school, combining academic and work experiences. At the Academy, area high school students participate in a two-week, full-day intensive law institute. The Academy presents a case and takes students through the discovery, interview process, and development of both the prosecution and defense sides of the case, and culminates in a Mock Trial experience, under the supervision of lawyers and judges. Additionally, students have the opportunity to earn a one month part-time internship and a small stipend. The top student in the program is rewarded with a scholarship. Applications are due in junior year of high school for the program in the summer before senior year. Louis Stokes Scholars Program The Louis Stokes Scholars Program is a pipeline diversity initiative through which college students and students about to begin their freshman year in college engage in paid summer legal internships at Cleveland law firms, courts and legal nonprofits. Participating students, known as Stokes Scholars, must be graduates of the Cleveland Metropolitan School District or East Cleveland Municipal School District and enrolled in college or scheduled to begin college in the fall following the summer program. At each firm, court and legal nonprofit employer, students are matched with an attorney-mentor, known as a Stokes Scholar Mentor. Mentors ensure the experience provides a good introduction into the profession and also provide career counseling. Stokes Scholar Mentors are encouraged to continue to serve as a resource for their interns after the summer ends. A key component of the Stokes Scholars Program is large group activities during which the interns and their mentors participate in enrichment and social activities, including visits to the local courts and the law schools. Stokes Scholars also benefit from a writing workshop facilitated by the Cleveland Law Library and Lunch and Learn sessions at the CMBA with local leaders and attorneys as speakers, giving the Scholars the opportunity to meet and mingle with law students participating in the CMBA s Minority Clerkship Program. Applications are due in senior year of high school for the program in the summer before first year of college.
9 HOW FINANCIAL AID WORKS AND HOW IT MAKES COLLEGE AFFORDABLE FOR YOU Financial aid is intended to make up the difference between what your family can afford to pay and what college costs. More than half of the students currently enrolled in college receive some sort of financial aid to help pay college costs. Financial aid is any type of assistance used to pay college costs (grants/scholarships, loans and work) that are based on financial need. There are three main types of financial aid: Grants and Scholarships Also called gift aid, grants don t have to be repaid and you don t need to work to earn them. Grant aid comes from federal and state governments and from individual colleges. Scholarships are usually awarded based on merit. Loans Most financial aid comes in the form of loans, aid that must be repaid. Most loans that are awarded based on financial need are low-interest loans sponsored by the federal government. These loans are subsidized by the government so no interest accrues until you begin repayment after you graduate. Work Student employment and work-study aid helps students pay for education costs such as books, supplies, and personal expenses.work-study is a federal program which provides students with part-time employment to help meet their financial needs and gives them work experience while serving their campuses and surrounding communities. FINANCING OPTIONS There are a variety of financing options available for families who are concerned about their ability to meet their family share of costs. These alternative sources of aid, most often in the form of loans, can help families cover financial aid gaps, or unmet need in a financial aid package. See your school counselor visit or Tuition Tax Credits A tax credit is an amount of money you can subtract from your federal tax bill. It is a dollar-for-dollar reduction of the amount you owe. If you have family members in college, and your income doesn t exceed certain limits, you may apply for a credit of up to $1,500 per year. For more information, go to Tuition Tax Credits. Visit collegeboard. com or see your counselor. In a Nutshell The financial aid system is based on the goal of equal access that anyone should be able to attend college, regardless of financial circumstances
10 TEN QUESTIONS FOR THE AID OFFICE: TO GET THE RIGHT ANSWERS, ASK THE RIGHT QUESTIONS Each college has its own financial aid policies how outside scholarships are treated, whether aid awards can be appealed, etc. information that may or may not appear in materials they send you.make the most of your next campus visit and schedule an interview with a member of the financial aid staff. He or she will be able to answer specific questions about costs, the financial aid process, and options for financing your education. Here are ten questions to get you started: What s the average total cost- including tuition and fees, books and supplies, room and board, travel, and other personal expenses for the first year? By how much will total costs increase each year? How much has tuition, fees, room and board increased over the last three to five years? Does financial need have an impact on admission decisions? How is financial aid affected if I apply via an early decision or early action program? Does the school offer need-based and merit-based financial aid? Are there other scholarships available that aren t based on financial need? Do I need to complete a separate application for merit-based scholarships? What is the priority deadline to apply for financial aid? When will I be notified about financial aid award decisions? If the financial aid package isn t enough, under what conditions, if any, will the aid office reconsider the offer? How will the aid package change from year to year?what will happen if my family s financial situation changes?what will happen if my enrollment status (or that of a family member) changes? What are the terms and conditions of the aid programs included in the aid package?what are the academic requirements or other conditions for the renewal of financial aid, including scholarships? When can I expect to receive bills from the college? Is there an option to spread the yearly payment over equal monthly installments?
11 FINANCIAL AID MYTHS Don t believe everything you hear. Literally billions of dollars in financial aid is available to those who need help paying for college. Yet lots of misinformation clouds the facts about what type of aid is available and who is eligible. Here are some myths dispelled for students confronting the process of securing financial aid. 1. College is just too expensive for our family. Despite the media hype about rising college costs, a college education is more affordable than most people think, especially when you consider college graduates earn an average of $1 million more over their careers than high-school graduates. According to the College Board, the average cost of tuition and fees for the school year was $31,231 at private colleges, $9,139 for state residents at public colleges, and $22,958 for out-of-state residents attending public universities. There are some expensive schools, but high tuition is not a requirement for a good education. 2. There s less aid available than there used to be. In , undergraduate and graduate students received $238.3 billion in grants from all sources, Federal Work-Study (FWS), federal loans, and federal tax credits and deductions. In addition, students borrowed about $10 billion from private, state, and institutional sources. Most students receive some form of aid, most commonly as grants or loans from the federal or state government or the college or university itself. Public loans (those backed by the government, like Fannie Mae) are cheaper and usually offer better repayment terms than private loans (those from a private company, like a bank). Consider carefully the financing packages you ve been offered by each college to determine which makes the most financial sense. 3. My parents income is too high to quality for aid. Aid is intended to make a college education available for students of families in many financial situations. College FA administrators often take into account not only income but also other family members in college, home mortgage costs, and other factors. Aid is awarded to many families with incomes they thought would disqualify them. 4. My parents saved for college, so we won t qualify for aid. Saving for college is always a good idea. Since most financial aid comes in the form of loans, the aid you are likely to receive will need to be repaid. Tucking away money could mean you have fewer loans to repay, and it won t mean you re not eligible for aid if you need it. A family s share of college costs is calculated based mostly on income, not assets such as savings. 5. I m not a straight A student, so I won t get aid. It s true that many scholarships reward merit, but the vast majority of federal aid is based on financial need and many do not consider grades. 6. If I apply for a loan, I have to take it. Families are not obligated to accept a low-interest loan if it is awarded to them. In my opinion, everybody should apply for financial aid, says Tally Hart, former Director of Student Financial Aid at The Ohio State University. She recommends applying and comparing the loan awards with other debt instruments and assets to determine the best financial deal. 7. Working will hurtmy academic success. Students who attempt to juggle full-time work and full-time studies do struggle. But research shows that students who work a moderate amount often do better academically. Securing an on-campus job related to career goals is a good way for you to help pay college costs, get experience, and create new ties with the university. 8. I should live at home to cut costs. It s wise to study every avenue for reducing college costs, but living at home may not be the best way. Be sure to consider commuting and parking costs when you do this calculation. Living on campus may create more opportunities for work and other benefits.