Anaerobic digestion model No 1 (ADM1)

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1 See dcuon, tat, and author profle for th publcaton at: Anaerobc dgeton model No (ADM) Artcle n Water Scence & Technology February 00 Source: PubMed CTATONS 837 READS 3,89 9 author, ncludng: Damen J Battone The Unverty of Queenland 48 PUBLCATONS 6,746 CTATONS rn Angelda Techncal Unverty of Denmar 454 PUBLCATONS 7,794 CTATONS SEE PROFLE SEE PROFLE Some of the author of th publcaton are alo worng on thee related project: Sorry, but t a regullar wor n my ntute Vew project A novel method to recover ammona from boga plant Vew project All content followng th page wa uploaded by Sergey V Kalyuzhny on May 04 The uer ha requeted enhancement of the downloaded fle

2 The WA Anaerobc Dgeton Model No (ADM) DJ Battone, J Keller*, Angelda, SV Kalyuzhny, SG Pavlotath, A Rozz, WTM Sander, H Segrt and VA Vavln *Charperon, WA Anaerobc Dgeton Modellng Ta Group, Advanced Watewater Management Centre, The Unverty of Queenland, St Luca, QLD 407, Autrala (E-mal: Abtract The WA Anaerobc Dgeton Modellng Ta Group wa etablhed n 997 at the 8th World Congre on Anaerobc Dgeton (Senda, Japan) wth the goal of developng a generaled anaerobc dgeton model The tructured model nclude multple tep decrbng bochemcal a well a phycochemcal procee The bochemcal tep nclude dntegraton from homogeneou partculate to carbohydrate, proten and lpd; extracellular hydroly of thee partculate ubtrate to ugar, amno acd, and long chan fatty acd (LCFA), repectvely; acdogene from ugar and amno acd to volatle fatty acd (VFA) and hydrogen; acetogene of LCFA and VFA to acetate; and eparate methanogene tep from acetate and hydrogen/co The phyco-chemcal equaton decrbe on aocaton and docaton, and ga-lqud tranfer mplemented a a dfferental and algebrac equaton (DAE) et, there are 6 dynamc tate concentraton varable, and 8 mplct algebrac varable per reactor veel or element mplemented a dfferental equaton (DE) only, there are 3 dynamc concentraton tate varable Keyword Acetogene; acdogene; ADM; anaerobc dgeton; hydroly; netc; methanogene; model; VFA ntroducton Hgh organc loadng rate and low ludge producton are among the many advantage anaerobc procee exhbt over other bologcal unt operaton But the one feature emergng a a major drver for the ncreaed applcaton of anaerobc procee the energy producton Not only doe th technology have a potve net energy producton but the boga produced can alo replace fol fuel ource and therefore ha a drect potve effect on greenhoue ga reducton Th wll mot certanly enure the ongong, and lely dratcally ncreaed, popularty of anaerobc dgeton procee for wate treatment n the future But why there a need for a generc model? Several beneft are expected from the development of th frt generc model of anaerobc dgeton: ncreaed model applcaton for full-cale plant degn, operaton and optmzaton; further development wor on proce optmzaton and control, amed at drect mplementaton n full-cale plant; common ba for further model development and valdaton tude to mae outcome more comparable and compatble; atng technology tranfer from reearch to ndutry Many of the above pont relate to practcal, ndutral applcaton ndeed, th one of the area where mot beneft from the applcaton of a generaled proce model can be ganed Whle many dfferent anaerobc model have been deved over the year (and ndeed form the ba of the ADM), ther ue by engneer, proce technology provder and operator ha been very lmted Two of the lmtng factor have lely been the wde varety of model avalable and often ther very pecfc nature We hope that th model wll help to acheve wdepread utlaton of the large body of nowledge of anaerobc procee avalable from reearch tude and operatonal experence Ultmately the model wll upport the ncreaed applcaton of anaerobc technology a a Water Scence and Technology Vol 45 No 0 pp WA Publhng 00 65

3 utanable wate treatment opton and a vable alternatve to other energy generatng procee n th paper, the model tructure, netc rate equaton (Appendx) a well a mplementaton n a mple fxed volume CSTR are preented An WA Scentfc and Techncal Report (STR) wa publhed n early 00 (Battone et al, 00), and contan a more complete dcuon of the ncluded procee, a revew of parameter value, and a uggeted bae parameter et Specfc lmtaton of the model, the nfluence of thee lmtaton on outcome, and a conceptual approach to correctng for them are alo dcued n the form of nert Reacton ytem The reacton ytem n an anaerobc dgeter complex wth a number of equental and parallel tep Thee reacton can be dvded nto two man type (a) Bochemcal reacton Thee are normally catalyed by ntra or extracellular enzyme and act on the pool of bologcally avalable organc materal Dntegraton of compote (uch a dead boma) to partculate conttuent and the ubequent enzymatc hydroly of thee to ther oluble monomer are extracellular Degradaton of oluble materal are medated by organm ntracellularly, reultng n boma growth and ubequent decay (b) Phyco-chemcal reacton Thee are not bologcally medated and encompa on aocaton/docaton, and ga-lqud tranfer An addtonal reacton, not ncluded n the ADM precptaton 66 Bochemcal procee Dtnguhng between avalable degradable (ubtrate) and total nput COD very mportant, a a conderable fracton of the nput COD may be anaerobcally not bodegradable (Goett and Beler, 98) n general, we ue the term ubtrate to ndcate degradable COD Bochemcal equaton are the core of any model and t poble to repreent an anaerobc ytem ung only thee equaton However, to decrbe the effect on bochemcal reacton of the phyco-chemcal tate (uch a ph and ga concentraton), phyco-chemcal converon mut be ncluded a well Mot recent anaerobc model nclude ntermedate product and the Ta Group agreed on a tructured model becaue of a number of centfc and applcaton advantage The phloophy of proce and component ncluon wa to maxme applcablty whle mantanng a reaonably mple model tructure The model nclude the three overall bologcal (cellular) tep, (e acdogene or fermentaton, acetogene, or anaerobc oxdaton of both VFA and LCFA and methanogene) a well a an extracellular (partly non-bologcal) dntegraton tep and an extracellular hydroly tep (Fgure ) Complex partculate wate frt dntegrate to carbohydrate, proten and lpd partculate ubtrate, a well a partculate and oluble nert materal Th tep wa manly ncluded to facltate modellng of actvated ludge dgeton, a a dntegraton tep thought to precede more complex hydrolytc tep (Pavlotath and Goett, 986) The complex partculate wate pool alo ued a a pre-ly repotory of decayed (nactve) boma Therefore the dntegraton tep could nclude an array of procee uch a ly, non-enzymatc decay, phae eparaton, and phycal breadown (eg hearng) All bochemcal extracellular tep were aumed to be frt order, whch a mplfcaton baed on emprcm, reflectng the cumulatve effect of a mult-tep proce (Eatman and Ferguon, 98) Two eparate group of acdogen degrade monoaccharde and amno acd to mxed organc acd, hydrogen and carbon doxde The organc acd are ubequently converted

4 Complex partculate wate and nactve boma nert partculate Carbohydr Proten Fat nert oluble MS AA LCFA 3 Proponate HVa, HBu 5 4 Acetate H 6 7 Death CH 4, CO Fgure The anaerobc model a mplemented ncludng bochemcal procee: () acdogene from ugar, () acdogene from amno acd, (3) acetogene from LCFA, (4) acetogene from proponate, (5) acetogene from butyrate and valerate, (6) acetclatc methanogene, and (7) hydrogenotrophc methanogene to acetate, hydrogen and carbon doxde by acetogenc group that utle LCFA, butyrate and valerate (one group for the two ubtrate), and proponate The hydrogen produced by thee organm conumed by a hydrogen-utlng methanogenc group, and the acetate by an acetclatc methanogenc group Subtrate uptae Monod-type netc (lghtly dfferent from ASM Monod growth netc) are ued a the ba for all ntracellular bochemcal reacton Boma growth mplct n ubtrate uptae Death of boma repreented by frt order netc, and dead boma mantaned n the ytem a compote partculate materal nhbton functon nclude ph (all group), hydrogen (acetogenc group) and free ammona (acetclatc methanogen) ph nhbton mplemented a one of two emprcal equaton, whle hydrogen and free ammona nhbton are repreented by non-compettve functon The other uptae-regulatng functon are econdary Monod netc for norganc ntrogen (ammona and ammonum), to prevent growth when ntrogen lmted, and compettve uptae of butyrate and valerate by the ngle group that utle thee two organc acd The bologcal netc rate expreon and coeffcent are hown n Peteron matrx form n the Appendx (Table A3 and A4) and follow the format of Henze et al (986) COD balancng mplct n thee equaton n many cae, norganc carbon (e CO famly) the carbon ource for or a product of catabolm, (e uptae of ugar, amno acd, proponate, acetate and hydrogen; j = 5,6,0,,), and n thee cae, the norganc carbon rate coeffcent (ν 0,5,6,0,, ) can be expreed a a carbon balance (ee entre n Table A3 and A4) Phyco-chemcal procee Phyco-chemcal reacton are defned here a thoe not medated by mcro-organm, and whch commonly occur n anaerobc dgeter uch a: Lqud lqud reacton (e on aocaton/docaton: rapd) 67

5 Ga lqud exchange (e ga tranfer: rapd-medum) 3 Lqud old tranformaton (e precptaton and olublaton of on: medumlow) Only the frt two proce type have been commonly addreed n anaerobc dgeton model, probably becaue of the dffculte n mplementaton of lqud old tranformaton However, lqud old reacton are very mportant n ytem wth hgh level of caton; epecally thoe that readly form carbonate precptate uch a Mg + and Ca + Becaue modellng precptaton complcated, and becaue model that nclude precptaton reacton are recent (van Langera et al, 997), the Ta Group decded not to nclude precptaton n the ADM The phyco-chemcal ytem very mportant when modellng anaerobc ytem becaue: a number of bologcal nhbton factor can be expreed uch a ph, free acd and bae, and dolved ga concentraton; major performance varable uch a ga flow and carbonate alalnty are dependent on correct etmaton of phyco-chemcal tranformaton; often, ph control wth a trong acd or bae the major operatng cot n th cae the control etpont (ph) calculated from the phyco-chemcal tate The mot mportant acd-bae par n anaerobc ytem are: NH 4 + /NH 3 (pk a = 95), CO /HCO 3 (pk a = 635), and VFA/VFA (pk a ~48), a well a the H O/OH /H + ytem (pk w = 400) (all pk a value for 98 K (Lde, 00)) Becaue docaton/aocaton procee are very rapd compared to other reacton (epecally bochemcal), they are often referred to a equlbrum procee, and can be decrbed by algebrac (rather than dfferental) equaton The three man proce ga component are: CO (medum olublty), CH 4 (low olublty) and H (low olublty), a well a water vapour Equaton decrbng phyco-chemcal reacton are not hown n the Appendx, but detal on the mplementaton methodology are gven below mplementaton An anaerobc dgeton ytem normally cont of a reactor wth a lqud volume, and a ealed ga headpace at atmopherc preure wth the ga removed to downtream utlaton The ytem to be demontrated here a completely trred reactor wth a ngle nput and output tream, and contant lqud volume (q out = q n, Fgure ) Ga Phae ρ ga,t V ga q ga S ga,, p ga, S ga,, p ga, S ga,3, p ga,3 q n S n, S n, X n,4 Lqud Phae Bochemcal and Phyco-chemcal Converon procee V lq S lq, S lq, X lq,4 q out S lq, S lq, X lq,4 68 Fgure Schematc of a typcal ngle-tan dgeter (q = flow, m 3 d ; V = volume, m 3 ; S tream, = concentraton of lqud component; X tream, = concentraton of partculate component; all n g CODm 3 ; the component ndex)

6 mplementaton depend on whether the lqud phae phyco-chemcal procee are mplemented a algebrac or netc rate equaton n the frt cae, a dfferental and (mplct) algebrac equaton (DAE) olver requred n the econd cae, there a larger number of dfferental equaton, the model tffer, and ome error may be ntroduced The ma balance for each tate component n the lqud phae a hown n Equaton : ds dt q S S q = + lq, n n, lq, out Vlq Vlq = ρν j, j ρν j = 9 j, j where the term the um of the netc rate for proce j multpled by ν,j (ee j 9 Appendx) n addton to the rate n the Appendx, a rate term for tranfer of ga component to the ga headpace hould be added Becaue the rate of ga tranfer comparable to that of bologcal procee, a dynamc equaton hould be ued A an example, tranfer of CO hown n Equaton () ρ 0, T = La CO S CO, K lq H,CO p CO, ga ( - ) () where ρ 0,T the addtonal rate term, L a the dynamc ga lqud tranfer coeffcent (d ), K H,CO the Henry law equlbrum contant (Mbar ), p CO the CO ga phae partal preure (bar) and S CO,lq the lqud CO concentraton (M) f the lqud phae phyco-chemcal equaton are mplemented a algebrac equaton, the acd/bae par are normally lumped a a combned dynamc tate varable The concentraton of ndvdual acd and bae are calculated from acd-bae equlbra, and a charge balance ued to complete the mplct et of equaton (n S H+ ) Therefore, mplemented a a DAE ytem, carbon doxde (S CO ) and bcarbonate (S HCO3 ) are lumped a a ngle dynamc tate varable n norganc carbon (S C S 0 ) However, f the lqud phae phyco-chemcal equaton are mplemented a dynamc equaton, S CO and S HCO3 are mplemented a dynamc tate varable, S C redundant, and an addtonal dynamc rate equaton ued for acd-bae tranfer (Eq 3) The bologcal producton rate n the Appendx can be ether n the acd tate equaton or the bae tate equaton (but not both), though we recommend havng the equaton n the free form (e CO, HAc, etc) ρ = ρ = ( S S - K S ) A / BCO A / BHCO A / B CO + 3 HCO H a,co CO 3 (3) where ρ A/BCO the producton rate of CO from HCO 3, A/BCO the dynamc contant (nomnally et to only one order of magntude hgher than the hghet bologcal rate contant to reduce model tffne) and K a,co the CO /HCO 3 equlbrum coeffcent S H+ the only algebrac varable n th et of equaton, and t calculated from the charge balance (wth hydroxde, S OH ether ubttuted for ung the equlbrum expreon, or elmnated from the charge balance) Therefore the algebrac equaton et explct When mplemented a ether DAE or DE et, caton and anon can alo be ncluded (S cat, S an, repectvely), to mulate the nfluence of trong bae or acd, repectvely, n feed tream Thee are ncluded n the charge balance accordng to ther nomnal valency, but are otherwe nert dynamc tate component Ga phae ma balance equaton are a for Eq, except that there no producton rate term except for ga tranfer to lqud, no nput tream, and the output flow generally et equal to the total tranfer rate, or calculated from headpace preure and retrcted flow through an orfce (the outlet ppe and downtream unt) t mportant to correct the headpace preure or flow for the water vapour partal preure at the reactor temperature 69

7 Becaue of pace lmtaton, parameter are not preented here However, the STR contan a revew of parameter, a well a a uggeted parameter et Alternatvely, the revew paper by Pavlotath and Graldo-Gomez (99) recommended Acnowledgement Jame Garca de la Hera, Geramo Lyberato, Pratap Pullammanappalll and Enrco Remg were alo nvolved n the Ta Group and contrbuted n dcuon and report revew We alo gratefully acnowledge the fundng atance from the nternatonal Water Aocaton (WA) and the Unverty of Queenland, whch ha made th project poble Reference Angelda,, Ellegaard, L and Ahrng, BK (993) A mathematcal model for dynamc mulaton of anaerobc dgeton of complex ubtrate: Focung on ammona nhbton Botech Boeng 4, Battone, DJ, Keller, J, Angelda,, Kalyuzhny, S, Pavlotath, SG, Rozz, A, Sander, W, Segrt, H and Vavln, V (WA Ta Group on Modellng of Anaerobc Dgeton Procee) (00) Anaerobc Dgeton Model No (ADM) WA Publhng, London Eatman, JA and Ferguon, JF (98) Solublzaton of partculate organc carbon durng the acd phae of anaerobc dgeton J Wat Poll Cont Fed 53, Goett, JM and Beler, RL (98) Anaerobc dgeton of wate actvated ludge J Envron Eng ASCE 08, 0 0 Henze, M, Grady, CPL, Gujer, W, Mara, GvR and Matuo, T (986) Actvated Sludge Model No AWPRC, London Lde, D (00) CRC Handboo of Chemtry and Phyc, 8nd edton CRC Pre, Boca Raton, FL, USA Pavlotath, SG and Graldo-Gomez, E (99) Knetc of anaerobc treatment: a crtcal revew Crt Rev Envron Control, Pavlotath, SG and Goett, JM (986) A netc model for anaerobc dgeton of bologcal ludge Botech Boeng 8, Ramay, R (997) Modellng and Control of Hgh-Rate Anaerobc Watewater Treatment Sytem, PhD the, Unverty of Queenland, Brbane Ren, N, Wan, B and Ju Chang, H (996) Ethanol-type fermentaton from carbohydrate n hgh rate acdogenc reactor Botech Boeng 54, Van Langera, E and Hameler, H (997) nfluent calcum removal by crytallzaton reung anaerobc effluent alalnty Wat Sc Tech 36(6 7), Appendx The Ta Group decded to ue a gcod m 3 (g l ) ba, wth norganc carbon (HCO 3 and CO ) and ntrogen (NH 4 + and NH 3 ) n molec m 3 and molen m 3, repectvely (mole m 3 mole l M) Th not n agreement wth the ASM model and wate treatment practce, where mg l generally ued However, uptream and reource utlaton ndutre (e boga), and the majorty of anaerobc modellng conducted ung g m 3 ba, phyco-chemcal contant and ph are unverally n a molar (M, mole l or mole- m 3 ) ba, and th ba n agreement wth the ue of S unt mplementng n mgcod l and mm relatvely mple, a t requre only change n K S value, and modfcaton of pk a and K a value, and we encourage the ue of mg l f requred (eg n watewater treatment ytem) ntegraton wth the WA ASM model pecfcally addreed n the STR Nomenclature and unt are hown n Table A 70

8 Table A Nomenclature and unt ued Symbol Decrpton Unt C carbon content of component molec gcod component ndex (ee appendx) nhbton functon (varou, ee Table A) j proce ndex (ee appendx) A/B, acd-bae rate contant for component M d dec frt order decay rate for boma death d L a ga lqud tranfer coeffcent d m pecfc Monod maxmum uptae rate gcod m 3 _S gcod m 3 _X d K a acd-bae equlbrum contant M (mole m 3 ) K H Henry law coeffcent Mbar K nhbton contant nomnally gcod m 3 K S Monod half aturaton contant gcod m 3 N ntrogen content of component molen g COD p ga preure of ga bar ph log 0 [S H+ ] pk a log 0 [K a ] q flow m 3 S oluble component (dynamc or algebrac varable) nomnally gcod m 3 S nhbtory component nomnally gcod m 3 t tme d T temperature K V volume m 3 X partculate component gcod m 3 Y ubtrate yeld of boma on ubtrate gcod_x gcod_s ν,j rate coeffcent for component on proce j nomnally gcod m 3 f product,ubtrate yeld (catabolm only) of product on ubtrate gcod gcod ρ rate for proce j gcodm 3 Table A nhbton expreon Decrpton Equaton Ued for ref Non-compettve nhbton = + S / K hydrogen nhbton free ammona nhbton Subtrate lmtaton Emprcal S = S + K 05(pH ph UL ) (ph ph UL ) (phll ph) LL + 0 = ph phul = exp 3 ph ph UL LL = ph< phul ph< phul total ammona lmtaton ph nhbton when both hgh and low ph nhbton occur ph nhbton when only low ph nhbton occur 3 Note: For the frt ph functon, ph UL and ph LL are upper and lower lmt where the group of organm 50% nhbted, repectvely For example, acetate utlng methanogen wth a ph UL of 75 and a ph LL of 65 have an optmum at ph 7 For the econd functon, ph UL and ph LL are pont at whch the organm are not nhbted, and at whch nhbton full repectvely Acetate utlng methanogen wth a ph UL of 7 and a ph LL of 6 wll be completely nhbted below ph 6 and not nhbted above ph 7 Reference: Pavlotath and Graldo-Gomez (99), Angelda et al (993), 3 Ramay (997) 7

9 7 Table A3 Bochemcal rate coeffcent (ν,j ) and netc rate equaton (ρ j ) for oluble component ( =, j = 9) Component Rate (ρ j, g CODm -3 d - ) j Proce S u S aa S fa S va S bu S pro S ac S h S ch4 S C S N S Dntegraton f,xc d X c Hydroly carbohydrate hyd,ch X ch 3 Hydroly of proten hyd,pr X pr 4 Hydroly of lpd -f fa,l -f fa,l hyd,l X l u K S X u S + aa K S X aa S + aa fa K S X fa + m,u m,aa 5 Uptae of ugar (-Y u )f bu,u (-Y u )f pro,u (-Y u )f ac,u (-Y u )f h,u C ν,5 (Y u ) N = 94, bac 6 Uptae of amno acd (-Y aa )f va,aa (-Y aa )f bu,aa (-Y aa )f pro,aa (-Y aa )f ac,aa (-Y aa )f h,aa C ν,6 N aa (Y aa ) N bac = 9, 4 m,fa 7 Uptae of LCFA (-Y fa ) 07 (-Y fa ) 03 (Y fa ) N bac S fa + + / K va S X S S c4 S va bu va m,c4 8 Uptae of valerate (-Y c4 ) 054 (-Y c4 ) 03 (-Y c4 ) 05 (Y c4 ) N bac + + / K bu S X S S c4 S bu va bu m,c4 Xpro pro KS + Spro m,pr K S X + ac ac ac 3 S h K S X S + h h m,ac m,h 9 Uptae of butyrate (-Y c4 ) 08 (-Y c4 ) 0 (Y c4 ) N bac 0 Uptae of proponate (-Y pro ) 057 (-Y pro ) 043 C ν,0 (Y pro ) N = 9, 4 bac Uptae of acetate (-Y ac ) C ν, (Y ac ) N = 9, 4 bac Uptae of hydrogen (-Y h ) C ν, (Y h ) N bac = 9, 4 3 Decay of X u dec,xu X u 4 Decay of X aa dec,xaa X aa 5 Decay of X fa dec,xfa X fa 6 Decay of X c4 dec,xc4 X c4 7 Decay of X pro dec,xpro X pro 8 Decay of X ac dec,xac X ac 9 Decay of X h dec,xh X h 3 = ph N,lm NH3,Xac = ph N,lm h = ph N,lm nhbton factor: Soluble nert (gcod m 3 ) norganc ntrogen (molen m 3 ) norganc carbon (molec m 3 ) Methane ga (gcod m 3 ) Hydrogen ga (gcod m 3 ) Total acetate (gcod m 3 ) Total proponate (gcod m 3 ) Total butyrate (gcod m 3 ) Total valerate (gcod m 3 ) Long chan fatty acd (gcod m 3 ) Amno acd (gcod m 3 ) Monoaccharde (gcod m 3 )

10 Table A4 Bochemcal rate coeffcent (ν,j ) and netc rate equaton (ρ j ) for oluble component ( = 3 4, j = 9) Component Rate (ρ j, g CODm -3 d - ) j Proce X c X ch X pr X l X u X aa X fa X c4 X pro X ac X h X Dntegraton - f ch,xc f pr,xc f l,xc f x,xc d X c Hydroly carbohydrate - hyd,ch X ch 3 Hydroly of proten - hyd,pr X pr 4 Hydroly of lpd - hyd,l X l u K S X u S + aa K S X aa S + aa fa K S X fa + m,u 5 Uptae of ugar Y u m,aa 6 Uptae of amno acd Y aa m,fa 7 Uptae of LCFA Y fa S fa + + / K va S X S S c4 S va bu va m,c4 8 Uptae of valerate Y c4 + + / K bu S X S S c4 S bu va bu m,c4 9 Uptae of butyrate Y c4 Xpro pro KS + Spro m,pr 0 Uptae of proponate Y pro K S X + ac ac ac 3 S h K S X S + h h m,ac Uptae of acetate Y ac m,h Uptae of hydrogen Y h 3 Decay of X u - dec,xu X u 4 Decay of X aa - dec,xaa X aa 5 Decay of X fa - dec,xfa X fa 6 Decay of X c4 - dec,xc4 X c4 7 Decay of X pro - dec,xpro X pro 8 Decay of X ac - dec,xac X ac 9 Decay of X h - dec,xh X h 3 = ph N,lm NH3,Xac = ph N,lm h = ph N,lm nhbton factor: Partculate nert (gcod m 3 ) Hydrogen degrader (gcod m 3 ) Acetate degrader (gcod m 3 ) Proponate degrader (gcod m 3 ) Valerate and butyrate degrader (gcod m 3 ) LCFA degrader (gcod m 3 ) Amno acd degrader (gcod m 3 ) Sugar degrader (gcod m 3 ) Lpd (gcod m 3 ) Proten (gcod m 3 ) Carbohydrate (gcod m 3 ) Compote (gcod m 3 ) 73

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