Total s Golden rules

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1 Total s Golden rules

2 Golden rule No. 10: Work at height

3

4 A century ago Shocking, right?

5 And yet it s still happening today

6 Foreword The Group s activities all involve work at height, at varying frequencies. Our installations are built and laid out based on process requirements and available space and, as a result, maintenance or inspection work sometimes has to be carried out at great height. Most of the time, work at height takes place less than 4 m above the ground. As this does not seem very high, we often fail to perceive the risk and to take the measures that are nevertheless required. Among the most common accident factors are overconfidence in the integrity of the support we work on, in our own vigilance, in our ability to cope with fear of heights and in the actual work conditions. Yet accidents that occur during work at height can be fatal and are more frequent than we imagine. An operator in a company with activity similar to ours tumbled 8 meters to his death in July In all the cases we know of, strict respect of the safety rules would have prevented loss of life or permanent disability.

7 In Europe, every year, falls from height represent: 500,000 occupational accidents 40,000 cases of permanent disability 1,000 fatalities They are the most common cause of serious accidents. In recent years, in France, falls from height have been one of the chief causes of accidents at work, i.e. in a single year: 12% of Lost-Time Accidents Over 87,000 Lost-Time Accidents 7,800 cases of incapacity to work coupled with permanent disability 88 fatalities Falls from height represent the 2 nd cause of death and the 3 rd cause of permanent disability

8 Work at height involves two main risks: People falling Equipment falling Work is considered at height when it is carried out at or over 2 meters above the ground.

9 Risks and consequences The two risks involved in working at height are: The operator falling Tools or equipment falling The consequences closely depend on the work height and environment. Fall of personnel It is impossible to define from what height the consequences of a fall would be serious. There are too many variables to take into account, such as: The nature of the ground The density of occupation of the area The size and weight of the person The type of landing Etc.

10 Risks and consequences It is accepted that there is a risk of serious consequences when working at and above 2 m: Fatality Permanent disability Various fractures or severe bodily traumas Falling objects These pose a danger for personnel working at lower levels, but also for certain pieces of equipment in a unit: Transmitters torn out or damaged Equipment perforated Etc. Certain medical specialists have determined the maximum threshold energies (mass x fall height) that have serious consequences for the person in the path of the falling object. Naturally, the shape of the object is not included in the calculation charts, but once you know that a screwdriver falling from a height of 14 m hits the ground at around 60 km/h, you have an idea of how dangerous this can be. For information, if a mass of 5 kg fell on someone from a height of less than 4 m, they would be killed.

11 Risks and consequences The following photos were taken by a Total employee who, when he saw the scene, alerted the construction site manager (site external to the Group). What was the reply? No problem! This was the result

12 What types of work are done at height? Work performed at height is not the same for all sites but differs from one site to another depending on the activity. List the types of task that are carried out at height on your site. Who does the work, what equipment is used, how many times a year does it take place and at what height? Give as many examples as you can. Work Who does it Equipment used How often Height

13 What are the most common failures? At end-2010, our feedback database had over 50 records of falls from height, of either people or objects. The table below shows the distribution of the causes of the events they describe. Causes % of REX PPE not worn, safety harness not attached 19% Falling object 16% Falling from a dome of a tanker/railroad car 13% Corrosion (guard-rail, bolts, etc.) 10% Ladder slipping 10% Grating absent, deck non-conform 10% Operator slips while on a ladder 6% Falling from a roof or ceiling 6% Poor operation 3% Slipping 3% Poor design 3%

14 How can we protect against fall risks? There are three ways of doing this: Design Collective protective equipment Personal protective equipment

15 Design Good design of installations is crucial, and allows the people working at height to do so in a safe environment in which the work is easily accessible. Arrangement of equipment and valves: accessibility, position and so on. Layout of the means of access. If nothing can be done at design stage, the use of collective and/or personal protective equipment is compulsory.

16 Collective protective equipment As for all general principles of accident prevention, measures to prevent falls from height should be taken as far upstream as possible and therefore collective protective equipment is always to be preferred. Priority is then to be given, to performing work at height from a work surface designed, constructed and equipped to ensure the health and safety of the workers. To prevent falls, these work surfaces must have guard-rails built in or securely, sturdily and rigidly attached. For each job listed in the table below, say what kind of collective protective equipment can be used. Task Work on a metal roof Work on a cement fiber roof Taking a sample from a tanker Inspection of a tank valve Installing a suspended ceiling Collective protective equipment

17 Collective protective equipment: some examples Accessing the dome of a tanker or railroad car. Catwalks Safety net ( ) Catch net ( ) Note: Guard-rails and access gates that use hooped ladders also count as collective protective equipment. Hooped ladder

18 Mobile elevating work platforms (aerial lifts) Mobile elevating work platforms (MEWP) are designed to make work at height easier and safer. People using MEWP are exposed to the following risks: The aerial lift overturning (2 fatalities in January 2006) Falling into thin air Being struck or crushed Falling objects Electrical risk Only certified personnel may operate an MEWP, as it is essential to know the machine s characteristics, capabilities, maneuvering limits and how to keep it in good working order. The operator on the platform must always stay in contact with the basket floor and wear a harness attached to the platform. The number of passengers allowed in the lift is limited. Both this and the safe working load of the aerial lift must be respected. The MEWP may not be moved with the outriggers deployed unless specifically authorized after a risk assessment.

19 Scaffolding Scaffolding is erected, dismantled or noticeably modified only under the supervision of a qualified person and by operators who have completed sufficient specific training. When assembling a scaffold, protective measures must be taken to prevent people and objects falling from height before anyone climbs onto one of the decks (safety harness, lanyard, basket and so on.). The ties attaching the scaffold to the structure, the stability of the supports, the blocking and chocking of the wheels on rolling scaffolds, etc. must all be checked regularly and before each use of the scaffold. Tags must be systematically used to keep track of inspections and regulate access.

20 Personal protective equipment The intention is to limit falls to less than 2 meters using personal protective equipment such as: A safety harness A lanyard An appropriate anchorage point / a lifeline A shock absorption system Personnel must be given training on how to clip on to an apparatus and how to use their PPE. Other types of personal protective equipment are obviously required in accordance with the nature and location of the work to be done, e.g. safety shoes, gloves, glasses etc.

21 Lifelines Lifeline ( ) Monorail or lifeline

22 Personal protective equipment To avoid causing injury, it is strongly recommended that harnesslanyard systems include a fall arrest device that limits the impact transferred to the user as it halts a fall by gradually absorbing the fall energy. PETZL energy absorber ANTEC energy absorber

23 Ladders Ladders, stepladders and step stools must not be used as workstations, unless: it is technically impossible to use collective protective equipment instead, or the risk, following the assessment, is judged to be low and the work is not long or repetitive. The materials they are made of and their assembly must be solid, strong and ergonomically suitable. Different rules apply to the use of different types of ladder: fixed, portable, suspended, extension and access. Ladders must always offer a safe hold and support. It is recommended that personal protective equipment (harness, lanyard, etc.) be worn when working from a ladder. Ladders must be checked regularly and a conformity sticker affixed to the upright.

24 Working at height involves many risks, but can be performed safely by respecting the basic guidelines.

25 Feedback France 2006: Death of two contractor employees after a mobile elevating work platform in the deployed position (basket extended to 10.5 meters) overturned while crossing a gently sloping area, close to a pavement and a manhole cover for water evacuation. The two victims were in the basket, where they had been controlling the operation. South Korea 2007: March 22 a contractor company operative who was dismantling part of a scaffold was the victim of a fatal 22 m fall. He was wearing a safety harness and had a lifeline but had not attached them.

26 Feedback Czech Republic 2009: An operator working on the roof of a building under construction fell 15 m and was killed. He had been working for a contractor company on a turnkey site in a technical center. The roof was slippery (due to rain) and the man was not wearing the required safety equipment. France 2011 (outside reporting perimeter): On a building site in Guadeloupe, a contractor worker fell from a height of 8 m, after tumbling through an opening in the roof of a hangar he was working on. He died on the way to the emergency services. There was no collective protective equipment and the worker had not attached the lanyard of his safety harness.

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