Workplace transport safety

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1 Health ad Safety Workplace trasport safety A employers guide This is a free-to-dowload, web-friedly versio of HSG136 (Secod editio, published 2005). This versio has bee adapted for olie use from HSE s curret prited versio. You ca buy the book at ad most good bookshops. ISBN Price A variety of vehicles are used for may differet tasks every day i workplaces atiowide, ad some of these tasks ca be dagerous. Every year, about 50 people die as a result of vehicle accidets i the workplace, ad thousads are seriously ijured. This ew editio of Workplace trasport safety aims to help employers, maagers ad supervisors make vehicle accidets i the workplace less likely. It will also be useful for self-employed people, cotractors, safety represetatives, vehicle operators ad other employees, trade associatios, commercial ladlords ad other orgaisatios cocered with trasport safety i the workplace. The guidace is suitable for medium ad large idustrial ad commercial sites, but should also be useful for places such as costructio sites, quarries, farms ad forestry operatios ad most other workplaces where trasport is used, icludig smaller busiesses. The guidace has bee writte to be clear ad accessible. It provides some backgroud to trasport safety i the workplace, ad gives geeral advice o how to maage workplace trasport safely. It also provides iformatio o some risks associated with commo vehicle operatios, ad how to deal with safety for each type of operatio. HSE Books Page 1 of 144

2 Health ad Safety Crow copyright 2005 First published 1995 ISBN All rights reserved. No part of this publicatio may be reproduced, stored i a retrieval system, or trasmitted i ay form or by ay meas (electroic, mechaical, photocopyig, recordig or otherwise) without the prior writte permissio of the copyright ower. Applicatios for reproductio should be made i writig to: The Office of Public Sector Iformatio, Iformatio Policy Team, Kew, Richmod, Surrey TW9 4DU or This guidace is issued by the Health ad Safety. Followig the guidace is ot compulsory ad you are free to take other actio. But if you do follow the guidace you will ormally be doig eough to comply with the law. Health ad safety ispectors seek to secure compliace with the law ad may refer to this guidace as illustratig good practice. Page 2 of 144

3 Health ad Safety Cotets Itroductio 6 About this guide 6 Importat ote: reasoably practicable 9 Health ad safety law 11 Phrases ad meaigs 12 GUIDANCE FOR MANAGERS 14 Maagig the risks 14 Risk assessmet 14 Orgaisig for safety 21 Cotrol, co-operatio ad cosultatio 21 Cotractors 24 Visitig drivers 25 Shared workplaces 25 Deliveries geeral safety 26 Deliveries commuicatio 28 Members of the public 31 Public roads as workplaces 32 A safe site 33 The workplace i geeral 33 Traffic routes 35 Costructio of traffic routes 44 Temporary workplaces ad uprepared roadways 45 Speed 46 Pedestrias ad cyclists 49 Sigs, sigals ad markigs 52 Road markigs 54 Parkig areas 55 Loadig areas 57 Site-based ways to stop vehicles from movig 59 Weighbridges 62 Hardstadigs 62 Lightig 63 Site-based access to vehicles 64 Housekeepig 66 Maiteace areas 66 Safe vehicles 67 Safe vehicles i geeral 67 Suitable for the task 67 Visibility from vehicles ad reversig aids 69 Maoeuvrability 72 Vehicle-based ways to stop vehicles from movig 72 Skips, cotaiers ad demoutables 73 Maiteace, repair ad retrofittig 74 Lift trucks ad thorough examiatio 76 Privately owed vehicles 76 Safe drivers 77 Safe people i geeral 77 Choosig drivers 78 Driver traiig ad competece 78 Workplace trasport safety Page 3 of 144

4 Health ad Safety OPERATIONAL GUIDANCE 82 Reversig 82 Commo risks 82 Safe site 82 Safe vehicles 83 Safe drivers 83 Parkig 87 Commo risks 87 Safe site 87 Safe vehicles 87 Safe drivers 88 Couplig ad ucouplig 89 Commo risks 89 Safe site 89 Safe vehicles 90 Safe drivers 90 Ucouplig 91 Loadig ad uloadig, ad load safety 92 Commo risks 92 Safe site 93 Safe vehicles 93 Safe drivers 96 Trimmig, sheetig ad ettig 100 Commo risks 100 Safe site 102 Safe vehicles 103 Safe drivers 105 Tippig 107 Commo risks 107 Safe site 108 Safe vehicles 109 Safe drivers 110 Prevetig vehicles from overturig 115 Commo risks 115 Safe site 116 Safe vehicles 116 Safe drivers 117 Prevetig falls from workplace vehicles 119 Commo risks 119 Safe site 120 Safe vehicles 121 Safe drivers 123 Appedices Safety checklist Templates 130 Glossary 134 Workplace trasport safety Page 4 of 144

5 Health ad Safety Refereces 140 Refereces 140 Relevat legislatio 142 Useful orgaisatios 143 Ackowledgemets 143 Further iformatio 153 Workplace trasport safety Page 5 of 144

6 Health ad Safety Itroductio About this guide Who is this guide for? 1 This guidace has bee writte for employers, icludig maagers ad supervisors. It may also be useful for safety ad uio represetatives, cotractors, the self-employed ad employees. What is this guide for? 2 Every year, about 50 people are killed i accidets ivolvig workplace trasport. 3 These types of accidets also cause more tha 1500 major ijuries (accidets which, for example, result i broke boes or amputatios) ad about 3500 ijuries that cause people to be off work for more tha three days. 4 We (the Health ad Safety ) have published this guide to help employers, maagers ad supervisors make accidets ivolvig workplace trasport less likely. It will also be useful for safety represetatives, self-employed people, cotractors, vehicle operators, other employees, trade associatios, commercial ladlords ad other orgaisatios cocered with workplace trasport safety. 5 The guide is split ito the followig sectios: The Itroductio provides some backgroud to workplace trasport safety, ad to health ad safety i geeral i Great Britai. Guidace for maagers gives advice to people resposible for a workplace o how they ca make sure that workplace trasport is safe. It icludes guidace about: assessig risks; orgaisatioal measures; ad how to make sure the site, drivers ad vehicles are all orgaised for safety. Operatioal guidace gives advice about: commo vehicle operatios; some risks that are ofte associated with them; ad how you could deal with safety for each type of operatio. 6 It is likely that some of these sectios will be more relevat for you tha other sectios, so you ca use this guidace as the foudatio for your risk assessmet i these areas. Figure 1 A HGV parkig area 7 You ca read this guide as a whole, or you ca go straight to relevat sectios, which ca be read o their ow. Workplace trasport safety Page 6 of 144

7 Health ad Safety 8 It will ever be possible to create a guide that covers every risk. Your workplace will have risks that are specific to your locatio, your type of work, the people you employ, the vehicles you use ad the way you do thigs. Use the Maagig the risks ad Operatioal guidace sectios to give yourself a idea of the sort of thigs you should cosider whe you thik about vehicle safety i the workplace. 9 This iformatio is suitable for medium ad large idustrial ad commercial sites, but should also be useful for smaller busiesses ad for places such as costructio sites, quarries, farms ad forestry operatios. Guidace documets specifically relatig to these idustries are also available, which you should refer to if you work i these idustries. 10 You do ot have to follow this guidace. However, if you do follow it, you will ormally be doig eough to comply with the law. 11 Health ad safety ispectors work to make sure people follow the law ad may use this guidace to show examples of good practice. 12 We do ot accept resposibility for ay actio or decisio you take based o iterpretig this guidace. If you are i ay doubt, you should cosult someoe who is competet i workplace trasport issues. The beefits for busiess 13 The cost of maagig good health ad safety is ormally quite visible, but the cost of failig to cotrol risks is ofte absorbed ito other operatig costs ad so is harder to see. 14 As well as persoal distress, a relatively mior accidet (for example, oe which results i a few days off work) is likely to cost aroud A major accidet ca cost aroud a cost which the employer ormally has to pay. 15 Costs of a accidet to a busiess ca iclude: repairig or replacig damaged capital; loss of or damage to goods; isurace costs; compesatio paymets; legal costs; payig for the time that people are t workig because of the accidet such as payig the ijured perso, ayoe helpig them, people cleaig up, ivestigatios; less efficiet replacemet workers, ad the cost of traiig them; lost productio efficiecy; damaged reputatio; damaged employee morale; ad resultig costs to customers, especially where just-i-time logistics processes are used. Workplace trasport safety Page 7 of 144

8 Health ad Safety 16 Busiesses that effectively maage workplace trasport risks beefit from: reduced loss through damage, ijury ad people off work; better isurace rates; avoidig compesatio paymets, fies ad legal costs; a protected reputatio; improved employee morale; ad the geeral improvemets i workig practices that result from a plaed ad sesible approach to safety, which ca lead to improvemets i productivity. 17 Apart from the moral ad legal reasos for protectig people s health, safety ad welfare, accidets are fiacially bad for busiess. See our guide Reduce risks cut costs 1 for more iformatio o the costs of accidets at work. What is workplace trasport? 18 Workplace trasport meas ay vehicle or piece of mobile equipmet that is used by employers, employees, self-employed people or visitors i ay work settig (apart from travellig o public roads). 19 It covers a very wide rage of vehicles, from cars, vas, lorries ad lift trucks, to less commo vehicles ad plat such as straddle carriers, rubber-tyred gatries ad self-propelled machiery. 20 The word vehicle i this guidace refers to all of the differet vehicles foud at the workplace, icludig mobile equipmet. 21 Vehicles movig o public roads are ot usually classed as workplace trasport, eve though they may carry people who are workig, such as haulage drivers. This is because road traffic laws cover traffic risks o public roads i more detail tha geeral health ad safety law. 22 However, public roads are ofte used as temporary workplaces, for example: durig roadworks or roadside deliveries; for breakdow assistace; or for other roadside work. 23 See Public roads as workplaces (paragraphs ) for more iformatio about health ad safety for people workig o or ext to public roads. For advice about work-related road safety, you should read our free leaflet Drivig at work This guide does ot deal with safety for air, water, rail or specialised udergroud miig trasport, although it may be relevat for geeral vehicles used i these idustries. Types of accidet 25 Most trasport accidets ivolve movig vehicles (icludig people beig hit or ru over), people fallig from vehicles, people beig hit by fallig objects (usually part of the load) or vehicles overturig. 26 Vehicles are particularly dagerous whe they are reversig, because it ca be difficult for drivers to see what is goig o behid them. 27 However, the root causes of accidets are usually due to poor maagemet cotrol. 28 Maagers ofte fail to provide a safe site, safe vehicles or safe systems of work, or fail to make sure that safe systems are followed (usually through too little iformatio, istructio, traiig or supervisio). Workplace trasport safety Page 8 of 144

9 Health ad Safety 29 Most trasport accidets ca be preveted if maagers: carry out a thorough risk assessmet; set ad moitor safe ways of workig with vehicles; ad raise people s awareess of the risks ivolved. Safe sites, vehicles ad drivers 30 Accidets ivolvig workplace trasport are ofte caused by failures i several differet areas. Whe you assess how well workplace trasport risks are beig cotrolled, you should look at the followig three areas i particular. Safe site 31 Check to see whether the site has well-defied traffic routes that are free from obstructios, ad that have firm ad eve surfaces. Check to see that: every effort has bee made to separate pedestrias from vehicles ( segregatio ); there are safe crossig places for pedestrias to get across vehicle routes; ad there is a effective oe-way system especially for large goods vehicles. Safe vehicles 32 Check that there is a effective maiteace programme for steerig ad brakig systems, ad for vehicle lights. Check that reversig aids, rollover protectio systems ad driver restraits have bee fitted where they are appropriate. You ca fid much more iformatio about these thigs i the chapter Safe vehicles ad i the sectio Operatioal guidace. Safe drivers 33 Check that drivers behaviour is supervised ad that drivers are traied ad competet. I particular, you should be able to provide evidece (for example, to a health ad safety ispector) that people usig lift trucks have bee traied to the stadards described i Driver traiig ad competece (paragraphs ) i the chapter Safe drivers. 34 You must maage all three of these areas well for workplace trasport risks to be cotrolled effectively. This book reflects these three areas, to help you make sesible decisios that will make your workplace safer. Importat ote: reasoably practicable 35 The phrase reasoably practicable is very importat for health ad safety i Great Britai. It is used to decide how much actio should be take to keep risks uder cotrol at work. 36 Sesible health ad safety is about maagig risks risks ca rarely be elimiated altogether. The phrase reasoably practicable is a legal phrase used to help you decide what you have to do maage risks sesibly. 37 The law says that every busiess i Great Britai has to: be aware of risks to health ad safety i the workplace; ad take reasoably practicable steps to cotrol these risks, ad to make accidets less likely. 38 For a step to be reasoably practicable, the cost must be sesible compared to the beefit (reasoable), ad it must be physically possible i the first place (practicable). Workplace trasport safety Page 9 of 144

10 Health ad Safety 39 The cost is the moey, time or trouble ivolved i puttig a safety measure i place ad maitaiig it. 40 The beefit is the smaller chace of ayoe beig harmed. This is usually achieved by makig the possibility of a accidet happeig a isigificat risk ; or perhaps by makig it less likely that someoe will be seriously hurt if a accidet does happe. 41 If the cost is sesible compared to the beefit, a measure is probably reasoably practicable. For example, sweepig the load bed of a lorry to help make sure loads do t slide aroud o the dusty surface should be quite cheap, ad the beefit is very worthwhile, so it is likely to be reasoably practicable. 42 If the cost is a lot higher tha the beefit, it might ot be reasoably practicable to put the measure i place. I law, the words grossly disproportioate are used to decide whether the cost is so high compared to the beefit that a measure is ot reasoably practicable. 43 Just because oe measure might ot be cosidered reasoably practicable does ot mea that there are ot other, more appropriate measures that you ca take. 44 You may wat to take steps to cotrol a risk that go further tha the reasoably practicable measures you must take by law. Reasoable practicability is the lowest level of risk cotrol that the law demads, ot a upper limit. 45 It is importat to kow what reasoably practicable does ot mea: it does ot mea affordable. You might be expected to do thigs that you would cosider expesive, if the risk is serious eough to justify it. If the cost of a measure is ot grossly disproportioate to the beefit, the measure is reasoably practicable ; it does ot mea most expesive. You are ot expected to sped as much moey as possible to cotrol risks, if they ca be cotrolled to the same level by cheaper methods. it does ot mea commo practice or idustry stadard. It makes o differece whether other people cotrol similar risks i a similar way or a differet way, or to a differet level. Decidig what is reasoably practicable is a judgemet that has to be made for each risk idividually; 46 To keep the laguage as clear as possible, we have tried to explai the priciple of reasoable practicability clearly here, ad have geerally avoided usig the phrase i the guidace itself. 47 Where this guidace advises actio you should take to cotrol risks, it meas that you should take it, so far as it is reasoably practicable. But the guidace also refers to specific legal requiremets, some of which you must meet. 48 This is oly a very geeral explaatio of what reasoably practicable meas. For a fuller explaatio, please see Redgrave s Health ad Safety 3 ad our website at Exactly what is cosidered reasoably practicable will vary depedig o the circumstaces. However, if a accidet happes, you may be asked to show to a iquest or a court that you took all reasoable steps to prevet that accidet. Workplace trasport safety Page 10 of 144

11 Health ad Safety 50 Ultimately, oly the courts ca provide a authoritative iterpretatio of the phrase reasoably practicable. Health ad safety law 51 There are may specific legal duties relatig to workplace trasport, ad some of them are quite complicated. Throughout this guide, we explai what you must do by law. 52 I this guide, we talk about legal duties with the phrases by law ad the law requires. You will also fid the words must, must ot ad may, which show thigs that are or may be required by law. 53 There are also more geeral legal resposibilities which apply to all situatios. 54 Employers must: take all reasoably practicable precautios to esure the health, safety ad welfare of all workers i the workplace ad members of the public who might be affected by their activities; assess the risks to the health ad safety of ayoe affected by what they do (icludig employees ad members of the public). If the compay cosists of five or more people, the sigificat fidigs must be recorded. See the chapter Maagig the risks for more iformatio; use certai priciples of prevetio (which we describe i paragraph 60), where they take prevetive measures to cotrol risks; effectively pla, orgaise, cotrol, moitor ad review the prevetive ad protective measures they use. If the compay cosists of five or more people, these arragemets must be recorded; so far as is reasoably practicable, provide ad maitai safe systems of work; provide iformatio, istructio, traiig ad supervisio to protect, so far as is reasoably practicable, employees health ad safety at work; maitai i a safe coditio (without risks to health) ay workplace uder their cotrol, ad the meas of access to ad egress from it (the way employees get ito ad out of the workplace). 55 If you are self-employed, you have a similar duty to that of employers you must reduce as far as is reasoably practicable risks to your ow ad other people s health ad safety. 56 Ayoe i cotrol of work premises (for example, a ladlord) has limited legal duties to make sure that the premises are safe. This also applies to people i cotrol of the meas of eterig or leavig a workplace (for example, lad that has to be crossed). 57 The phrase reasoably practicable is very importat, ad we explai it more fully i paragraphs All employees must take reasoable care of their ow ad others health ad safety ad co-operate with their employer so that the employer ca meet their duties. Employees eed to recogise this resposibility ad act accordigly. 59 If you or your employees fail to meet the duties above, you or they might be prosecuted. Workplace trasport safety Page 11 of 144

12 Health ad Safety 60 The priciples of prevetio are set out i law. You must use them whe you are puttig i place measures to cotrol risks. You eed to try them i order, doig whatever is reasoably practicable to reduce the risks. I summary, they are: avoidig risks; assessig the risks that caot be avoided; tacklig the source of the risks; adaptig the work to the idividual; adaptig to techical progress; replacig aythig dagerous with thigs that are less dagerous or ot dagerous; developig a coheret overall prevetio policy; givig joit protective measures priority over idividual protective measures; ad givig appropriate istructios to employees. Phrases ad meaigs 61 We use the followig phrases i this guidace (ad elsewhere i health ad safety) to mea quite specific thigs. Competet perso 62 A competet perso is somebody who has eough kowledge, experiece ad persoal ability, ad who has received eough traiig ad iformatio, to do a task safely ad well. The phrase competet perso is also used i some laws with a more specific meaig, which we explai i paragraph 614. Duty holder 63 A duty holder is somebody who has a duty give to them by law. Every employer ad worker is a duty holder i oe way or aother, because they have a duty to take reasoable care of themselves ad other people. Employers, ladlords ad other people have other specific duties because of the ature of their relatioship with people who are affected by what they do (for example, employees or teats). Hazard 64 A hazard meas aythig that ca cause harm (for example, chemicals, electricity, workig at height, machiery). Risk 65 A risk is the chace that somebody will be harmed by the hazard (high or low) ad how seriously they might be harmed (seriously or ot). High risks are those where someoe is very likely to be harmed or where the harm is likely to be serious (or both). Risk assessmet 66 A risk assessmet is a careful look at what, i your work, could harm people. You should use your risk assessmet to help you decide whether you have take eough precautios or should do more to prevet harm. Reasoably practicable 67 This is the level of actio that the law says a perso or busiess eeds to take at work to reduce the chaces of ayoe beig harmed. It meas that everyoe is expected to do everythig they reasoably ca to keep risks low. It is very importat ad we explai it i more detail i paragraphs Workplace trasport safety Page 12 of 144

13 Health ad Safety System of work 68 A system of work is a way of doig a task. A safe system of work has to be idetified for every aspect of work that a orgaisatio does, to make sure that people are able to work safely. The system of work should be the result of a thorough risk assessmet, which idetifies what could harm people ad how, so that these risks ca be maaged. The safe system should usually be writte dow so that workers ca be istructed ad their performace ca be moitored. Workplace 69 A workplace is ay locatio where a perso is workig. 70 Public roads are public places ad are covered by specific laws, so decidig whe they are (or are ot) workplaces ca be complicated. 71 What is workplace trasport? (paragraphs 18-24) explais why public roads are usually ot cosidered workplaces. See Public roads as workplaces (paragraphs ) for more iformatio about whe public roads are used as temporary workplaces (for example, whe they are sectioed off by road coes, or durig a roadside delivery). Workplace trasport safety Page 13 of 144

14 Health ad Safety Guidace for maagers Maagig the risks 72 By law, employers ad self-employed people must assess the risks to ayoe who might be affected by their work activity. These people should also take appropriate prevetive ad protective measures to cotrol these risks. 73 These requiremets apply to all work activities, icludig those ivolvig trasport (for example, drivig, loadig, sheetig, maiteace). 74 Our guide Successful health ad safety maagemet 5 idetifies a three-stage pla you eed to go through to maage risks idetifyig hazards, assessig the risks ad cotrollig the risks. 75 To help you carry out the pla, we recommed a risk assessmet to cover all three stages at oce. Risk assessmet 76 A risk assessmet is othig more tha a careful examiatio of what, i your work, could harm people, so that you ca weigh up whether you have doe eough or should do more to prevet harm. 77 By law employers must assess risks as a way of fidig out whether they are meetig legal duties. By law, the risk assessmet must be suitable ad sufficiet. Carryig out a risk assessmet does ot usually eed to be very complicated or techical. Most employers carry out risk assessmets durig the ormal course of their work. For example, whe hirig ew drivers, a employer would ormally idetify how much iformatio, istructio or traiig they eed, to make sure that they are able to carry out their duties without makig mistakes or causig accidets. I recogisig that there are risks associated with havig ew drivers, ad the decidig what precautios to take, the employer has carried out a risk assessmet ad acted o it. 78 It is also importat that your risk assessmet is thorough ad accurate because you eed to use it whe you decide what to do to cotrol risks. It will help you to decide what is reasoably practicable because it will help you decide how serious risks are, ad how much effort ad cost is ecessary to cotrol them. There is a sectio i this guide about what reasoably practicable meas see paragraphs If your orgaisatio employs five or more people (icludig maagers), you must write dow ay sigificat fidigs from the risk assessmet. 80 We recommed the followig five-step process to carry out a risk assessmet: Step 1 Idetify the hazards. Step 2 Decide who might be harmed ad how. Step 3 Evaluate the risks ad assess whether existig precautios are adequate. Step 4 Record the sigificat fidigs. Step 5 Review the risk assessmet regularly, ad as ecessary. Workplace trasport safety Page 14 of 144

15 Health ad Safety 81 There is a example of a risk-assessmet form at the back of this guide (Appedix 2). You ca fill this i as you work through the sectios we explai below. 82 For more advice about doig a geeral risk assessmet, you should read our free leaflet Five steps to risk assessmet. 6 For more iformatio about risk assessmet i geeral, ad laws with specific requiremets for risk assessmet, you should read our free guidace A guide to risk assessmet requiremets. 7 Idetifyig the hazards 83 First you eed to idetify the work activities ivolvig vehicles (icludig visitig vehicles) over a reasoable period. This could be over the course of a day, a week or maybe a moth. You eed to build up a clear picture of vehicle ad pedestria traffic i the workplace, ad to make sure you miss othig importat. 84 Thik through the activities you kow happe, such as deliveries, loadig activities or collectig waste. You ca use the list i Table 1 to help you just choose the activities that happe i your workplace, ad add ay others you ca thik of. You ca do this by: watchig the workplace; ad payig attetio to where vehicles are, what drivers are doig, ad how ad why they are doig it. 85 There is also a checklist i Appedix 1 that you ca use to help you spot workplace trasport hazards. 86 A pla of the site ca help you see where vehicles are operatig, ad where ay dagers might be. Workplace trasport safety Page 15 of 144

16 Health ad Safety 87 Table 1 lists commo types of vehicle ad pedestria movemets based o research coducted i the EU. You ca use it as the basis for what you look at whe you are carryig out this stage of the risk assessmet; just add, remove, or chage aythig that is particular to your work. Large goods vehicles (icludig articulated ad draw-bar combiatio vehicles): trasportig raw materials; trasportig other maufacturig materials; trasportig machied or fiished products; deliveries of busiess supplies (such as statioery, couriers, catee supplies); movig products or stock betwee buildigs; waste removal Light goods vehicles: trasportig raw materials; trasportig other maufacturig materials; trasportig machied or fiished products; deliveries of busiess supplies (such as statioery, couriers, catee supplies); cash collectio or delivery; movig products or stock betwee buildigs; waste removal; cotractors ad others (such as maiteace, cleaers, buildig work, mobile food outlets). Motorised or other wheeled hadlig equipmet: movemet of raw materials aroud the site; movemet of compoets, supplies, stock, etc aroud the site; movemet of waste material aroud the site. Cars: eterig or leavig the premises. Cosider staff, cliets, other visitors, taxis, couriers ad so o; tourig security vehicles. Vehicles carryig passegers: cosider coaches, miibuses. Motorcycles ad pedal cycles: eterig or leavig the premises; aroud storage areas; couriers. Other work machiery ad plat, icludig cotractors vehicles: tractors; all-terrai vehicles; backhoes ad other earth-movig machiery; dumpers; mobile craes i trasit (although liftig operatios themselves should ot be thought of as Pedestrias: eterig or leavig the premises; movig from buildig to buildig, or from oe work area withi a buildig to aother; movig withi storage areas; movig across vehicle traffic routes; movig through vehicle maoeuvrig areas; movig from vehicles to buildigs, or back (for example, drivers reportig to the site office). Table 1 Vehicle ad pedestria traffic movemets Workplace trasport safety Page 16 of 144

17 Health ad Safety 88 I particular, look for areas where people work aroud movig vehicles, ad where people work o vehicles themselves. You should remember to iclude every task you ca thik of, icludig thigs: that happe at quiet times; that do t happe very ofte (like collectig waste); or that take place i a differet workplace (such as a employee deliverig to a customer s site). 89 Askig ay security or other gate staff who eters a site, ad whe ad why, or askig a stores departmet for a list of which firms deliver whe, ca help you build up a complete picture of trasport activity i your workplace. 90 List all the vehicles that visit your site, ad make a ote of what they do. Thik about whe ad where these thigs happe, ad what else is happeig i that area at the same time. This will make it easier to recogise who might be harmed, i stage 2 of the risk assessmet. 91 To idetify the hazards, look at each of the work activities associated with trasport ad ask: What are the possible dagers, ad what is causig them? 92 There are four mai kids of accidets that ivolve workplace trasport: people beig struck by or ru over by a vehicle; people beig struck by somethig fallig from a vehicle; people fallig from vehicles; vehicles overturig. 93 The questios you ask yourself should cocetrate o these dagers, ad should cover all the aspects of vehicle use i your workplace. Cocetrate o thigs that are likely to cause serious damage, or hurt several people, because these are the more sigificat hazards. There is a checklist i Appedix 1 to give you a idea of the sort of questios you should be askig. It is based o tasks that ofte happe aroud vehicles, ad measures to cotrol risks you should be thikig about. 94 Whe you are lookig for trasport hazards, you should look at: features of your workplace (such as how routes are laid out ad whether they are i good coditio); the vehicles themselves; ad the actios of the drivers ad others who are ear to vehicles. 95 Thik site, vehicle, driver. You should read whichever parts of this guide are relevat to work that is carried out i your workplace, ad use this to help you recogise trasport hazards. 96 You should also thik carefully about how thigs could chage (for example, at differet times of the year or i bad weather). Examples could iclude: drivers beig dazzled by strog sulight at times of the year whe the su is low i the sky; bad visibility i a loadig area whe deliveries are made at ight; or the effects of strog gusts of wid o people workig high up o the outside of vehicles. Workplace trasport safety Page 17 of 144

18 Health ad Safety 97 Whe you are lookig for hazards, you should iclude ay that already have precautios i place to prevet the hazard from harmig ayoe. For example, if a ope-top vehicle is fitted with a system to prevet it from rollig over (or to protect the driver if it does roll over), you should still look to see if there is a possibility that the vehicle will overbalace, ad should make a ote of ay safety measures. Later, you will cosider whether ay existig precautios are good eough. 98 Employers should ask their drivers, supervisors ad ay other employees at the site (icludig cotractors ad, possibly, visitig drivers) for their views o ay problems ad what could be doe to make the work safer. 99 You may fid it helpful to take photographs. You ca keep these as part of a recorded risk assessmet ad to show what hazards ad prevetive measures have bee idetified. Decidig who might be harmed ad how 100 For each hazard you idetify, you eed to decide who might be harmed ad how. 101 For hazards ivolvig workplace trasport, this is likely to iclude drivers i particular both those employed at oe site ad drivers visitig sites owed by other compaies. Also thik about all other employees, cotractors, subcotractors, customers, part-time employees, cleaers, maiteace staff, visitors ad members of the public. 102 Which of these types of people are likely to be ear to vehicles, ad why? Evaluatig the risks 103 This step is where you decide how serious the risks are, ad what you eed to do to cotrol them. 104 The risk posed by each hazard is the chace that somebody will be harmed (high or low), ad how seriously they might be harmed (seriously or ot). High risks are oes where someoe is very likely to be harmed or where the harm is likely to be serious (or both). 105 Oce you have idetified the hazards ad who is i dager, you should thik about how likely it is that a accidet will happe ad, if it does, how severe the ijury is likely to be. If the hazard is ulikely to harm ayoe, the risk will probably be low. 106 Risks are higher for accidets that are very likely to happe, eve if the cosequeces probably would t be too bad. There are ot may examples of hazards ivolvig workplace trasport that are low risk because trasport accidets are usually quite serious, or at least have the potetial to be serious. 107 However ulikely it is, if a hazard could cause serious harm, the risk is higher. For example, although it may be ulikely that a perso will be struck by a load fallig from a vehicle, if it did happe someoe could be hurt quite badly, so the risk is high. 108 So risks are higher where accidets are likely, where the cosequeces are likely to be serious, or both. 109 Oce you have decided how much risk a hazard is causig, you ca thik about cotrollig the risks. You should ask: Has aythig bee doe to reduce this risk, ad are the measures eough? Workplace trasport safety Page 18 of 144

19 Health ad Safety 110 I the first place, if you have ot met ay geeral legal duties, or specific legal requiremets relatig to the hazard, more precautios are eeded. 111 If you have already take measures to reduce particular risks, you will still eed to ask whether the other risks are acceptably low. For example, you might decide that as well as settig speed limits o vehicle routes, road humps or other measures are eeded to make sure that vehicles do ot drive too fast. 112 If you decide that somethig more eeds to be doe, you should first try to remove the problem altogether (for example, by restrictig vehicle movemets to certai parts of the workplace). 113 If you caot remove the problem, try to reduce the risks. 114 You should always istruct ad trai employees to take care, to use work equipmet safely, ad to use persoal protective equipmet. However, you should ot rely o this to keep them safe if there is more you ca do. 115 Where possible, chage the layout of the workplace or use vehicles with appropriate safety features (for example, have separate pathways for pedestrias, use road humps, or use vehicles with speed limiters). You should also set up safe systems of workig (for example, eforce speed limits). 116 It is useful to prioritise the improvemet measures you have idetified based o the level of risk you have decided each hazard poses, ad set a realistic date by which actio should be take. Record your fidigs 117 If your orgaisatio employs five or more people (icludig maagers), by law you must record the sigificat fidigs of your assessmet. 118 This meas recordig the more sigificat hazards (usually i writig) ad your most importat coclusios (for example, Risk of dislodged load as a result of low braches cut back regularly ad put up a warig sig ). 119 You will fid this a very useful part of your risk assessmet (o matter how big your orgaisatio is) because it helps you remember what you have foud ad what you have decided to do. 120 The suggested form i Appedix 2 is a clear way of recordig your fidigs, ad it reflects the five-step approach we recommed. There is also a example of how a risk assessmet could look, to help you whe you do your ow. 121 You must also tell your employees, icludig ay safety represetatives, about your fidigs. You ca do this more easily with a writte record. Review the risk assessmet 122 You should review the risk assessmet from time to time, to check that it is still relevat. Each risk assessmet should iclude a date for whe a review is due, which should take accout of the type of work ad the speed of chages, which are likely to be differet for every workplace. 123 Sooer or later you are likely to itroduce ew vehicles or chage the traffic routes, or the ature of the work activities relatig to vehicles may chage, which ca lead to ew hazards. 124 You should assess risks before you make ay sigificat chages. This will help keep risks as low as possible from the momet the chages are Workplace trasport safety Page 19 of 144

20 Health ad Safety itroduced. You must cosult employees either directly or through elected safety represetatives if the chages could substatially affect their health ad safety. See Cotrol, co-operatio ad cosultatio (paragraphs ) for more iformatio about cosultig employees. 125 You should always keep the risk assessmet up to date with workig practices ad equipmet, o matter what reviews may be due soo. Workplace trasport safety Page 20 of 144

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