Application of the life cycle assessment (LCA) method for assessing the impact of mechanically loaded mining blasting materials on the environment

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1 Application of the life cycle assessment (LCA) method for assessing the impact of mechanically loaded mining blasting materials on the environment Bożena KUKFISZ* Faculty of Fire Safety Engineering, Main School of Fire Service, Warsaw, Poland; Andrzej MARANDA Division of New Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland Please cite as: CHEMIK 2014, 68, 1, Introduction The current technological advancement and development related to changes in engineering, technology and the production process arise in the first place from economic reasons, but through legal acts introduced in the past years also ecological concerns have gained on importance. The act of 27 April 2001 The Environment Protection Law (Journal of Laws Dz.U. No. 62, item 627 as later amended) defines rules for environment protection as well as guidelines for the usage of its, allowing for requirements of sustainable development, and especially the rules for determination of conditions for environmental protection, conditions for the introduction of substances or energy to the environment, as well as obligations of administrative bodies, their responsibilities and sanctions. Another binding document is the Directive of the European Parliament and the Council 2008/98/CE of 19 November 2008 on waste. This directive is aimed at reducing the adverse consequences of waste generation and handling for human health and the environment, striving at limiting the usage of renewable and non-renewable and helping in the application of waste handling hierarchy in practice. After Poland s accession to the European Union, the mining industry has to meet environmental requirements imposed by EU directives. This is visible in modern blasting methods, in which apart from assuring the effectiveness of the applied blasting agents it becomes indispensable to take into consideration also all aspects of their usage. This is connected with the contents of hazardous materials in the composition of the product, assuring the necessary work safety, the need of minimising the harmful impact on the environment on the work site, as well as handling of in a sustainable way. Each technological change has to take into consideration aspects related to the safety of production, application and environmental aspects by minimising the amounts of generated waste and the eliminating to the extent possible the adverse impact on the environment. Moreover, the intensification of means meant to counteract the generation of waste comprises the adoption of an approach that allows for the entire life cycle of products and materials, and not only the phase of waste, because reducing the impact of waste generation and its handling on environment should allow achieving an improvement of the economic value of waste. This should encourage to the recovery of waste and the reuse of recovered materials to ensure the protection of the available natural. The development of the LCA environmental analysis was meant to be conducive in the search for solutions aimed at reducing environmental burdens in mining by minimising the intake of energy carriers and natural related to reducing the ensuing emissions, with respect to the usable effect of blasting agents and processes of rock mass mining executed with their use (the so-called functional unit). An analysis of data provided in literature shows that in Poland deposits are generally mined with the use of explosives, by drilling Corresponding author: Bożena KUKFISZ, Ph.D., (Eng), blast holes, loading the blasting agents and their detonation. Hard coal mining and the mining ores of zinc, lead and copper in Poland is considered to belong to the most modern and safe ones on a global scale. The mechanisation of blasting works in mining establishments, in which bulk loaded blasting agents are used is certainly of major importance, as it largely reduces the time in which blasting miners have to remain in the direct hazard zone, i.e. on the working face of the operating front, as well as reduces the physical work load that blasting miners have to carry out. New generations of explosives allowed introducing the mechanisation process, which led to achieving considerable economic and organisational profits as opposed to the hitherto manual loading. The new generation of blasting agents comprise emulsion explosives with reduced sensitivity, optimum detonation parameters and operating properties, as well as explosives like ANFO. In this paper the environmental life cycle assessment was used to perform an assessment of the impact of mining explosives such as ANFO and emulsion explosives (EE). Those materials are loaded into the rock mass in a mechanical way. Life cycle analysis The life cycle analysis is an instrument of environmental policy and management, which concerns complex interactions between products and the environment [1 4]. To allow the effective organisation of issues related to environmental management and a definition of its rules, several standards compiled in series ISO have been developed, which have been introduced in the European Union, and in Poland as standards PN-EN ISO [5 7]. LCA has been covered by the below two standards: PN EN ISO 14040:2009 Zarządzanie środowiskowe Ocena cyklu życia Zasady i struktura (Environmental Management Life Cycle Assessment Rules and structure) PN EN ISO 14044:2009 Zarządzanie środowiskowe Ocena cyklu życia Wymagania i wytyczne (Environmental Management Life Cycle Assessment Requirements and guidelines). The LCA analysis comprises four stages: determination of the objective and scope of LCA inventory of a set of inputs and outputs into the life cycle of the given product Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) assessment of potential impacts of the life cycle related to those inputs and outputs Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) interpreting the analysis of obtained results and evaluation of the impact in relation to study results. Determination of the objective and scope of LCA The first stage of the LCA analysis provides the definition of the product system, limits of the analysed system, the functional unit and the designation of the analysis. Data used in the analysis are both of a local and nationwide nature owing to the fact that information related to production had been obtained in a Polish company that produces blasting materials. The material balance of average compositions of the analysed blasting materials is presented in Table nr 1/2014 tom 68

2 Material name ANFO Averaged composition of analysed blasting agents Component Contents, ammonium nitrate 94 oil 6 Table 1 science ammonium nitrate 60 calcium nitrate 20 Bulk emulsion explosives water 13 oil 5 emulsifier 2 ANFO has been selected for the analysis owing to the fact that it is predominantly used in the mining industry in open pits and in underground as it is easy to prepare on the work site and the price of raw materials (granulated ammonium nitrate(v), oil) is low. In addition the low sensitivity to mechanical stimuli allowed the mechanisation of the process during which the material is loaded into blast holes. The analysis carried out in this paper comprised the production of 1 Mg of ANFO in a mixing and loading system of an SWS-11 self-propelled blasting truck. The entire installation has been built on the chassis of a typical Renault Midlum truck and is powered by the vehicle motor. The installation comprises tanks for granulated ammonium nitrate(v) and diesel oil, as well as a system for mixing of components and mechanical loading of blasting holes. Taking into account the integrated ANFO production control and powering system and the release system, the production process of the ready product was deemed to be waste free. The calculations comprise the use of fuel during transport amounting to 32 dm 3 /100 km, and during the mixing and loading of ANFO amounting to 16 dm 3 for the full main tank, i.e. for 3000 kg of ammonium nitrate(v) 420 dm 3 of diesel oil. The average distance over which the product is delivered is 50 km. The standard exhaust gas emission for Renault Midlum is EURO-3. The analysed ANFO has an oxygen balance close to zero, which is a condition for obtaining a mixture with maximum energy parameters. Bulk emulsion blasting agents are used in open pits, as well as in underground mines. Emulsion explosives comprise oxidisers, fuels, water, emulsifiers, sensitising and modifying agents. The most frequently used oxidiser is ammonium nitrate in a mixture with sodium nitrate or calcium nitrate. The contents of oxidisers come up to 90. Fuels comprise organic fluids, which either form or do not form solutions with the main component of emulsion explosives, water. Due to the lack of carcinogens in their structure, emulsion explosives are defined as ecological for the entire group [8, 9]. The technological process of producing bulk emulsion explosives comprises a few basic operations, i.e. preparation of raw materials (emulsifier, organic phase, solution of nitrates), production of emulsions in high-speed mixers, and then dosage of bulk raw materials, their mixing, sensitising, making cartridges, cooling and packing (in the case of cartridge emulsion explosives). After completion of the mixing process, bulk emulsion explosives are cooled and loaded into containers or cisterns. Figure 1 presents a diagram of the production process of bulk emulsion blasting agents. The reduced sensitivity to mechanical stimuli, as well as the lowered contents of harmful compounds in post-detonation reaction gases, makes them safer and less harmful for the environment. The production technology of emulsion explosives is generally described in literature as absolutely safe and practically waste free, as all the heating media remain in closed circuits. Fig. 1. Flow diagram for the production technology of bulk emulsion explosives The time horizon of the analysis is the same, i.e. it concerns an assortment in current production. All limitations and exclusions are similar for all the applied materials; for example, the analysis did not take into consideration the minimum impact of the required initiator, with the off-site transport limited to a distance of 100 km, the storage of materials was not analysed, or the time periods which would affect their usability. Usage on the place of destination was adopted as the final handling method in the analysis, with no other disposal solution investigated. The detonation products were assessed on the basis of thermochemical codes developed in the Institute of Explosives of the Military University of Technology in Warsaw. None of the product s components has been excluded on the basis of mass related dependencies, e.g. contents below 1, as this could potentially lead to errors or omissions, because even a very low content of a given component may prove to be highly aggressive for the environment. Consequently the analysis took into consideration all the components specified and not specified in Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). Data were compiled personally on the production place and process engineers were interviewed. To include in the analysis entire life cycles of products, i.e. from the moment when raw materials are mined, those data were obtained from the database contained in the SimaPro 7.2 PhD software. The analysis made use of the functional unit of 1 Mg of product delivered to the mine and duly detonated, as adopted by all manufacturers. The selection of the functional unit is of importance for explosives with a considerable difference of detonation parameters [10]. In addition the analyses also comprised the modular approach, i.e. the relation to particular stages of the life cycle. For this purpose the below life cycle stages have been distinguished: A1 obtaining raw materials, A2 on-site transport, A3 production, B1 transport to the user, B2 loading, C1 detonation of explosives. Life cycle inventory In stage two data were appropriately identified and quantified, starting from obtaining energy and non-energy raw materials, pollution streams (gaseous, liquid and solid ones) discharged to the environment during the full life cycle of a product, process or service. Stage 2 is called an inventory analysis, and was based on the material and energy balance of all inputs and outputs of the analysed product system. Assessment of potential impacts of the life cycle In the third stage a quantitative and qualitative evaluation was carried out of environmental footprints from the viewpoint nr 1/2014 tom 68 35

3 of the usage of natural and pollution discharges to the environment in connection with the production of the given material or product. A classification was made of data obtained from the inventory into particular categories of environmental impact by assigning particular emissions to categories. With this in mind use was made of indicator-based methods that describe the impact on the environment, making use of calculated indices, which are established for various impact categories. This type of models include the Eco-Indicator 99 methodology, in which all the indices of particular impact category are converted into a single unit, for example for the impact category human health this is the so-called unit (Disability Adjusted Life Years), and afterwards converted into a single category of general nuisance expressed in eco-indicator points (Pt). In the Eco-Indicator method the environmental profile was related to 11 impact categories that model the environmental impact at the level of final points of the environmental mechanism. All impact categories were assessed in relation to the three main damage categories, i.e. human health, ecological consequences and usage of. The main categories of damage and impact in the Eco- Indicator 99 method were presented in Table 2. Main damage categories and impact categories in the Eco-Indicator method Table 2 In the final points method of the environmental mechanism represented by the Eco- Indicator 99 method adopted were compulsory steps, such as the selection of impact categories, indicators and description models, classification and description, as well as noncompulsory ones, such as standardisation, weighing and grouping. Analysis of results The life cycle of 1 Mg ANFO in the Eco-Indicator method was assessed at Pt, with of this value affect the damage category of human health, affect the environmental quality, and only 0.15 diminish the renewable and non-renewable. Values of eco-indicators for ANFO are presented in Table 3. Table 3 Percentage and numerical values of the eco-system for the life cycle of 1 Mg of ANFO Category of environment impacts Pt Carcinogens Resp. organics Resp. inorganics Climate change Impact category Unit of descriptive parameter Name of impact category Radiation Ozone layer Carcinogens Ecosystem quality Reduction in MJ MJ Resp. inorganics Resp. organics Climate change Radiation Ozone layer Ecotoxicity Acidification / Eutrophication Land use Minerals Fossil fuels In the Eco- Indicator 99 method a calculation was made of weighted category values of indicators related to the impact on the environment. The objective was to determine the weight of particular environmental aspects and to make their comparison possible. In the majority of cases weighing significantly reduces the number of indicators for a category (three in this case), and even to one indicator value (the total eco-indicator value Pt), which makes the comparison much easier. This takes place by determining the value of weight multipliers for the given standardised indicators in the category of impact on the environment. In the Eco- Indicator 99 method results of damage category indicators are standardised, weighed and grouped into the final ecoindicator, which means that the environmental impact assessments lead to determination of impact in the form of one value that expresses the number of eco-indicator points. The application of indicator based methods was an obvious step forward, because it allowed the actual elimination of processes that pose a significant threat for the environment. There are numerous assessment tools nowadays that have already been implemented and used on a global scale, and basically all of them make use of the LCA approach, which has become a standard for all assessments [12]. Ecological consequences Usage of Ecotoxicity Acidification / Eutrophication Land use Ecological consequences Minerals Fossil fuels Usage of Total Table 4 presents the percentage values of all stages of ANFO life cycle at the eco-indicator level in relation to the total eco-indicator value. Table 4 Percentage values of all stages of ANFO life cycle at the eco-indicator level in relation to the total eco-indicator value Percentage values of particular life cycle stages at the eco-indicator level [Pt] A1 ANFO A2 ANFO A3 ANFO B1 ANFO B2 ANFO C1 ANFO Total, Carcinogens Resp. organics Resp. inorganics Climate change Radiation Ozone layer destruction Ecotoxicity Acidification / Eutrophication Land use Fuels Total nr 1/2014 tom 68

4 The life cycle of 1 Mg of bulk emulsion explosive in the Eco- Indicator 99 method was assessed at Pt, of which ca. 78 affect the damage category human health and approximately 22 the environmental quality, while only 0.12 diminish the renewable and non-renewable. Values of eco-indicators for bulk emulsion blasting agents are presented in Table 5. Table 5 Percentage and numerical values of the eco-indicator for the life cycle of 1 Mg of bulk emulsion explosives Category of environment impacts Ecological consequences Usage of Pt Carcinogens Resp. organics Resp. inorganics Climate change Radiation Ozone layer , Ecotoxicity Acidification / Eutrophication ,53 Land use ,02 Ecological consequences Minerals ,00 Fossil fuels Usage of Total Table 6 presents percentage values for particular life cycle stages of a bulk emulsion explosive at the eco-indicator level in relation to the total values of the eco-indicator. Table 6 Percentage values of particular life cycle stages of a bulk emulsion explosive at the eco-indicator level in relation to the total values of the eco-indicator Percentage values of particular life cycle stages at the eco-indicator level, Pt A1 EE A2 EE A3 EE B1 EE B2 EE C1 EE Total Interpretation The fourth stage comprises the interpretations of results and an analysis of all possible solutions, which could potentially lead to reducing the ecological noxiousness of the product being assessed. An assessment of results analysed at the eco-indicator level allows the presumption that ANFO has a potentially bigger adverse impact on the environment than a bulk emulsion explosive, and that there is a small number of main impact sources responsible for almost the whole impact on the environment taking into account the entire life cycle and its particular stages. For each analysed blasting material this includes the detonation process, and to a certain extent also the process of raw materials obtaining; for needs of the analysis it was assumed that the process of raw material obtaining comprises all processes from mining of the raw materials to the production of the specific product, substrate in reaction or products used as material inputs. For the analysed blasting materials this is as follows: ANFE of C1, 5.96 of A1, 6.35 of B1 bulk emulsion explosives of C1, 4.91 of A1. The full life cycle of the analysed explosives comprise a certain group of dominating impact categories of blasting materials, which cover climatic changes, inorganic respiratory problems as well as acidification and eutrophication. In accordance with the Model of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climatic changes are used to assess the impact category in the Eco-Indicator method by the global warming potential (GWP) expressed in kg of carbon dioxide per kg of emission pursuant to the FUND model (The Climate Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation and Distribution) developed by Tol [13], which was adapted to LCA. The objective of the studies was to determine the impact of greenhouse gases emission on human health, and in particular the increase in the incidence of illness or deaths, changes in ranges of illnesses spread by infections and an increased risk of infectious diseases. Tol s studies assumed that gases with a life time shorter than 20 years are preserved, e.g. methane; gases with a life time within the range of 20 to 110 years are preserved, e.g. carbon dioxide, and gases with a life time of more than 110 years are preserved, e.g. di-nitrous oxide. In the conducted analysis in the detonation phase the dominating impact in the environmental assessment was recorded for the amount of produced carbon dioxide, which shows that the amount of carbon dioxide is crucial as regards the greenhouse effect of the potentially least advantageous stage in the life cycle of blasting materials. It should be borne in mind that pursuant to guidelines of the standard PN-EN :2006 [14] the type of post-detonation reaction gases is crucial in allowing explosives for use in underground mining in Poland, but it concerns primarily nitrogen oxides and carbon oxide and does not cover carbon dioxide. science Carcinogens Resp. organics Resp. inorganics Climate change Radiation Ozone layer destruction Ecotoxicity Acidification / Eutrophication Land use Fuels Total Literature Huppes G., Simonis U. E., 1. Environmental Policy Instruments in a new era, CML-SSP Working Paper , Leiden Folmer H., Gabel L., Opschoor H.: 2. Ekonomia Środowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych (Economics of the Environment and Natural Resources), Wydawnictwo Krupski i S-ka, Warszawa Guinee J. B., Gorree M., Heijungs R., Kleijn R., De Koning A., Van Oers L., 3. Wegener Sleeswijk A., Suh S., Udo de Haes H. A., De Bruijn H., Huijbregts M. A. J., Lindeijer E., Roorda A. A. H., Van der Ven B. L., Weidema B. P., Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment; operational guide to the ISO standards. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht Goedkoop M., Spriensma R., 4. Eco-indicator 99 methodology report, Pré Consultants B.V., Amersfoort, The Netherlands PN-EN ISO 14044:2009. Zarządzanie środowiskowe Ocena cyklu życia 5. Wymagania i wytyczne (Environmental management Life cycle assessment Requirements and guidelines), Wyd. Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny, Warsaw nr 1/2014 tom 68 37

5 6. PN-EN ISO 14040:2009. Zarządzanie środowiskowe Ocena cyklu życia Zasady i struktura (Environmental management Life cycle assessment Rules and structure), Wyd. Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny, Warsaw Gruszka A., Niegowska E., Zarządzanie środowiskowe. Komentarz do norm serii ISO (Environmental management. Comments to series ISO standards), Wyd. Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny, Warsaw Maranda A., Przemysłowe materiały wybuchowe (Industrial blasting materials), Wydawnictwo Wojskowej Akademii Technicznej, Warsaw Maranda A., Gołąbek B., Kasperski J., Materiały wybuchowe emulsyjne (Emulsion blasting agents), Wydawnictwo Naukowo-Techniczne, Warsaw Kukfisz B., Maranda A., Ekologiczna analiza cyklu życia wybranych górniczych materiałów wybuchowych wykorzystujących technologie mechanicznego załadunku (Ecological life cycle assessment of selected mining explosives making use of mechanical loading technologies), Conference materials for the 8 th International Conference IPOEX 2012 Explosives Research Application Safety, Ustroń Zawodzie, Kukfisz B., Maranda A., Analiza oceny cyklu życia wybranych materiałów wybuchowych z zastosowaniem różnych jednostek funkcjonalnych (Analysis of life cycle assessment of elected explosives with the use of various functional units) Conference materials for the 10 th International Conference IPOEX 2013 Explosives Research Application Safety, Ustroń Zawodzie, Curran M. A., Life Cycle Assessment, Encyclopaedia of Ecology, Oxford, Academic Press Tol R. S. J., Time Discounting and Optimal Control of Climate Change: An Application of FUND, Climatic Change, 1999, 41, Standard PN-EN :2006, Materiały wybuchowe do użytku cywilnego. Materiały wybuchowe kruszące. Wymagania (Explosives for civilian use. High explosives. Requirements) Translation into English by the Author * Bożena KUKFISZ Ph.D., (Eng), graduated from the Faculty of Fire Safety Engineering of the Main School of Fire Service in Warsaw in the field of fire safety engineering (2005), Division of New Technology and Chemistry of the Military University of Technology in Warsaw in the field of hazardous materials and chemical rescuing (2006), and earned her doctoral degree at the Division of New Technology and Chemistry of the Military University of Technology in Warsaw in the field of material engineering (2012). She has obtained her scientific degree in the Central Mining Institute in Katowice (2013). At present she works as lecturer in the Institute of the Theory of Combustion, Explosion and Extinguishing Processes of the Main School of Fire Service in Warsaw. The scientific interests : comprise industrial safety engineering, identification of fire and explosion hazards and environmental engineering based on LCA analyses. phone: Andrzej MARANDA Professor (Sc.D., Eng) is a graduate of the Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology (1971). Currently, he works for the Military University of Technology and the Institute of Industrial Organic Chemistry. Research interests: chemistry, technology and the use of explosives, protection of the environment. He is the author of 5 monographs, 20 patents, over 500 articles, papers and posters at national and international conferences. phone: Z prasy światowej innowacje: odkrycia, produkty i technologie From the world press innovation: discoveries, products and technologies Elektrownie gazowo-parowe wspomagane energią słoneczną Elektrownie gazowo-parowe uznawane są obecnie za najbezpieczniejsze dla środowiska i klimatu źródła energii. Technologia taka osiąga już wydajność do 59 i jest ciągle optymalizowana. Jednym ze sposobów na zwiększenie efektywności elektrowni jest integracja energii słonecznej z blokami gazowo-parowymi; tak złożony układ został po raz pierwszy zaproponowany przez Luz Solar International, budowniczych elektrowni SEGS w Kalifornii. Według ich koncepcji, zintegrowana instalacja składała się z konwencjonalnej instalacji gazowo-parowej, kolektora słonecznego i słonecznego generatora pary. Tak zaprojektowana elektrownia hybrydowa posiadała szereg zalet, np. energia słoneczna była przekształcana w energię elektryczną z wydajnością ok.39. Profesor Dimityr Popov na łamach czasopisma Applied Thermal Engineering zaproponował innowacyjną koncepcję połączenia turbin gazowych i systemu zasilania słonecznego. Technologia ta nazwana została Solar Assisted Combined Cycle i proponuje dwa sposoby integracji energii słonecznej. Pierwsza opcja zakłada wprowadzenie agregatu mechanicznego do pełnego chłodzenia turbiny gazowej na wlocie powietrza; takie chłodzenie jest powszechnie stosowane dla zwiększenia mocy wyjściowej turbiny gazowej w gorące dni. Mechaniczny agregat zasilany jest z energii elektrycznej wytworzonej przez ogniwa fotowoltaiczne. Według drugiej opcji energia słoneczna stosowana jest do zasilenia agregatu parowego. Wydajność i łączne dodatkowe koszty rozwoju takich dwóch konfiguracji zostały oszacowane i zaprezentowane w artykule. (kk) (D. Popov, Innovative solar augmentation of gas turbine combined cycle plants, Applied Thermal Engineering 64 (2014) 40 50) Tkaniny kierunkowe w produkcji kompozytów Choć wielokierunkowe tkaniny szyte stosowane są w różnych aplikacjach od wielu lat, to w polskiej branży kompozytów zaczęły upowszechniać się stosunkowo niedawno. Tymczasem jest to jedno z najbardziej zaawansowanych wzmocnień stosowanych w wytwarzaniu materiałów kompozytowych. Tkaniny kierunkowe składają się z dwóch lub więcej warstw włókien ułożonych w jednym kierunku. Dopiero w kolejnych fazach produkcji warstwy są układane naprzemiennie warstwowo, a następnie zszyte razem. Taka konstrukcja posiada wiele istotnych zalet. Ze względu na fakt, iż włókna nie są przeplatane, lecz ułożone warstwowo, można uniknąć powstawania krzywizn i fałdowań. Ponadto wydłużenie tkaniny zostało zredukowane do minimum, dzięki czemu wytrzymałość włókna bezpośrednio przenosi się na wytrzymałość produktu końcowego, która jest znacznie wyższa od włókien plecionych. Kierunek ułożenia włókien jednej warstwy względem kolejnej jest precyzyjnie ustalany dla osiągnięcia możliwie optymalnego rozwiązania. W ten sposób wytwórca może mieć pewność osiągnięcia odpowiednich parametrów konstrukcji przy minimum materiału użytego do produkcji. Podczas układania każdej kolejnej warstwy jednocześnie ulega wzmocnieniu cały materiał kompozytowy w wielu kierunkach, co znacznie skraca czas pracy i poprawia wydajność. Poza tym, włókna w tkaninach kierunkowych są ułożone gęściej niż w tkaninach plecionych, co zmniejsza zużycie żywicy i ogranicza koszty. (kk) (http://www.plastech.pl, ) dokończenie na stronie nr 1/2014 tom 68

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