Diabetes Fundamentals

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1 Diabetes Fundamentals

2 Prevalence of Diabetes in the U.S. Undiagnosed 10.7% of all people % of all people 60+ (12.2 million) Slide provided by Roche Diagnostics Sources: ADA, WHO statistics

3 Prevalence of Diabetes in the U.A.E. 20% Undiagnosed Slide provided by Roche Diagnostics Sources: ADA, WHO statistics Note : As a % of UAE population of 6 Million in 2009 and 8 million in 2010

4 Pancreas: How Does It Work? The main job of the pancreas is to make insulin. When food is eaten, it is broken down into glucose. This causes glucose levels in the blood to rise. When glucose levels increase in the blood, insulin is released from the pancreas into the blood. Insulin removes the glucose from the blood. Insulin works like a key to let the glucose into the cells of your body. Glucose is needed for the cells to do important work.

5 Pancreas and Diabetes Diabetes occurs when the pancreas either does not make insulin or there is not enough insulin activity in the body. When a person has diabetes, glucose remains in the blood instead of going into the cells of the body. With Type 1 diabetes, this occurs because the pancreas produces little or no insulin. With Type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces insulin, but the insulin is not effective and does not remove the glucose from the blood.

6 How Insulin Works Adapted from Life with Diabetes: A Series of Teaching Outlines, American Diabetes Association, 2000.

7 Types of Diabetes Type 1 Typically diagnosed before age 35 Symptoms begin early Increased urination, thirst, and appetite Rapid Weight Loss Tiredness and fatigue Presence of ketones in the urine 5-10% of people with diabetes have Type 1

8 Types of Diabetes Type 2 Typically diagnosed after age 40 Usually overweight Symptoms may not be present Slow to heal cuts Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet Frequent skin, mouth, or bladder infections Increased urination or thirst 90-95% of people with diabetes have Type 2

9 Types of Diabetes Gestational Diabetes Occurs during pregnancy Usually diagnosed during the 5 th or 6 th month Occurs in about 4% of all pregnant women Women at high risk are those who have had babies weighing 9 pounds or more, have a family history of diabetes, are older, or are overweight

10 Types of Diabetes Pre-Diabetes Occurs when a person s blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes Often do not have symptoms present, but they are at increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes if lifestyle changes are not implemented

11 Diagnosis of Diabetes Fasting Blood Glucose 2 hours Postprandial Blood Glucose Normal 70 to 100 <140 Prediabetes >100 to to 199 Diabetes

12 How Do I Get Diabetes? You can t catch diabetes or get it from eating too many sweets Heredity plays a part with both Type 1 and Type 2 With Type 2, the main cause is being overweight Some ethnic groups are at higher risks fir developing Type 2 diabetes (i.e. African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanic Americans) Type 1 may be caused from an immune response

13 Blood Glucose Monitoring Monitoring gives you important information so you know how well your meal plan, exercise, and medication is balanced Tells you if you are reaching your blood glucose goals Goals: Normal ADA Goal Before meals (mg/dl) At bedtime (mg/dl) Peak after meals (mg/dl) 70 to to 130 Less than to to 140 Less than 180

14 Treatment Type 1 Always includes insulin Insulin injections via syringe or pen Insulin pump Insulin inhaler Watching what you eat Exercise

15 Insulin Insulin products differ by their onset of action (rapid, short, intermediate, and long), peak of action, and duration of action. Using insulin with different onsets and durations of action allows for tighter blood glucose control. Tight or intensive control means that your blood glucose levels are at or near normal, just as they would be if you did not have diabetes.

16 Insulin Common Insulin Products Rapid-acting insulin Insulin Aspart Solution NovoLog Insulin Lispro Solution Humalog Insulin Glulisine Injection ApidraTM Short-acting insulin Regular Insulin Injection Humulin R or Novolin R Intermediate-acting insulin NPH (Isophane Insulin Suspension) Humulin N or Novolin N Long-acting insulin Insulin Glargine Solution Lantus Insulin Detemir Solution - Levemir

17 Treatment Type 2 Weight Loss This is the first option usually tried through eating healthy and exercising Oral Medication Oral Medications are usually added if weight loss alone does not control blood sugars Insulin Injections If the above two options are not controlling blood glucose, insulin injections are then added

18

19 Where Oral Medications Work Pancreas Glyburide Glipizide Amaryl Starlix Prandin Precose Glyset Gut Less Insulin Produced More Glucose Produced by the Liver High Blood Glucose Carbohydrates in Diet Less Glucose Taken From Blood to Muscle Liver Metformin Actos Avandia Muscle

20 Short Term Complications Hypoglycemia When blood glucose level drops under 70mg/dL Has a fast onset and needs to be treated quickly Hyperglycemia When blood glucose level is above 180mg/dL Has a slow onset, so may be difficult to recognize

21 Symptoms of Hypoglycemia Shaking Fast Heartbeat Sweating Dizziness Anxious Hunger Impaired Vision Weakness Headache Irritable These materials were adapted from

22 Treatment of Hypoglycemia Test blood glucose If blood glucose is between 50-70mg/dL, eat 15 grams of carbohydrates If blood glucose is less than 50mg/dL, eat 30 grams of carbohydrates Wait 10 minutes and then retest blood glucose Eat snack if blood glucose level is still below 70mg/dL IF PERSON IS UNCONSCIOUS, GLUCAGON MAY BE NECESSARY OR CALL 911

23 Symptoms of Hyperglycemia Extreme Thirst Frequent Urination Dry Skin Hunger Blurred Vision Drowsiness Decreased Healing These materials were adapted from

24 Hyperglycemia

25 Treatment of Hyperglycemia Treatment depends on what caused the episode Drink plenty of fluids Check blood glucose and urine ketones Check blood glucose and ketones at least every 4 hours until back to normal May need to take more insulin if Type 1 Talk to healthcare professional if have moderate to large ketones

26 Checking Urine Ketones Dip a ketone test strip into a sample of urine. Wait at least one minute Compare the test pad color to the color chart on the side of the ketone strips vial Record your results in your blood glucose testing diary or log book Follow the manufacturer s recommendation for care and storage of your ketone strips

27 Long Term Complications Heart attack Stroke Impaired vision and blindness (retinopathy) Decreased circulation (peripheral vascular disease) Foot problems and amputations Nerve pain (neuropathy) Kidney disease (nephropathy) Frequent infections Sexual problems (impotence) Coronary heart disease High blood pressure Constipation or diarrhea Stomach bloating and nausea (gastroparesis)

28 Preventing Long Term Complications Keep your blood glucose at goal Quit smoking Keep your blood pressure at goal Keep your cholesterol at goal Eat a nutritious, low-fat diet Lose excess weight Be active Minimize stress Treat infections immediately Take a daily aspirin (if directed to do so) Have regular check-ups Take your medications as directed Limit alcohol intake

29 Summary There are four main types of diabetes: Type 1, Type 2, Gestational, and Prediabetes Blood glucose management is essential with all types Managing diabetes requires a balance between exercise, nutrition, and medication It is important to keep blood glucose levels close to target in order to prevent short and long term complications

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