Diabetes 101: A Brief Overview of Diabetes and the American Diabetes Association What Happens When We Eat?

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1 Diabetes 101: A Brief Overview of Diabetes and the American Diabetes Association What Happens When We Eat? After eating, most food is turned into glucose, the body s main source of energy. 1

2 Normal Blood Glucose Control In people without diabetes, glucose stays in a healthy range because Insulin is released at the right times and in the right amounts Insulin helps glucose enter cells High Blood Glucose (Hyperglycemia) Too little insulin is made In diabetes, blood glucose builds up for several possible reasons Liver releases too much glucose Cells can t use insulin well 2

3 Symptoms of Hyperglycemia Increased thirst Increased urination Blurry vision Feeling tired Slow healing of cuts or wounds More frequent infections Weight loss Nausea and vomiting Blindness Kidney disease Nerve damage Amputation Heart attack Stroke Hyperglycemia Can Cause Serious Long Term Problems Chronic complications of diabetes 3

4 Two Main Types of Diabetes Type 1 diabetes Pancreas makes too little or no insulin Type 2 diabetes Cells do not use insulin well (insulin resistance) Ability for pancreas to make insulin decreases over time Type 1 Diabetes 1 in 20 people with diabetes have type 1 Most people are under age 20 when diagnosed Body can no longer make insulin Insulin is always needed for treatment 4

5 Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms usually start suddenly Weight loss Loss of energy Increased thirst Frequent urination Diabetic ketoacidosis (emergency condition of nausea, vomiting, dehydration. Can lead to coma) Managing Type 1 Diabetes Blood glucose monitoring Education Healthy food choices Physical activity Insulin 5

6 Before and After Insulin Treatment Discovery of insulin in 1921 changed type 1 from a death sentence to a chronic disease 7-year-old child before and 3 months after insulin therapy Type 2 Diabetes Most people with diabetes have type 2 Most people are over age 40 when diagnosed, but type 2 is becoming more common younger adults, children and teens Type 2 is more likely in people who: Are overweight Are non Caucasian Have a family history of type 2 6

7 Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes Usually subtle or no symptoms in early stages: Increased thirst Increased urination Feeling tired Blurred vision More frequent infections Symptoms may be mistaken for other situations or problems 1 in 4 with type 2 aren t aware they have it Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes May Change Over a Lifetime Always Includes: Education Healthy eating Blood glucose monitoring Physical Activity May Include: Medications, including insulin 7

8 Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Being overweight Sedentary lifestyle Family history of diabetes History of gestational diabetes Age Ethnic/racial background: African American Hispanic/Latino Native American Asian American Obesity* Trends Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1991 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10% 14% 15% 19% 8

9 Obesity* Trends Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1994 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10% 14% 15% 19% Obesity* Trends Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2000 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 person) No Data <10% 10% 14% 15% 19% 20% 9

10 Obesity* Trends Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2006 (*BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5 4 person) 15% 19% 20% 24% 25% 29% 30% Diabetes Trends Among U.S. Adults (Includes Gestational Diabetes) BRFSS, 1990, 1995 and No Data <4% 4%-6% 6%-8% 8%-10% >10% Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC 10

11 Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults No Data <10% 10% 14% 15% 19% 20% 24% 25% 29% 30% Diabetes in the United States Nearly 26 million people in the U.S. have diabetes 7 million people with diabetes are undiagnosed 8.3% of the U.S. population 26.9% of U.S. residents aged 65 years and older 1.9 million Americans aged 20 years or older were newly diagnosed with diabetes in 2010 Every 17 seconds, someone is diagnosed with diabetes Source: National Diabetes Fact Sheet,

12 Burden of Diabetes in the United States The leading cause of: new blindness among adults kidney failure non traumatic lower limb amputations Increases the risk of heart attack and stroke by 2 4 fold 7 th leading cause of death Mortality rates 2 4 times greater than non diabetic people of the same age Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Burden of Diabetes in the United States Total direct and indirect cost of diagnosed diabetes is $245 billion a year Total diabetes related costs are more when you add gestational diabetes, prediabetes, and undiagnosed diabetes 1 in 5 health care dollars is spent caring for someone with diagnosed diabetes 1 in 10 health care dollars is attributed directly to diabetes 12

13 What is Prediabetes? 1 in 3 American adults (79 million) have prediabetes Occurs before type 2 diabetes Blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not yet diabetes Most people with prediabetes don t know they have it Is There Any Good News? Yes, we can reduce the chances of developing type 2 diabetes in high risk people (weight loss, exercise, medications) Yes, we can reduce the chances of developing diabetes complications through: Blood glucose control (diet, monitoring, medication) Blood pressure control Cholesterol control Regular visits to healthcare providers Early detection and treatment of complications 13

14 Preventive Efforts Are Key Most of the diabetes costs are due to end stage complications Investment of resources into early diagnosis, patient education, prevention and treatments pays off in: Longer lives Increased productivity Reduced costs over the long term Steps to Lower Your Risk of Diabetes Complications A1C < 7 Blood pressure < 140/80 Cholesterol (LDL) < 100, statin therapy for high risk Get help to quit smoking Be active Make healthy food choices Take care of your feet Get recommended screenings and early treatment for complications 14

15 The American Diabetes Association: What We Do Research In 2012, the Association made $34.6 million available to support diabetes research This funding supported 450 active projects performed by 400 investigators at 130 leading research institutions Over the years, the Association has invested more than $640 million in diabetes research The American Diabetes Association: What We Do Education Center for Information and Community Support communicates through phone, and chats Health fairs, programs, camps and other events target millions of people around the country Award winning books and Diabetes Forecast magazine for consumers Journals, books, and clinical guidelines for health care professionals Scientific Sessions: Largest diabetes meeting in the world 15

16 The American Diabetes Association: What We Do Advocacy Seek increased federal and state funding for diabetes prevention, treatment and research Promote public policies to prevent diabetes Advocate to improve the availability of accessible, adequate and affordable health care Fight discrimination people with diabetes face at school, work, and elsewhere in their lives. More Information DIABETES Social media information: Web: 16

17 FROM THE CERTIFIED DIABETES EDUCATOR PERSPECTIVE Lois L Exelbert, RN, CDE, BC ADM Diabetes Care Services Baptist Hospital of Miami Finally, Great news 17

18 BUT MORE ROOM FOR IMPROVEMENT Complications Relate to Abnormal Blood Sugars, Blood Pressure, Blood Fats Normal Blood Sugars Not Easy to Achieve Fasting hours post meal < 140 A1C < 6.5% Famous ADA triangle meal planning, medication, exercise NO SPECIAL DIABETIC DIET!! Regular, mixed meals protein, high fiber carbs and healthy fats Food every 4 5 waking hours Fresh is best! Limit concentrated sweets but they are not poison! Personalize with a Registered Dietitian, CDE 18

19 REGULAR EXERCISE DOES NOT MEAN RUNNING A MARATHON! minutes a day can be split Walking is fine Cardiovascular with resistance training is best Personalize with a Exercise Physiologist, CDE MEDICATION 8 totally different categories of oral medications 23 in all! 6 different acting types of insulin (15 in all) 2 non insulin injectable medications Not every care provider is aware of prescribing these appropriately or safely be choosy! Obtain CDE assistance 19

20 How to live with Diabetes REGULARLY SCHEDULED CLASSES IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH 8950 North Kendall Drive Resource Center 1 st floor SUPPORT GROUPS CALL

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