Master of Science Thesis The Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package' and Model Driven Architecture

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1 Master of Science Thesis The Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package' and Model Driven Architecture Jan van Bennekom-Minnema May 2008 Professor: prof. dr. ir. P.J.M. van Oosterom Delft University of Technology Supervisor: ir. C.H.J. Lemmen International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), and The Netherlands Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster)

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3 The Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package' and Model Driven Architecture i Preface My graduation research project (also referred to as the master thesis project) has been performed from September 2007 to May 2008, concluding the MSc programme Geographical Information Management and Applications (GIMA, URL 1). During my GIMA MSc programme, since September 2005, I became father of a beautiful daughter Isabel, got married with my dear and beautiful wife Ilse, got hospitalised and recovered, moved to another village, worked in Croatia, Romania, Uzbekistan, Trinidad & Tobago, and Ghana, and became father of another beautiful daughter Phileine. I would not have achieved what I did, if Ilse wouldn't have supported and facilitated me like she did in combining and performing all these activities. My graduation research project has been conducted under supervision of the Delft University of Technology, the International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), and the Netherlands Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (Kadaster). Peter van Oosterom has accommodated me greatly with his knowledge, support, reviews, and commitment, demonstrated during the course of my graduation research project. I would like to express my gratitude to both Ilse and Peter, but also to Chrit Lemmen, and Joao da Fonseca Hespanha de Oliveira, co-authors of our article "The Model Driven Architecture approach applied to the Land Administration Domain Model version with focus on constraints specified in the Object Constraint Language", and the external supervisors and technical experts from Kadaster: Klaas van der Hoek, Joop van Buren, Hans Swarts en Tom Venhorst, for all their support. Jan van Bennekom-Minnema May 30, 2008 Master Thesis. Report

4 ii Master Thesis Report MSc Programme 'Geographical Information Management and Applications'

5 The Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package' and Model Driven Architecture iii Table of Contents Preface Summary List of Figures List of Terms and Abbreviations i vii xiii xvii 1 Introduction Objective and Research Question Approach Evaluation of LADM 'Survey Package' Evaluation of Model Driven Architecture Evaluation of Constraints in Data Modelling Performing the Case Study: Survey Package Kadaster and LADM Create MDA Prototype to Implement Adapted LADM 'Survey Package' Report Structure 6 2 The Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package' Introduction Land Administration Domain Models Core Cadastral Domain Model (Sixth version) Land Administration Domain Model Social Tenure Domain Model Survey Package Parcel SurveyPoint SourceDocument and SurveyDocument LegalSpaceBuilding 12 Master Thesis. Report

6 iv Master Thesis Report 2.4 Extension of LADM 'Survey Package' Conclusion 16 3 Model Driven Architecture Introduction MDA Viewpoints and Models Object - Relational Contrast Standards Relevant to MDA ISO19107 Standard: Spatial schema ISO/IEC SQL/MM - Part 3: Spatial Unified Modelling Language (UML) Extensible Mark-up Language (XML) Meta Object Facility (MOF) XML Metadata Interchange (XMI) Object Constraint Language (OCL) Geography Mark-up Language (GML) Simple Features Profile for GML Simple Feature Access for SQL (SFA-SQL) Conclusion 26 4 Constraints in Data Modelling Introduction Implementation of Constraints Classification of Constraints from Platform Specific Viewpoint Practices with Regard to Constraints Constraints Repository Constraint Views OCL Spatial Conclusion 38 5 Kadaster Survey Measurements and LADM SP Introduction Kadaster and Survey Measurements st Phase Free Network Adjustment nd Phase Control Point Constrained Network Adjustment Information Required for Survey Measurement Handling Project "Registration Map Quality" Adjustment of LADM 'Survey Package' (PIM) Conclusion 50 MSc Programme 'Geographical Information Management and Applications'

7 The Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package' and Model Driven Architecture v 6 MDA Prototype Introduction Transformation Possibilities in EA EA Transformation Definition EA Software Developers Kit OCL in Enterprise Architect MDA Prototype Set-up Based on EA Prototype Constants and Data Type Mapping PIM and PSM Setup for Prototype MDA Prototype Transformations First Transformation from PIM to PSM Tagged Values Second Transformation from PSM-1 to PSM Transformation of Super and Sub Classes Geometry Data types, Indexes and Spatial Constraints Transformation of <<enumeration>> and <<CodeList>> Classes Third Transformation from PIM OCL to PSM OCL Implementation Transformed Adjusted LADM 'Survey Package' (PSM-2) Conclusion 80 7 Deployment of the Adapted LADM 'Survey Package' Introduction Open Source Tools PostgreSQL and PostGIS udig FWTools Transformation from PSM to DDL (PostgreSQL/PostGIS) Populating the PSM in PostgreSQL/PostGIS with Data Parcels and Buildings for the Province of Utrecht (February 2008) Administrative Structure for The Netherlands (January 2007) Survey Measurements for the Netherlands (April December 2007) Description of Data Load Process into PostGIS Analysis Connection Points Exclude Outliers in Connection Points Aggregation Level: The Netherlands Aggregation Level: Cadastral Offices Aggregation Level: Cadastral Municipalities Aggregation Level: Cadastral Sections 108 Master Thesis. Report

8 vi Master Thesis Report Aggregation Level: Connection Points Conclusion Conclusions and Recommendations The Research Objective and Approach Reviewed Conclusions Recommendations Appendices 121 Appendix A: LADM UML Class Diagrams 122 Appendix B: Overview LADM/CCDM/STDM Classes 127 Appendix C: Examples of Survey Files (Kadaster) 130 Appendix D: Examples of EA Transformation Definition 'PostgreSQL' 131 Appendix E: Example EA MDA Prototype Source Code 143 Appendix F: Details on First Transformation in MDA Prototype (PIM to PSM-1) 153 Appendix G: Details on Second Transformation in MDA Prototype (PSM-1 to PSM-2) 162 Appendix H: Details on Third Transformation in MDA Prototype (PIM OCL to PSM-2) 170 Appendix I: Details on the Generation of DDL Scripts in MDA Prototype (PSM-2 to PostgreSQL/PostGIS) 180 Appendix J: Load Data into Adapted LADM 'Survey Package' PostGIS Database 186 Appendix K: Stored Function to Select Survey Points for Analysis 191 Relevant Internet Pages (URL's) 195 References 197 MSc Programme 'Geographical Information Management and Applications'

9 The Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package' and Model Driven Architecture vii Summary Key words: Land Administration Domain Model, Survey Package, Model Driven Architecture, Object Constraint Language, spatial constraints, Enterprise Architect. Introduction The master of science thesis project called "The Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package' and Model Driven Architecture" will be described and concluded in this report. The main subjects for the research are the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM), specifically the Survey Package, dealing with survey measurements. Secondly, the Model Driven Architecture (MDA), a software design methodology to generate platform specific information systems based on platform independent models, specified in the Unified Modelling Language (UML) and the Object Constraint Language (OCL). A custom developed MDA Prototype has been developed, aiming at the implementation of the Adapted LADM 'Survey Package' in a PostgreSQL/PostGIS object-relational database. Thirdly, an analysis of the quality of the Dutch cadastral map is performed, based on data loaded into this the Adapted LADM 'Survey Package' PostGIS database. The objective of the master thesis project was translated into the below mentioned main research question, which has been answered by literature research, case studies, and practical experiments, as described in this Master Thesis Report: How can the Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package' be implemented and deployed based on Model Driven Architecture principles, and how can the Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package' be extended and improved? The master thesis project will be summarised in the following sections by describing the main topics, highlighting the results and describing the recommendations for future development and research. Master Thesis. Report

10 viii Master Thesis Report Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) The Land Administration Domain Model (LADM), in the form of a UML class diagram, models the object classes of land registration and cadastre [Lemmen and Van Oosterom, 2006]. The LADM is described in an ISO TC211 standard 19152, currently "under development" [ISO/TC211, 2008]. The Land Administration Domain Model consists of a number of packages; the Survey Package contains classes, related to survey measurements, e.g. the class SurveyPoint and SurveyDocument. One of the goals of the LADM is to "serve as a basis for land administration system development executed on Model Driven Architecture principles". Evaluation of extension of the LADM 'Survey Package' As a basis for experimenting with Model Driven Architecture principles in a MDA prototype, classes of the LADM, as well as non-ladm classes have been selected and adapted, referred to as the Adapted LADM 'Survey Package', which has been influenced by the availability of test data provided by Kadaster. In this process, some improvements have been recommended, for example the consideration of the class Survey Project. Various publications have been discussed [Ingvarsson, 2005, Lee, 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, 2006b], which provide a basis for further improvements of the LADM 'Survey Package'. Model Driven Architecture (MDA) Model Driven Architecture (MDA) is a software design methodology to generate information systems on different target platforms, based on platform independent models and specifications. A platform independent model (PIM) contains platform independent details on application's data (data types) and functionality (operations). Based on MDA transformation rules, described in the platform specific transformation specification, the PIM will be preferably be converted automatically into a platform specific model (PSM), adding platform specific details to the model. For example, the transformation, from an object-oriented PIM to a PSM, targeting an object-relational database (investigated in this master thesis project), requires a mapping of object-oriented to relational data types and operations, described in MDA transformation rules. MDA is supported by the standards Meta Object Facility (MOF), Object Constraint Language (OCL), Unified Modelling Language (UML) as specified by the Object Management Group [OMG, 2003, OMG, 2006a, OMG, 2006b, OMG, 2007b]. Object Constraint Language (OCL) One of the standards discussed is the Object Constraint Language (OCL), a formal language, which has been defined as an extension to UML, to define those constraints, which cannot be recorded in UML. Constraints assessed and classified from an implementation viewpoint From an implementation viewpoint, OCL invariants have been divided into: constraints applicable to one instance; constraints applicable to multiple instances for one class; or constraints applicable to multiple instances of multiple classes. Relational databases offer functionality to implement constraints with regard to mandatory columns, primary key, unique key, and foreign key constraints, and simple base table check constraints. For other types of constraints, examples of OCL MSc Programme 'Geographical Information Management and Applications'

11 The Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package' and Model Driven Architecture ix invariants have been defined on the Adapted LADM 'Survey Package' UML class diagram, and used in discussions and experiments on implementation. Constraints implementation method specified for validation at transaction level For this implementation of constraints in a relational database, the SQL assertion and the base table check constraint with sub queries could be useful, but this functionality is not offered by object-relational databases like PostgreSQL/PostGIS. An alternative implementation of OCL constraints is required with row and statement level triggers, and for some constraints, transaction level triggers are needed, which check the constraints only after executing a group of DML statements (Data Manipulation Language, i.e. insert, update, delete) for multiple tables. Transaction level triggers imply the implementation of a (custom developed) transaction management mechanism, which has been described. MDA Prototype, Based on Enterprise Architect Enterprise Architect (EA, URL 18, [SparxSystems, 2007]) offers standard support for relatively straightforward MDA transformation rules from object-oriented PIMs to relational database models (PSM), but more sophisticated transformations (e.g. the implementation of enumeration classes and attributes as base table check constraints) require a considerable custom development. With regard to OCL, Enterprise Architect offers validation of OCL constraints, but is not capable of transforming or implementing OCL constraints into a relational database, unless custom developed functionality is created, based on the EA Software Development Kit (EA SDK). MDA Prototype created which automatically transforms PIM to PSM to PostGIS A Model Driven Architecture (MDA) prototype has been built, based on the MDA processes and transformations, and with help of the possibilities offered by Enterprise Architect (EA) software and toolkit, to investigate the transformation of an object oriented platform independent model (PIM) to a platform specific model (PSM). The Adapted LADM 'Survey Package' functioned as the PIM (i.e. a UML class diagram), and the target PSM is an object-relational PostgreSQL database, with a PostGIS extension for spatial data and functions. MDA prototype transforms and implements geometric data types and operations The MDA prototype is capable of executing MDA transformation rules from PIM to PSM, handling and transforming a selection of geometric data types (e.g. GM_Point, GM_LineString, GM_Polygon). The MDA prototype has some limited functionality with regard to implementing spatial and non-spatial OCL invariants as based table check constraints, and with regard to transforming OCL defined on PIM elements to OCL based on PSM elements. Master Thesis. Report

12 x Master Thesis Report Solution for differences between O-O (PIM) and relational DBMS (PSM) The MDA prototype is based on a selection of MDA Transformation Rules, applicable to specific PIM elements (in UML/OCL), resulting in a PSM implementation for each of the PIM elements. If the "gap" between object-oriented (PIM) and relational DBMS (PSM) is not too big, the transformation can be relatively simple and less arbitrary. When the difference between PIM and PSM elements is significant, a more complex implementation choice will have to be made (and custom developed). A working Adapted LADM 'Survey Package' generated and implemented in objectrelational database PostgreSQL/PostGIS by MDA Prototype Based on the experiments with the MDA prototype, it is expected that the majority of MDA transformation rules, including the ones that have not been considered in the master thesis project, can be performed automatically, including handling and transforming a selection of geometric data types, provided that the PIM and PSM elements, and transformations between them are well defined and structured. The PIM of the Adapted LADM 'Survey Package' has been automatically generated by the MDA prototype to a PSM. The PSM has been used to generate DDL scripts for the creation of a PostGIS database, to serve as the basis for the analysis of the quality of the Dutch cadastral map. Kadaster project "Registration Map Quality" A Kadaster project called "Registration Map Quality" is dealing with differences between the measured coordinates of objects (i.e. parcels and buildings), and, the adjusted (NL: vereffende) coordinates of the representations of those objects on the digital map, respectively before and after the 2nd phase control point constrained network adjustment (NL: tweede fase aansluitings-vereffening) [van Buren, 2006]. The 2nd phase adjustment transforms the (accurate) measurements, to fit them into the (less accurate) cadastral map. These differences provide an indication of the quality of the (digital) cadastral map. Performed analysis of the quality of the Dutch cadastral map at different levels Kadaster has provided data to populate the implementation of the Adapted LADM 'Survey Package' PSM in PostGIS (generated by the MDA Prototype). Several comments to the provided data have been made, and specifically the survey measurements from April 2006 to December 2007, loaded in 2 steps into PostGIS, have been subject to an analysis. The conclusion was drawn that in general, the required "graphical precision" of maximum 20 and 40 cm difference (between measured and transferred coordinate) in respectively urban and rural areas is obtained. The lowest difference (best quality) is seen in cadastral office Flevoland and Roermond, the highest is seen in Zoetermeer. However, individual cases (of cadastral sections) exist where these maximum differences were exceeded, even if the norm is applied that 95% of the measurements should compy with the maximum 20/40 cm differences. Further analysis is recommended into these exeptions, as well as into the large outliers that where identified. MSc Programme 'Geographical Information Management and Applications'

13 The Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package' and Model Driven Architecture xi Open source tools used for Adapted LADM 'Survey Package' Open source tools have been used extensively for the activities of the master thesis project, like object-relational database PostgreSQL/PostGIS, udig for visualisation of geographical data (analysis) in PostGIS, and FWTools for converting spatial data to and from PostGIS, and have proven to be suitable and stable. Conclusion The original scope and priorities of the master thesis project have been changed, the focus and priority were set on this part of the objective: "to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach by performing a literature study, and by creating a prototype of the (adapted) LADM Survey Package, based on MDA principles". The significance of this master thesis project is determined by the work leading to: The conclusion that a transformation from a PIM to a PSM, based on MDA principles (i.e. platform specific transformation specification) can be performed fully automatically for most MDA transformation rules, also for spatial data types. The recommendation to design and build a MDA tool, fully compliant with MOF, UML, OCL; expanding the current amount and variety of MDA Transformation Rules; using XMI as model exchange format; capable of implementing UML elements and OCL constraints (PIM) in object-relational databases (PSM), in relation to the recommendation to extend OCL with spatial definitions of data types and operations. The preliminary analysis based on survey measurement project from April December 2007, indicating that the quality of the Dutch Cadastral Map is compliant with the requested "graphical precision", in combination with the recommendation to perform additional research in some of the exceptions. Other recommendations for future research have been provided, summarised as: Extend and implement the LADM 'Survey Package' The observed errors and established improvements can be used to extend the LADM 'Survey Package', also based on the mentioned relevant publications [Lee, 2005, Open Geospatial Consortium, 2006b]. The MDA tool will be used to implement the LADM 'Survey Package' again into PostGIS. The MDA tool should be extended to operate with more geometric and topological data types, structures and operation, as well as 'spatial' OCL. The OCL invariants will be (semi-)automatically implemented based on a database transaction management mechanism. Implement improvements with regard to survey measurement handling Further analysis of the processes and data with regard to survey measurement handling will be performed. One of the objectives is to be able to perform a reverse "fitting" process where accurate measurements are used to improve the quality of the cadastral map, as opposed to adjusting the accurate measurements to the (less accurate) map, as it is currently conducted. Master Thesis. Report

14 xii Master Thesis Report MSc Programme 'Geographical Information Management and Applications'

15 The Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package' and Model Driven Architecture xiii List of Figures Figure 1 - The Core LADM Classes (taken from [ISO/TC211, 2008], fig.1)...8 Figure 2 Parcel & SpatialRepresentation (adapted from [ISO/TC211, 2008], fig.4)...10 Figure 3 SurveyPoint & TP_Primitive (adapted from [ISO/TC211, 2008], fig.4)...11 Figure 4 SourceDocument & SurveyDocument (adapted from [ISO/TC211, 2008], fig.4)...12 Figure 5 LegalSpaceBuilding (adapted from [ISO/TC211, 2008], fig.3)...12 Figure 6 - Survey Observation Types (taken from [Lee, 2005], Figure 5.4)...13 Figure 7 - Specialisations of Observation (taken from [Open Geospatial Consortium, 2006b], Figure 2)...14 Figure 8 - Event and Observation types (taken from [Open Geospatial Consortium, 2006b], Figure 1)...15 Figure 9 - MDA Elements and Processes, drawn up from the MDA Guide [OMG, 2003]...18 Figure 10 - ISO19107 geometry basic classes (adapted from [ISO/TC211, 2003b], Figure 5)...21 Figure 11 - Examples of ISO/IEC SQL/MM - Part 3 methods...22 Figure 12 - Example of MOF levels (adapted from [OMG, 2007a], Figure 7.8)...23 Figure 13 - Example of XMI file generated byenterprise Architect...24 Figure 14 - Example of OCL Constraint...28 Figure 15 - Example of Transaction, Statement and Row level DML on survey_document and survey_point...31 Figure 16 - Example Rule Notation Oracle Designer (process event, and primary key)...34 Figure 17 - Egenhofer Operations, to be used in OCL (taken from [Pinet et al., 2005])...36 Figure 18 - New OCL Basic Types (taken from [Pinet et al., 2005])...37 Figure 19 - Kadaster Process for Handling Survey Measurements (LKI, TIR, MOVE3)...41 Figure 20 - Adapted LADM 'Survey Package', Input to the MDA Prototype...48 Figure 21 - Adapted LADM 'Survey Package'; <<enumeration>>, <<CodeList>>, and <<type>> classes...49 Figure 22 - EA Standard Transformation Definition "DDL", conversion template Class is selected...53 Figure 23 - Conversion Template Structure for the EA Transformation PIM to PSM Figure 24 - Conversion Template for Namespace (Package)...55 Figure 25 - EA Transformation Intermediary File (first part)...55 Master Thesis. Report

16 xiv Master Thesis Report Figure 26 - EA SDK Interface Object Model (taken from [SparxSystems, 2007], section )...56 Figure 27 - Example of Program Unit 'SetClassTagValue'...57 Figure 28 - Example of Program Units used by Transformation Definitions / Conversion Template for Class...57 Figure 29 - GIMA EA Prototype Start Dialog Box...59 Figure 30 - The Prototype Add-in menu for EA...60 Figure 31 - Prototype User Interface for Transformations...60 Figure 32 - Prototype Constants (PrototypeConstants.xml)...61 Figure 33 - PIM (Source) and PSM (Target) Data Type Mapping (DatatypeMapping.xml)...61 Figure 34 - Prototype Set-up (Package Dependency Diagram) in Enterprise Architect for the Adapted LADM 'Survey Package'...62 Figure 35-2nd Transformation (PSM-1 to PSM-2): Implement Super class in Sub class...68 Figure 36-2nd Transformation (PSM-1 to PSM-2): <<enumeration>> Class...71 Figure 37-2nd Transformation (PSM-1 to PSM-2): <<CodeList>> Class...71 Figure 38 - Constraint Property "Status": "PSM check"...74 Figure 39 - The LADM SP PSM-2 - part Figure 40 - The LADM SP PSM-2 - part Figure 41 - The LADM SP PSM-2 - part Figure 42 - udig Screenshot (showing part of Province of Utrecht, with Measured Survey Points)...84 Figure 43 - Kadaster Data Provided: Parcels (ut_vlak, ut_prnr), Buildings (ut_gebw2nd)...88 Figure 44 - Parcel with Interior Rings...89 Figure 45 - Parcels and Buildings (Province of Utrecht, February 2008)...89 Figure 46 - Non-Closed Building Linestrings...90 Figure 47 - Cadastral Office, Municipalities & Sections...91 Figure 48 - Cadastral Municipality with Multiple Polygons and Interior Rings...92 Figure 49 - Cadastral Section with Multiple Polygons and Interior Rings...92 Figure 50 - Cadastral Office Utrecht (showing Cadastral Municipalities)...93 Figure 51 - Cadastral Municipality Houten...94 Figure 52 - Cadastral Municipality Houten (with Parcels and Buildings)...94 Figure 53 - Measured Connection Points (April December 2007)...96 Figure 54 - Kadaster Data, Detail of Cadastral Municipality Houten...98 Figure 55 - Buildings and Connection Points (Measured and Transferred Coordinates)...98 Figure 56 - Outlier in Survey Project (with oid 9100) Figure 57 - Overview Survey Points per Cadastral Office (Different Treatment of Outliers) Figure 58 - Difference Connection Point Coordinates (Aggregated per Cadastral Office) Figure 59 - Difference Connection Point Coordinates (Aggregated per Cadastral Municipality) Figure 60 - Difference Connection Point Coordinates (Aggregated per Cadastral Section) Figure 61 - Difference Connection Point Coordinates (Thiessen Polygons Created from Connection Points) MSc Programme 'Geographical Information Management and Applications'

17 The Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package' and Model Driven Architecture xv Figure 62 - Percentage of Connection Points per Cadastral Section (Originally Measured in 'gnss') with a Difference below or equal to 40 cm (The Netherlands) Figure 63 - Percentage of Connection Points per Cadastral Section (Originally Measured in 'gnss') with a Difference below or equal to 40 cm (Province of Utrecht) Figure 64 - Difference Connection Point Coordinates for Province of Utrecht (Aggregated per Cadastral Municipality) Figure 65 - Difference Connection Point Coordinates for Province of Utrecht (Aggregated per Cadastral Section) Figure 66 - Difference (Between Measured and Transferred Coordinate of a Connection Point) presented as Vector Figure 67 - Connection Points overlaid with Thiessen Polygons Figure 68 - Detail of Province of Utrecht Figure 69 - LADM Registered Objects (taken from [ISO/TC211, 2008], fig.2) Figure 70 - LADM Parcels (taken from [ISO/TC211, 2008], fig.3) Figure 71 - LADM Spatial Representation of Parcels and Survey Points (taken from [ISO/TC211, 2008], fig.4) Figure 72 - LADM Documents (taken from [ISO/TC211, 2008], fig.5) Figure 73 - LADM Enumeration and CodeList classes (taken from [ISO/TC211, 2008], fig.6) Figure 74 - Overview of LADM classes in different articles Figure 75 - Files Used during Handling Survey Measurements(LKI, TIR, MOVE3) Figure 76 - Overview EA Transformation Definition "PostgreSQL" Figure 77 - Example EA Prototype: Transformation Template "Class" Figure 78 - Example EA Prototype: Transformation Template "Connector" Figure 79 - Selected Program Units for First MDA Transformation: Prototype Figure 80 - Selected Program Units for Second and Third MDA Transformation: Transformation Figure 81 - Example EA Prototype: GetClassTagValue Figure 82 - Example EA Prototype: ProcessEnumerationClass Figure 83 - Example EA Prototype: transformtopsm Figure 84 - First Transformation with EA Transformation Definition (EA user interface) Figure 85-1st Transformation (PIM to PSM-1): CodeList & Enumeration Class Figure 86-1st Transformation (PIM to PSM-1): Class to Table Figure 87 - Prototype Constants Primary Key Name and Data Type, and Tagged Value for Sequence Figure 88-1st Transformation (PIM to PSM-1): Generalisation Figure 89-1st Transformation (PIM to PSM-1): Many-to-Many Associations Figure 90-1st Transformation (PIM to PSM-1): One-to-Many Associations Figure 91 - Prototype Report after 2nd transformation from PSM-1 to PSM Figure 92-2nd Transformation (PSM-1 to PSM-2): Column Cardinality Figure 93 - Transformation (PSM-1 to PSM-2): Attribute -> Column Data type Figure 94-2nd Transformation (PSM-1 to PSM-2): uniqueness constraints Figure 95-2nd Transformation (PSM-1 to PSM-2): order of columns within a class Figure 96 - Prototype Report after 3rd transformation from PIM OCL to PSM-2 OCL Master Thesis. Report

18 xvi Master Thesis Report Figure 97-3rd Transformation (from PIM OCL to PSM-2): Implement Range Constraint Figure 98-3rd Transformation (from PIM OCL to PSM-2): Implement Format Constraint Figure 99-3rd Transformation (from PIM OCL to PSM-2): Implement Tuple Constraint Figure Define a Sequence in Enterprise Architect Figure Temporary Tables Containing Survey Projects and Connection Points Figure Prototype User Interface to create DML/SQL insert scripts for 3 tables Figure Example of PostGIS load function: load_survey_point() Figure Example of PostGIS load function: load_survey_point_analysis() MSc Programme 'Geographical Information Management and Applications'

19 The Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package' and Model Driven Architecture xvii List of Terms and Abbreviations Term/Abbreviation (NL: text) API ASCII CASE CCDM CIM CIV DDL DML DRA Description Dutch translation of preceding English term, e.g. word (NL: woord). Application Programming Interface. American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Computer Aided Software Engineering. Core Cadastral Domain Model, currently referred to as LADM. Computation Independent Model in MDA. Computation Independent Viewpoint in MDA. Data Definition Language, defining database elements, e.g. create table scripts. Data Manipulation Language, SQL commands for manipulation of data in relational databases, e.g. SELECT, INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE. Digital Reconstruction Archive, with the 1st phase free network adjustment results based on survey measurements. EA Enterprise Architect (URL 18). EA SDK Enterprise Architect Software Development Kit. ETRS89 European Terrestrial Reference System. FIG International Federation of Surveyors (URL 7). GIMA Master of Science in Geographical Information Management and Applications (URL 1). GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System. IDE Integrated Development Environment. INSPIRE Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe (URL 10). ISO/TC211 International Organization for Standardization, Technical Committee 211 on standardization in the field of digital geographic information (URL 8). Kadaster The Netherlands Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency (URL 2). LADM Land Administration Domain Model, a.k.a. CCDM. LADM SP Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package'. LKI Surveying Cartographic Information (NL: Landmeetkundig Kartografische Informatie). MDA Model Driven Architecture. MDA prototype The MDA prototype of the master thesis project, based on Enterprise Architect software, as described in Chapter 6 and 7. MDG Model Driven Generation. MOF Meta-Object Facility. MOVE3 MOVE3 (URL 21), software for the design, adjustment, and quality control of 3D, 2D and 1D geodetic networks, the processing of inbound and outbound measurements. O&M OGCs Observations and Measurements model, as part of the Web Enablement activities (SWE). Master Thesis. Report

20 xviii Master Thesis Report Term/Abbreviation Description OCL Object Constraint Language. OGC Open Geospatial Consortium (URL 5). OMG Object Management Group (URL 6). Oracle CDM Oracle s Custom Development Method. PIM Platform Independent Model in MDA. PIV Platform Independent Viewpoint in MDA. PSM Platform Specific Model in MDA. PSV Platform Specific Viewpoint in MDA. RD "Rijksdriehoek" 2D spatial reference system, used in the Netherlands, spatial reference id RDBMS Relational DataBase Management System. SDK Software Development Kit. SFA-SQL OpenGIS Simple Features Specification for SQL [Open Geospatial Consortium, 1999]. SQL Structured Query Language. SRID Spatial Reference IDentifier of a spatial reference system. STDM Social Tenure Domain Model, a specialisation of the LADM. SWE OGCs Web Enablement activities. the master thesis project The master thesis project "The Land Administration Domain Model 'Survey Package' and Model Driven Architecture", described in this document. TIR Terrestrial Collection and Reconstruction (NL: Terrestrische Inwinning & Reconstructie). UML Unified Modelling Language. UN-Habitat The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (URL 9). URL Uniform Resource Locator, a string of characters used to represent and identify a page of information on the Internet. XML extended Mark-up Language. MSc Programme 'Geographical Information Management and Applications'

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João HESPANHA, Portugal, Jan VAN BENNEKOM-MINNEMA, Peter VAN OOSTEROM and Christiaan LEMMEN, the Netherlands The Model Driven Architecture Approach Applied to the Land Administration Domain Model Version 1.1 - with Focus on Constraints Specified in the Object Constraint Language João HESPANHA, Portugal, Jan VAN

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