Building Stemmas with the Computer in a Cladistic, Neo-Lachmannian, Way

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Building Stemmas with the Computer in a Cladistic, Neo-Lachmannian, Way"

Transcription

1 Building Stemmas with the Computer in a Cladistic, Neo-Lachmannian, Way The Case of Fourteen Text Versions of Lanseloet van Denemerken Een wetenschappelijke proeve op het gebied van de Letteren PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, volgens besluit van het College van Decanen in het openbaar te verdedigen op vrijdag 18 februari 2000 des namiddags om 1.30 uur precies door Benedictus Johannes Paulus Salemans geboren op 10 december 1955 te Maastricht

2 Promotor: Prof. dr. G.R.W. Dibbets Manuscriptcommissie: Prof. dr. E.M.P. van Gemert (KUN) Prof. dr. Th.F.C. Mertens (UFSIA) Prof. dr. P.Th. van Reenen (VU) 2000 Ben Salemans, Nijmegen ISBN (Ben Salemans) ISBN (Nijmegen University Press)

3 CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS THIS BOOK ABOUT? SOME CURRENT GENEALOGICAL METHODS Introduction A Stemma as a Historical Image and as a Tool for Text Reconstruction Building a Stemma according to the (nineteenth-century) Method of Lachmann Building a Chain and a Stemma according to the (twentieth-century) Method of Greg/Dearing Introduction Typology of Variations and their Notation The Importance and the Limitation of Type-2 Variations; the Virtue of Type-1 Variations Building a Chain with Type-2 Variations: Dearing s Rules for Building Chains with Transformed into a New Algorithm; the Notion End Group Orienting a Chain into a Stemma Current Universal Taxonomical Principles, Biological Systematics and Cladistics Taxonomical Ordering Strategies Ordering or Clustering Taxons with Features Systematics and Text Genealogy Cladistics and the Principle of Parsimony Demonstration of Building a Genealogical Tree with PAUP Cladistic Implications for the Methods of Lachmann and Dearing Reconsideration of the Lachmannian Notion Common Error Lachmann s/maas s Common Error Rule is Only Correct as Long as the Variants are Part of Type-2 Variations The Problem of Building Chains from Complex, Non-Type-2 Variation Formulas like AB:CD:EF The Zwei Zeugen Element Reconsidered A Cladistic Eye-opener for Lachmannians: Rooted and Unrooted Trees Criticism of Dearing s Way of Additioning Variations The Minimum Number of Three or Four Text Versions A Simple Advice for the Study of Contamination Conclusion and Summary TOWARDS A NEW TEXT-GENEALOGICAL METHOD Introduction The Theoretical Framework: Six Basic Text-Genealogical Principles The First Basic Principle; the Definition of a Text- Genealogical Variant; Parallelism and Contamination... 64

4 iv Contents The Second Basic Principle; the Positivistic Apparatus of Text- Genealogical Variants; a Short Discussion about Objectivity and Quentin s Non-Positivistic Zéro Caractéristique The Third Basic Principle; the Definition of a Variation Place The Fourth Basic Principle; the Type-2 Limitation, Partly Dismantled with the Use of End Groups The Fifth Basic Principle; the Text-Genealogical Use of Differences in Word Order; Additions and Omissions of Words or Verses The Sixth Basic Principle; the Definition of Text- Genealogical Word Types The Formalization: Rewriting the Theory in Eleven Characteristics of Text-Genealogical Variants; the Seventh Text-Genealogical Principle The Eleven Characteristics of Text-Genealogical Variants The Seventh Basic Principle of the (Temporary?) Role of the Philologist The Implementation: Developing Software from the Formalized Theory Conclusion and Summary APPLICATION OF THE METHOD TO THE LANSELOET VAN DENEMERKEN CORPUS Introduction Short Description of Fourteen Lanseloet van Denemerken Text Versions and their Contents; Bibliographical Remarks Demonstration of the Software Treating Verses of Lanseloet van Denemerken First Computer Results: All the Detected Text-Genealogical Lanseloet van Denemerken Variants Introduction: +Comb-formulas and Obs-formulas The Obs-formulas The +Comb-formulas concerning Characteristics 5 and 7d and the +Comb-formulas Not Rejected by any Characteristic The Removal of Incorrect Lanseloet van Denemerken Variants by the Philologist, Applying Non-Automated Characteristics Presentation of the Variation Formulas for Building the Lanseloet van Denemerken Chain The Development and Presentation of the Lanseloet van Denemerken Chain with Use of Cladistics First Attempt to Build the Lanseloet van Denemerken Chain; a Handmade Sketch of this Tree Judgement of the Handmade Sketch of the Lanseloet van Denemerken Tree: No Contamination

5 Contents v Missing Values: Some Extra Variation Formulas are Needed; a Second Handmade Sketch of the Lanseloet Tree The Lanseloet van Denemerken Tree as Developed by the Cladistic Software Package PAUP Transforming the Variation Formulas into NEXUS format Measuring Distances between Texts The Chain of the Lanseloet van Denemerken Texts as Drawn by PAUP; the Trustworthiness of the Chain The Development and Presentation of the Lanseloet van Denemerken Stemma Introduction Determination of the Point of Orientation First Attempt to Find the Point of Orientation Second Attempt to Find the Point of Orientation Presentation of the Stemma of Lanseloet van Denemerken Information Derived from the Lanseloet van Denemerken Stemma and Text Versions Conclusion and Summary EVALUATION OF THE LANSELOET VAN DENEMERKEN STEMMA AND THE TEXT-GENEALOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS Introduction Evaluation of the Lanseloet van Denemerken Stemma by Comparing it with Lanseloet Stemmas in Other Studies The Part of the Lanseloet Stemma in Leendertz (1907) The Part of the Lanseloet Stemma in Goossens (1973) The Part of the Lanseloet Stemma in Goossens (1976) The Part of the Lanseloet Stemma in Hüsken & Schaars (1984) Results of the Comparison of Our Stemma with the Other Lanseloet Stemmas Evaluation of the Text-Genealogical Characteristics Evaluation of Characteristic Evaluation of Characteristic Evaluation of Characteristic Evaluation of Characteristic Evaluation of characteristic 4a Evaluation of characteristic 4b Evaluation of the Word Category Adjectives An Alternative Lanseloet Stemma with Contaminated Texts 04 and 05? Evaluation of the Word Category Adverbs Diachronical, Parallelistic Changes in Flexion/Casus from 1400 to Evaluation of the Word Category Articles.. 247

6 vi Contents The Parallelistic Character of the Gender of Substantives Evaluation of the Word Category Auxiliaries Evaluation of the Word Category Conjunctions Evaluation of the Word Category Prepositions Evaluation of the Word Category Pronouns Implications of the Evaluation of Characteristic 4b for the Emendatio Evaluation of Characteristic Evaluation of Characteristic Evaluation of Characteristic 6a, concerning Small Differences Evaluation of Characteristic 6b, concerning Word Boundaries Evaluation of Characteristic 6c, concerning Nonsense Words, Slips of the Pen or Typographical Mistakes Evaluation of Characteristic Evaluation of Characteristic 7a, concerning Inflection Evaluation of Characteristic 7b, concerning Differences in Vowels Evaluation of Characteristic 7c, concerning (Personal) Vocabularies Evaluation of Characteristic 7d, concerning Frequently Used Words and Names Evaluation of Characteristic Evaluation of Characteristic Evaluation of Characteristic 9a, concerning Rhyming Conventions Evaluation of Characteristic 9b, concerning Duplicate Rhyming Words Evaluation of Characteristic Evaluation of Characteristic Evaluation of Characteristic 11a, concerning Added or Missing Words Evaluation of Characteristic 11b, concerning Added or Missing Verses Summary of the Evaluation of the Characteristics Conclusion and Summary FINAL REMARKS REFERENCES SAMENVATTING IN HET NEDERLANDS INDEX

7 Contents vii LISTS OF FIGURES AND PICTURED LANSELOET VERSES List of Figures, Including their Captions List of Pictured Lanseloet Verses CURRICULUM VITAE APPENDICES ON CD-ROM (in file apps.pdf) (to be read with Adobe Acrobat Reader, available for free on the Internet; see: or Appendix A: Description of the Eight Steps the Software Performs: from the Fourteen Single Text Versions to the Variation Formulas Appendix B: Guide to the Interpretation of the Computer Results and Output Appendix C: The Computer Results: the Synoptic Lanseloet van Denemerken Text Versions and the Variation Formulas Appendix D: Presentation of the Variation Formulas, Ordered by Characteristics Appendix E: Appendix F: English Translation of Parts of Salemans (1987) on Cladistics The Fourteen Synoptic Lanseloet van Denemerken Text Versions (or: Appendix C without the Variation Formulas)

8 viii Contents

9 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, I would like to thank Prof. Dr. Jan van Bakel (University of Nijmegen) for his impressive and inspiring lectures and scientific lessons. My promotor Prof. Dr. Geert Dibbets (University of Nijmegen) taught me the first principles of editing old texts. I admire him for his wisdom and his patience with me. I will always be grateful to Prof. Dr. Piet Buijnsters (University of Nijmegen) for sharing his immense knowledge and appreciation of old books. Dr. Paul Wackers (University of Nijmegen) opened up my heart to the beauty of medieval literature. Dr. Willem Ellis (University of Amsterdam), a biologist, was always willing to answer my stupid questions about biological ordering methods. Prof. Dr. Thom Mertens (Ruusbroec-genootschap in Antwerp) and Dr. Ton Duinhoven (University of Amsterdam) were always prepared to criticize preliminary versions of my papers about text-genealogical matters, including this book. I discussed many stemmatology matters under pleasant conditions with Prof. Dr. Pieter van Reenen (Free University of Amsterdam) and his group of Dutch textgenealogists, amongst which the kind and wise mathematician Dr. Evert Wattel (Free University of Amsterdam) and the Dutch text-genealogical pioneer Prof. Dr. Ton Dees. I thank Prof. Dr. Vittore Branca (University of Padova) for sharing his wise insights with me during my stay in Rome in May 1998, when I was invited to give a lecture on automated textual criticism at the Accademia Nazionale Dei Lincei. I am also greatful for the heartening support of Prof. Dr. R. Hauer (University of Utrecht), Dr. D. Hertzberger (Nijmegen) and Dr. L. Bellersen (University of Nijmegen). Three friends followed my research and life closely with much patience. Dr. Peter-Arno Coppen (University of Nijmegen) helped me to keep a general methodological overview of my research, which started in Dr. Margot van Mulken (University of Nijmegen) and I discussed during many days, evenings and even nights, the fundamentals of text-genealogical research and life, often in our Nijmegen pub t Haantje. Thank you, Margot, for these very pleasant, inspiring and encouraging hours. Dr. Willem Kuiper (University of Amsterdam) was always willing to lend me an ear concerning stemmatological or private affairs, no matter what time it was; a true friend. I am also greatful for the friendship of the editors of Neder-L, the free electronic Internet-magazine about Dutch language and literature, which I started in 1992 (URL: Besides the already mentioned Willem Kuiper and Peter-Arno Coppen, the editors are Dr. Piet Verkruijsse (University of Amsterdam) and Prof. Dr. Marc van Oostendorp (Meertens Institute and University of Amsterdam). I thank Maastricht for just being there. The same goes for its football club MVV. Thank you, Willy Brokamp, Jo Bonfrère and Erik Meijer. I thank Bob Dylan, Green Day, Paul McCartney and Wolfgang A. Mozart for their music.

10 2 Acknowledgments It is good to know that in hard times some friends stay around. Roland de Bonth, Patrick Leijzer, Frans Schaars, Hans and Conny Schoonbrood, Peep Stalmeijer and Remy Wolfs, thank you. The most important people for me are my children Bart, Milou and Joost. I

11 1. INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS THIS BOOK ABOUT? In the Middle Ages copyists transcribed texts by hand. During the laborious transcription process they introduced - intentionally or unintentionally - errors and other new, unoriginal elements in the copy texts they were producing. If these new texts were copied again, new errors could be introduced, etc. The invention of the printing press around 1450 did not change this process much. After all, book printers (type-setters, bookbinders) introduced unoriginal elements in their works as well. The general result of copying texts was that after a time several different versions of one original text existed, while the original text was lost. Philologists of all ages, even before Christ, saw themselves confronted with the problem how to remove these unoriginal elements from the existing texts. Before 1700, textual criticism, the art of reconstructing old lost texts, was not very systematic. This can be demonstrated by the first printed version of the Greek New Testament. The first complete edition of the Greek New Testament was produced by Erasmus of Rotterdam. It was printed in 1516 on Froben s presses in Basel. For centuries it has been accepted as the ultimate Greek New Testament (NT) text: the Textus receptus. Erasmus developed the Greek NT from a few (fragmented) Greek NT versions which were present in Basel and its neighbourhood. He selected the best parts of them rather arbitrarily - he simply chose the parts which he judged, on the basis of his taste, to be original - and glued them together into one book. To fill the missing parts, he even used Latin sources, which he translated into Greek. In the eighteenth century, philologists like Bengel, Bentley, Griesbach, Mill and Wettstein 1 started to fight the authority of the textus receptus. However, they did not succeed in developing methods with which original and unoriginal elements in text versions could be detected. Professor Karl Lachmann demonstrated in 1830 that Erasmus s Greek NT was composed incorrectly. He proposed a new text-critical method, known as the method of Lachmann. This nineteenth-century Method will be discussed in detail in 2.3. At this point, I will give a concise introduction. The heart of the method of Lachmann is that we must know the relationships of text versions, before we start to correct (or emend) unoriginal parts in them. In short, it is a method in two steps: first, in the recensio phase, a pedigree or stemma of the text versions must be developed; second, in the emendatio phase, (un)original elements in these texts can be detected with the use of the stemma. How can a stemma be developed during the recensio phase in a Lachmannian way? The basic Lachmannian thought is sound and simple. If a serious error is introduced into a text version - e.g. a couple of verses are missing -, it is likely that the descendants of that text version will show the same common error. It is 1 More thorough information about the history of textual criticism and text-critical philologists like Bengel, Bentley, Erasmus, Griesbach, Lachmann, Mill and Wettstein can be found in Aland & Aland (1971), Kenney (1974) and Timpanaro (1971).

12 4 Chapter 1. Introduction assumed that all the texts with the missing couple of verses go back to the same common ancestor in which this error occurred for the first time. Once we have detected more common errors, we will be able to draw the stemma or pedigree. One can compare this with a kind of unique disease or DNA sequence which is passed on from the father or mother to the children and their children, etc. The occurrence of the disease, or DNA sequence, may serve as a guide to find genealogical family relationships. Likewise, if one can find common errors in text versions, the family pattern or relationships between the text versions will become clear and the stemma can be produced. Imagine that we have six text versions: text A, B, C, D, E and F. Suppose that in certain text passages one or more common errors in text A and B have been detected, while the other text versions C to F have other words (readings) in common, different from the common errors. Then we may conclude that both texts A and B have a common forefather, in which the errors first showed up. We label this (lost) common ancestor of both texts as a. Text a cannot have been the forefather of, for instance, text C, because we assume that one or more common errors present in A and B do not occur in C. In the same line of thought, suppose that unique common errors are present in texts C and D (leading to common ancestor b ), and others pop up in texts E and F (leading to c ). Furthermore, C, D, E and F have common errors, which gives rise to the thought that these four texts must share a common forefather d. We assume that the six texts go back to one common original text: text O. All these common errors lead to the next stemma, as an end result of the recensio: O a b c A B C D E F (α) (β) (γ) (γ) (δ) (α) Figure 1. Example of a stemma. How can we use this stemma, the genealogical pattern, as a tool for text reconstruction? The stemma is used for that purpose during the second phase: the emendatio. Suppose that the first line of text A starts with α ; at the same place B has β, C and D read γ, E starts with δ, and F has α. In other words, we have four different variants (i.e. different words or readings): α appears in two texts, β in one text, γ in two texts, and δ in one text. These variants are presented at the bottom of fig. 1. When we look at variant γ, we see that it is present in texts C and D. Therefore, it is likely that the common ancestor of C and D, text b, must have had variant γ as well. Now we look at variant α, which occurs in A and F. The (first) common ancestor of both texts is O, the lost d

13 original text. According to the method of Lachmann we can assume that the lost original text had the reading α. In this way we have been able to reconstruct a part of the lost original text with the use of the stemma. (Later on, in , this sketch of the emendatio phase will be criticized.) As we will see in 2.4, the method of Lachmann has been criticized because it is hard to detect common errors in a scientific (= verifiable / repeatable), way. It is unclear how it can be determined that a variant is an (unoriginal) error. The Lachmannian way of determining errors was based upon subjective judgements of variants beyond scientific control. Furthermore, its (vague) principles were not performed consequentially or consistently. Sometimes, for instance, differences in word order are used as common errors; sometimes they are not; therefore, Lachmannian judgements about the originality of variants often have an ad hoc character. As will be discussed in the same section ( 2.4), twentieth-century philologists like Greg (1927), Quentin (1926), Dearing (1974) and Dees (1975) proposed an alternative, better approach. They demonstrate that a stemma can be built in two steps. First, these modern text-genealogists develop a deep-structure of the stemma, the so-called chain, using variants that do not have to be judged as to their originality. Second, they produce a stemma from the chain. The advantage of this modern two-step method will be clear: the judgement about the originality of the variants is less important. Often, modern philologists use type-2 variations to build their chains. We speak of a type-2 variation, if at a certain place in the text versions precisely two variants occur and if each variant is present in at least two text versions. Generally, I am convinced that complex variations, with three or more competitive variants, are almost useless for the development of chains and stemmas. In other words, I think that philologists should in general only work with the mentioned special type of variance. This severe limitation is called the type-2 limitation. What is this dissertation about and which are its merits? In the first place, this dissertation offers a global introduction to stemmatology, the art of building text-genealogical trees. It gives an introduction to and a critical overview of several existing methods of building text-genealogical trees, the socalled chains and stemmas. In discussing these methods, we will see that it will be sometimes necessary to adapt basic notions of these methods. Of course I do not intend to give away all the results of my research in this introduction, but in it will be demonstrated, for instance, that the Lachmannian common errors may be used only under very special conditions (namely in a so-called type-2 environment ). In this book, current text-genealogical methods will be compared and a new method of building trees will be established. 5

14 6 Chapter 1. Introduction Secondly, this study is interdisciplinary. In this dissertation, we will have a look at the way biologists build their genealogies for animals and plants. From this outsiders view we hope to get a clearer picture of strenghts and weaknesses of several textual-stemmatological methods. In 2.5 we will introduce cladistics, currently one of the leading biological ordering methods. The core of cladistics is the permanent question which elements or characteristics in a species can be used to develop genealogies. The simple lesson taught by cladistics is that we must be very careful in using characteristics for genealogical research. For example, the fact that both swallows and flies have wings, does not imply that these birds and insects belong to the same family. The characteristic having wings is not a trustworthy genealogical informant. Again, text-genealogists can learn from cladistics that they must be very careful in choosing variants to be the building stones of chains and stemmas. Thirdly, two hot items in current textual stemmatology will be discussed: in 2.8 the problem of contamination and in the type-2 limitation. Normally a text version is a copy of one other text version. It is, however, possible that a text version X is produced from two or more texts Y and Z, for instance, because text Y was incomplete or because text Y was considered to contain incorrect passages. X is then a bastard text or a contaminated text. It may show, almost unpredictably, contradicting variants pointing to a descendance from different families. Contamination causes bias and hinders the development of chains and stemmas. In 2.8 a simple advice will be given to text-genealogists confronted with contamination. The type-2 limitation is a strict limitation, since it prescribes the use of only special variants. We can derive text-genealogical information from these variants only if the text versions show precisely two variants, each present in two or more texts. This implies that more complex situations, for instance with three or four different variants, are useless for the development of text-genealogical trees. Dearing (1974) claimed that a solution to break this severe type-2 limitation was present. He developed a set of mathematical rules which enable us to derive (type-2) information from these complex situations. I still do not intend to give away all the results of my research in this introduction, but in this dissertation, Dearing s approach will be falsified. Dearing s stemmatological ideas have been quite influential. They have been used, for instance, in the development of parts the stemma of the Bible. By using Dearing s approach, parts of the original Bible text have been reconstructed in a possibly incorrect way. Fourthly, this book does not concentrate on the emendatio, but on the recensio, the art of building chains and stemmas. As an example, the stemma of the fourteen versions of the medieval drama text Lanseloet van Denemerken will be produced. I stress that no emending attempts will be undertaken to restore or reconstruct (fragments of) the lost Lanseloet original. My reason for not

15 performing emendatio activities is simple. If we consider the classical Latin and Greek languages as dead, non-altering languages, it may be possible to restore an original text from around the year 100 on the basis of younger copies dating from around We assume that a classical Greek word in a text from the year 1200 looked the same in the year 100. A universally accepted standard Dutch language did not exist in the Middle Ages or the Renaissance. In the Low Countries, several dialects were spoken and written, which evolved in the course of time; these dialects were not dead. Therefore, it is quite dangerous to restore the lost Lanseloet text on the basis of the existing younger copies. We simply cannot be sure what a seventeenth-century word looked like in the original text from, say, the twelfth century. We do not even know the dialect of the original. This does not make the Lanseloet stemma worthless for text-critical purposes. It may still allow us, for instance, to reconstruct more abstract themes, subjects, etc., in the original Lanseloet van Denemerken text. Fifthly, this book will discuss differences between inductive and deductive textgenealogical research. Roughly speaking, we can say that science is either inductive or deductive. As we know, in inductionism the observation of (objective) facts is the basis for the development of theories. Often, mathematicalstatistical (inductive) techniques and computer programs are helpful in deriving knowledge from facts. Deductionism is based on (subjective) hypotheses, which are compared to observed facts. The facts may show that the hypotheses are incorrect, in which case the hypotheses are falsified or need to be adptated. If the facts are totally in agreement with the hypotheses, we say that the hypotheses are confirmed - not proved. The theoretical ideas in this book are hypotheses. They cannot be proved; they can only be falsified or confirmed. Logically, the correctness of the Lanseloet pedigree in this book cannot be proved neither; the tree is the result of the (automated) application of the hypotheses. In we will discuss the opposition of inductive and deductive science. In the last decades a still growing number of scientists within the humanities seem to adhere to the law of objectivism. Their credo seems to be: science must be objective; knowledge must be derived in an objective way from objective facts; subjective science is a contradictio in terminis. This dominant philosophy, this paradigm of objectivism, has lead (too) often to a rejection of subjective thoughts and hypotheses, because they supposedly have an unscientific aura. Subjectivity, however, is not unscientific by definition. One fundamental of scientific research is that a scientist must show precisely what he or she is doing. Subjective ideas must be expressed in such way that they can be understood and criticized by other scientists; additionally, other scientists must be able to verify (and repeat) the procedures described by these subjective ideas. Once these ideas have met these criteria, they cease to belong to one person; they become intersubjective and scientifically acceptable. Anyway, science is, in my view, not 7

16 8 Chapter 1. Introduction about objective measurement of facts; it lies in the interpretation of the outcome thereof. Therefore, science is necessarily intersubjective. So far, we saw that this study covers five themes: 1. it offers a global introduction to stemmatology; 2. it is interdisciplinary and pays attention to biological-cladistic genealogical concepts; 3. it discusses hot text-genealogical items like contamination and the type-2 limitation; 4. it is concentrated on the recensio, not on emending text passages; 5. it pays attention to differences between deductive and inductive text-genealogical research. These five themes are the environment in which the main subject of this book is discussed: my method to build textgenealogical trees, which I call automated deductive stemmatology. Automated deductive stemmatology is a new text-genealogical approach, in which the computer is used to perform and test a set of (subjective) deductive hypotheses to recognize textual variants, with which trustworthy text-genealogical trees can be built. This subject covers the largest part of the book: in chapter 3 the basic textgenealogical principles and characteristics are explained and developed, in chapter 4 they are applied and in chapter 5 they are evaluated. Before sketching what automated deductive stemmatology is about, I want to make a sidestep to describe my motivation for developing a deductive method. In retrospect, I realize that this motivation grew out of three overlapping periods in my research. First, when I started my text-genealogical research, I was fascinated by one fundamental question: why do stemmatologists claim that text-historical trees can be built with all kinds of textual variants? I understood how Lachmannians used their specially selected common errors, most often quite eye-catching variants, as hereditary scars passed on to the descendants. Once we have found these scars we can determine the text-historical relationships between the text versions. Unfortunately, the Lachmannian selection of common errors was not clear and repeatable, which made it unscientific. The second phase started when I was studying current, modern alternatives for the method of Lachmann. I was, and still am, surprised by the easy, nonchalant way in which modern inductive stemmatologists use variants. Often the status of variants, the textual differences, seems to have become unimportant to them. They simply consider each textual difference as an objective, easily observable (objective) fact, although they sometimes exclude small or unimportant variants for unexplained reasons. They gather these objective facts and introduce them in statistical-mathematical software which builds, in an objective way, a tree out of them. But is such a tree a chain or a stemma, a text-historical tree? In inductive research, the objective facts must be related to the goal of the research. If I want, for example, to predict the weather, I can gather all kinds of objective facts in and around my house: paperclips, stones, papers, etc. It is obvious that I will not be able to predict the weather with these facts, even though

17 they are objective. In other words, a goal-oriented justification is necessary for the selection of objective facts in inductive research. I dare to say that, until now, a scientifically necessary justification for the use of all the variants as building stones for historical trees has not been presented in inductive stemmatology. Some inductive, statistical stemmatologists admit that their trees are not historical trees, but trees which show the spread of the variants in the text versions. In that case, I simply do not see the virtue of such trees. The third phase began when I became acquainted with biological cladistics. Cladists warn us that we must always ask ourselves whether a characteristic (in our case a variant) has the power to reveal the historical relationship of animals or plants. Only a very few characteristics have this relationship-revealing power. Cladists are convinced that a single convincing characteristic can provide more trustworthy information about the historical relationship than a thousand vague characteristics. They warn their inductive-statistical colleagues that statistical techniques like the Law of great numbers can filter out important characteristics. The three phases taught me that my first question, about how text-genealogical trees can and should be built, was still unanswered. As we saw, the answer to this question is not only important for deductive stemmatologists, such as myself, but also for statistical-mathematical, inductive stemmatologists. They are obligated to justify their choice of variants as well. In other words, the answer to my first question is relevant to both deductive and inductive stemmatology. We can even say that it connects both camps; both deductionists and inductionists must explain why they use (certain) variants as building blocks for their text-genealogical trees. In chapter 3, I will sketch in global terms some fundamental principles or hypotheses about stemmatology. These hypotheses should not to be seen as a well-balanced model, but rather as a theoretical framework with which a proper model for the detection of text-genealogical building blocks should be developed. Text-genealogical variants are differences in text versions that can be used to develop chains and stemmas. Later in chapter 3, I will derive concrete (sub)characteristics of text-genealogical variants from the hypotheses. This derivation is called the formalization process. While the hypotheses of the theoretical framework have an open or vague character, the characteristics derived from them are concrete, and can be applied to detect text-genealogical variants in the Lanseloet corpus. The set of text-genealogical characteristics can be seen as my method or theory to find text-genealogical variants to develop the Lanseloet tree with. Also in chapter 3, I will explain how these characteristics can be transformed into computer software. This transformation from the theory into software is called the implementation process. As we saw, the nineteenth-century method of Lachmann has been criticized, because its detection of common errors was not verifiable or repeatable. Furthermore, the method of Lachmann has an ad hoc character, because certain detection principles are not applied consistently and persistently to all the variants. Logically, I wanted the application of my 9

18 10 Chapter 1. Introduction characteristics to the Lanseloet texts to be scientific: verifiable, repeatable and consistent or persistent. In order to meet these criteria, I chose to let the computer to perform the characteristics, because it is an excellent apparatus to execute complex instructions rigourously, precisely and quickly. In chapter 4, the fourteen Lanseloet van Denemerken texts will be entered into the computer software that I wrote in the computer language SNOBOL/Spitbol. As far as I know, this was the first time that a computer was able to analyse texts according to a deductive text-genealogical theory. The scientific advantages of the computer as analysis instrument is evident. Once the theory (the characteristics of variants) has been programmed into the computer it is repeatable, it will be performed consistently and it can be checked afterwards. The main advantage of letting the computer perform a theory is that we can be sure that, in our Lanseloet case, it will apply all the programmed characteristics to all the ten thousands of variants consequently and quickly. It is almost impossible to treat such a large amount of variants by hand without making mistakes. The automation of the procedure to detect the variants to build a text-genealogical tree with, is also important for inductive text-genealogists, because they usually work with variants which are classified by hand. The computer output, specifically the Lanseloet text versions plus the computer-generated variation formulas built with the automated characteristics, is too large to be printed as an Appendix on paper. Therefore, I put it on the cd-rom. However, parts of the output of Appendix C are offered in in this book (see the List of Pictured Lanseloet Verses on p. 348). All variation formulas (dealing with precisely two competitive variants) will be ordered by the computer. They are presented in Appendix D on the cd-rom. Many two-variant formulas will be rejected by the computer because the variants concerned are not in accordance with one or more automated characteristics. We will only use the two-variant formulas that are in total agreement with all the characteristics. These formulas are presented in 4.4 to 4.7. Using the formulas, the chain of Lanseloet van Denemerken will be produced in two separate ways: by hand, using a simple algorithm explained in 2.4.4, and with the cladistic software package PAUP. Eventually, the Lanseloet stemma will be derived from the chain. In chapter 5, the stemma and the characteristics will be evaluated. We will compare the tree with the Lanseloet stemmas developed by other researchers. We will also investigate whether the chain and stemma are trustworthy and whether the characteristics can be confirmed, rejected or adapted. In the future, we can investigate if and how the text-genealogical characteristics can be applied to other texts as well. Notice, that the characteristics in this book are developed for the Lanseloet van Denemerken text versions (and other Middle Dutch texts). Undoubtedly, some characteristics will have to be reconsidered or reformulated before they can be applied to texts in other languages.

19 2. SOME CURRENT GENEALOGICAL METHODS 2.1. INTRODUCTION Generally, textual criticism aims to restore a lost original text based on younger (handwritten or printed) copies of the text. As a tool for text reconstruction, a genealogy or stemma of the exististing text copies is indispensable; it displays the mutual relationship between the texts and can be used to trace original text elements. In the last centuries several methods of building stemmas have been developed. One important theoretical study on text genealogy is W. Greg s Calculus of Variants (1927). In this standard work, Greg formulated some fundamental mathematical rules by which stemmas can be built. V. Dearing elaborated Greg s Calculus of variants in his famous Principles and Practice of Textual Analysis (1974). Both Greg and Dearing stated that there are several types of textual variation. Variation is the phenomenon that different versions of one text show different readings at certain places in the text. Greg claimed that only so-called type-2 variations give direct information about the shape (or chain) of a stemma: (..) it will be apparent that it is only such variation as we see in type 2 that is fundamentally significant (Greg 1927:23). This type of variation occurs when text versions show, at the same place in a text, precisely two competitive variant readings and when each variant reading (or variant) is represented in at least two text versions. Working with type-2 variations implies that four or more text versions are needed. Both Dearing and Greg prefered to work with type-2 variations. Additionally, Dearing developed an algorithm which adds up other types of variation formulas. The result is sometimes that new, extra type-2 variation formulas are created. This makes Dearing s method of dealing with variants more powerful than Greg s, since it accepts more types of variation as source of information to construct a chain. However, at the end of this chapter we will see that Dearing s method of adding up type-3 and type-4 variation formulas, which results in new type-2 formulas, is not adequate. In 3.2.2, we will also study an alternative method for building text-genealogical trees with, Quentin s zéro caractéristique method. In chapter 2, some current text-genealogical methods will be discussed and explained for the reader who is unfamiliar with text-genealogical methods. As such, it offers a rough introduction to the world of Greg and Dearing. Necessarily we will examine the method of Lachmann (also known as: the common error method), one of the oldest ways of generating stemmas. It works with so-called common errors: text versions which show the same common error go back to the same ancestral text. We will see that this is correct only under special circumstances (namely in the case of type-2 variations). Therefore, we will formulate a more accurate definition of the common error. A point of criticism by Bédier, one of the firmest opponents of text-genealogical methods, we will discuss as well.

20 12 Chapter 2. Current Genealogical Methods Biologists have ordered plants and animals into genealogies for centuries. It is possible that their ordering methods contain eye-openers for text-genealogists. That is why we will also examine current biological tree-building methods. We will see that the (biological) cladistic method does offer several interesting insights, which will be incorporated into this study. We will see that the cladistic software package PAUP can be used successfully in our text-genealogical fields A STEMMA AS A HISTORICAL IMAGE AND AS A TOOL FOR TEXT RECONSTRUCTION In this study we consider an original text to be the text which the author meant to put on paper (or vellum, etc.). 2 Everyone, who has ever copied a text, knows how hard it is to copy it without making mistakes; textual differences, variants, are introduced into the copy. This results in an inadequate text copy, which we call the text version. The more often a text is copied the greater the number of nonoriginal, deviant text versions. When we want to study a medieval text, we are very often confronted with the problem that the original text has been lost, while younger, varying, versions still exist. The absence of the original version challenges us to reconstruct it based on the younger versions. Like archaeologists and palaeontologists, we try to rebuild or give an impression of an original form by using its relics which are present in the existing text versions. The first step in text reconstruction is the determination of the genealogical interdependence of the versions, which is usually presented in a genealogical tree or stemma. In 2.3 and 2.4, we will see how stemmas can be constructed. Now, in the current section, we will concentrate on the way a stemma is used as a tool to reconstruct a lost original. To illustrate this, we use the stemma in fig. 2. That stemma is a fake stemma, only drawn for explanatory purposes. In this tree, which must be read top-to-bottom, 3 lost O-900 at the top represents the lost original text, which we are trying to reconstruct. Lost O was produced in the year 900 A.D. The lines in the stemma are the lines of descent. The (arbitrarily chosen) characters A, B, C, D, E & F at the end of these lines of 2 See Salemans & de Bonth : The definition of the original text says that it is the text which the author meant to put on paper. It does not say that it was the autograph, the text which was actually put down on the paper by the author. In other words, according to this definition the original text never existed on paper. According to this view, the author is considered to be a copyist of the book in his head. While copying his imaginary book, he can make errors, just like any other copyist. Logically, the autograph may contain errors. It is impossible to reconstruct a perfect original text if it contains errors or imperfections. Ergo, if we assume that the original text did not contain errors, it must refer to the perfect text in the head of the author. 3 Biological stemmas are presented in the opposite way: the original species stands at the bottom, while the derived species are presented above the original; the root of the tree is presented at the bottom.

The Political Economy of Trade Liberalization in Developing Countries: The Sri Lankan Case

The Political Economy of Trade Liberalization in Developing Countries: The Sri Lankan Case 2003 U 842 The Political Economy of Trade Liberalization in Developing Countries: The Sri Lankan Case een wetenschappelijke proeve op het gebied van de Managementwetenschappen Proefschrift ter verkrijging

More information

CHANCE ENCOUNTERS. Making Sense of Hypothesis Tests. Howard Fincher. Learning Development Tutor. Upgrade Study Advice Service

CHANCE ENCOUNTERS. Making Sense of Hypothesis Tests. Howard Fincher. Learning Development Tutor. Upgrade Study Advice Service CHANCE ENCOUNTERS Making Sense of Hypothesis Tests Howard Fincher Learning Development Tutor Upgrade Study Advice Service Oxford Brookes University Howard Fincher 2008 PREFACE This guide has a restricted

More information

What mathematical optimization can, and cannot, do for biologists. Steven Kelk Department of Knowledge Engineering (DKE) Maastricht University, NL

What mathematical optimization can, and cannot, do for biologists. Steven Kelk Department of Knowledge Engineering (DKE) Maastricht University, NL What mathematical optimization can, and cannot, do for biologists Steven Kelk Department of Knowledge Engineering (DKE) Maastricht University, NL Introduction There is no shortage of literature about the

More information

Why participation works

Why participation works Why participation works Full title Why participation works: the role of employee involvement in the implementation of the customer relationship management type of organizational change. Key words Participation,

More information

FLOOD DAMAGES AND TOOLS FOR THEIR MITIGATION Lenka Camrova, Jirina Jilkova

FLOOD DAMAGES AND TOOLS FOR THEIR MITIGATION Lenka Camrova, Jirina Jilkova FLOOD DAMAGES AND TOOLS FOR THEIR MITIGATION Lenka Camrova, Jirina Jilkova University of Economics, Prague, 2006, pp. 418. ISBN: 80-86684-35-0 English Summary In 1997 and 2002 the Czech Republic was heavily

More information

Introduction to. Hypothesis Testing CHAPTER LEARNING OBJECTIVES. 1 Identify the four steps of hypothesis testing.

Introduction to. Hypothesis Testing CHAPTER LEARNING OBJECTIVES. 1 Identify the four steps of hypothesis testing. Introduction to Hypothesis Testing CHAPTER 8 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 1 Identify the four steps of hypothesis testing. 2 Define null hypothesis, alternative

More information

ELECTRONIC EDITIONS WHICH WE HAVE MADE AND WHICH WE WANT TO MAKE

ELECTRONIC EDITIONS WHICH WE HAVE MADE AND WHICH WE WANT TO MAKE ELECTRONIC EDITIONS WHICH WE HAVE MADE AND WHICH WE WANT TO MAKE Peter Robinson * Before we even ask, what is an electronic edition we have to ask: what is an edition? So let us start with just that question.

More information

CFSD 21 ST CENTURY SKILL RUBRIC CRITICAL & CREATIVE THINKING

CFSD 21 ST CENTURY SKILL RUBRIC CRITICAL & CREATIVE THINKING Critical and creative thinking (higher order thinking) refer to a set of cognitive skills or strategies that increases the probability of a desired outcome. In an information- rich society, the quality

More information

Compass Interdisciplinary Virtual Conference 19-30 Oct 2009

Compass Interdisciplinary Virtual Conference 19-30 Oct 2009 Compass Interdisciplinary Virtual Conference 19-30 Oct 2009 10 Things New Scholars should do to get published Duane Wegener Professor of Social Psychology, Purdue University Hello, I hope you re having

More information

Implementations of tests on the exogeneity of selected. variables and their Performance in practice ACADEMISCH PROEFSCHRIFT

Implementations of tests on the exogeneity of selected. variables and their Performance in practice ACADEMISCH PROEFSCHRIFT Implementations of tests on the exogeneity of selected variables and their Performance in practice ACADEMISCH PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam op gezag

More information

Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research

Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research J. T. M. Miller, Department of Philosophy, University of Durham 1 Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research Much of the apparent difficulty of interdisciplinary research stems from the nature

More information

Requirements in Functional IT Management

Requirements in Functional IT Management Requirements in Functional IT Floris Blaauboer University of Twente, Department of Computer Science, Chair of Information Systems, f.a.blaauboer@student.utwente.nl Abstract. Requirements engineering and

More information

Opening the psychological black box in genetic counseling

Opening the psychological black box in genetic counseling Opening the psychological black box in genetic counseling A counselee-oriented, integrative approach on the impact of DNA-testing for breast and ovarian cancer on the lives of counselees Joël Vos 1 2 Opening

More information

Software Engineering Prof. N.L. Sarda Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture-4 Overview of Phases (Part - II)

Software Engineering Prof. N.L. Sarda Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture-4 Overview of Phases (Part - II) Software Engineering Prof. N.L. Sarda Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture-4 Overview of Phases (Part - II) We studied the problem definition phase, with which

More information

Enhancing the wellbeing of older people in Mauritius

Enhancing the wellbeing of older people in Mauritius Enhancing the wellbeing of older people in Mauritius Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan Tilburg University op gezag van de rector magnificus, prof. dr. Ph. Eijlander, in het openbaar

More information

Review Your Thesis or Dissertation

Review Your Thesis or Dissertation Review Your Thesis or Dissertation This document shows the formatting requirements for UBC theses. Theses must follow these guidelines in order to be accepted at the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral

More information

TEACHERS VIEWS AND USE OF EXPLANATION IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS Jarmila Novotná

TEACHERS VIEWS AND USE OF EXPLANATION IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS Jarmila Novotná TEACHERS VIEWS AND USE OF EXPLANATION IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS Jarmila Novotná Abstract This study analyses teachers of mathematics views on explications in teaching mathematics. Various types of explanations

More information

Lesson 2: Principles of Evangelism

Lesson 2: Principles of Evangelism Lesson 2: Principles of Evangelism Introduction In our last lesson, we discovered that our identity determines, more than anything else, the success of our mission work. Who we are is so much more important

More information

THE MSDM MANAGEMENT PRACTICUM 2015/2016

THE MSDM MANAGEMENT PRACTICUM 2015/2016 American University School of International Service International Development Program Master of Science in Development Management THE MSDM MANAGEMENT PRACTICUM 2015/2016 Practicum Supervisor: David Hirschmann

More information

1 A project or simply a task?

1 A project or simply a task? 1 A project or simply a task? The need for a clear definition In this chapter we focus on the basics of working on projects, namely the identification and the definition. We also cover the preconditions

More information

136 CHAPTER 4. INDUCTION, GRAPHS AND TREES

136 CHAPTER 4. INDUCTION, GRAPHS AND TREES 136 TER 4. INDUCTION, GRHS ND TREES 4.3 Graphs In this chapter we introduce a fundamental structural idea of discrete mathematics, that of a graph. Many situations in the applications of discrete mathematics

More information

Authenticity and Architecture

Authenticity and Architecture Authenticity and Architecture Representation and Reconstruction in Context Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan Tilburg University, op gezag van de rector magnificus, prof. dr. Ph.

More information

The General Education Program at Sweet Briar College

The General Education Program at Sweet Briar College The General Education Program at Sweet Briar College Introduction The purpose of the General Education Program at Sweet Briar College is to provide all students with a common pattern of skills, experiences

More information

Operations and Supply Chain Management Prof. G. Srinivasan Department of Management Studies Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Operations and Supply Chain Management Prof. G. Srinivasan Department of Management Studies Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Operations and Supply Chain Management Prof. G. Srinivasan Department of Management Studies Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture - 36 Location Problems In this lecture, we continue the discussion

More information

Measurement Information Model

Measurement Information Model mcgarry02.qxd 9/7/01 1:27 PM Page 13 2 Information Model This chapter describes one of the fundamental measurement concepts of Practical Software, the Information Model. The Information Model provides

More information

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6 Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6 4 I. READING AND LITERATURE A. Word Recognition, Analysis, and Fluency The student

More information

Changes in Pilot Control Behaviour across Stewart Platform Motion Systems

Changes in Pilot Control Behaviour across Stewart Platform Motion Systems Changes in Pilot Control Behaviour across Stewart Platform Motion Systems PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Technische Universiteit Delft, op gezag van de Rector Magnificus prof.

More information

(Refer Slide Time: 01:52)

(Refer Slide Time: 01:52) Software Engineering Prof. N. L. Sarda Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture - 2 Introduction to Software Engineering Challenges, Process Models etc (Part 2) This

More information

Texas Success Initiative (TSI) Assessment. Interpreting Your Score

Texas Success Initiative (TSI) Assessment. Interpreting Your Score Texas Success Initiative (TSI) Assessment Interpreting Your Score 1 Congratulations on taking the TSI Assessment! The TSI Assessment measures your strengths and weaknesses in mathematics and statistics,

More information

LEERSTIJLEN EN STUREN VAN LEERPROCESSEN IN HET HOGER ONDERWIJS. Naar procesgerichte instructie in zelfstandig denken

LEERSTIJLEN EN STUREN VAN LEERPROCESSEN IN HET HOGER ONDERWIJS. Naar procesgerichte instructie in zelfstandig denken LEERSTIJLEN EN STUREN VAN LEERPROCESSEN IN HET HOGER ONDERWIJS Naar procesgerichte instructie in zelfstandig denken PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Katholieke Universiteit Brabant,

More information

Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1. Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida

Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1. Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1 Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida The critical reader of a research report expects the writer to

More information

FGSR Minimum Thesis Formatting Requirements

FGSR Minimum Thesis Formatting Requirements FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH FGSR Minimum Thesis Formatting Requirements As of April 3, 2014 Your thesis is your work. Matters of style are matters for you to decide, subject to certain minimum

More information

Chapter 6: The Information Function 129. CHAPTER 7 Test Calibration

Chapter 6: The Information Function 129. CHAPTER 7 Test Calibration Chapter 6: The Information Function 129 CHAPTER 7 Test Calibration 130 Chapter 7: Test Calibration CHAPTER 7 Test Calibration For didactic purposes, all of the preceding chapters have assumed that the

More information

New Edge. Technology and Spirituality in the San Francisco Bay Area DORIEN ZANDBERGEN

New Edge. Technology and Spirituality in the San Francisco Bay Area DORIEN ZANDBERGEN New Edge Technology and Spirituality in the San Francisco Bay Area DORIEN ZANDBERGEN Produced by F&N Boekservice 2011, Dorien Zandbergen, Leiden, The Netherlands Front and back covers designed by Lise

More information

Lecture 10: Regression Trees

Lecture 10: Regression Trees Lecture 10: Regression Trees 36-350: Data Mining October 11, 2006 Reading: Textbook, sections 5.2 and 10.5. The next three lectures are going to be about a particular kind of nonlinear predictive model,

More information

Rules and Regulations Governing the Doctoral Program at the Maastricht School of Management

Rules and Regulations Governing the Doctoral Program at the Maastricht School of Management Rules and Regulations Governing the Doctoral Program at the Maastricht School of Management 2014, Maastricht School of Management Version 5.0, July 2014 Table of Contents 1 General Description of the Program...

More information

Memorandum on PhD dissertations consisting of articles

Memorandum on PhD dissertations consisting of articles Memorandum on PhD dissertations consisting of articles Leiden Law School Universiteit Leiden 30 March 2010 (translated December 2010) This memorandum sets out the rules relating to PhD dissertations consisting

More information

CHAOS LIMITATION OR EVEN END OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

CHAOS LIMITATION OR EVEN END OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT CHAOS LIMITATION OR EVEN END OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT Michael Grabinski 1 Abstract Proven in the early 196s, weather forecast is not possible for an arbitrarily long period of time for principle reasons.

More information

Welcome page of the German Script Tutorial: http:// script.byu.edu/german.

Welcome page of the German Script Tutorial: http:// script.byu.edu/german. Deciphering Old German Documents Using the Online German Script Tutorial Bradley J. York Center for Family History and Genealogy at Brigham Young University Abstract The German Script Tutorial (http://script.byu.edu/german)

More information

ACCESS CONTROL AND SERVICE-ORIENTED ARCHITECTURES

ACCESS CONTROL AND SERVICE-ORIENTED ARCHITECTURES ACCESS CONTROL AND SERVICE-ORIENTED ARCHITECTURES PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Universiteit van Tilburg, op gezag van de rector magnificus, prof.dr. F.A. van der Duyn Schouten,

More information

ASSESSMENT CENTER FOR IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL PROJECT MANAGERS: A CHANCE FOR SYSTEMATIC HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

ASSESSMENT CENTER FOR IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL PROJECT MANAGERS: A CHANCE FOR SYSTEMATIC HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT ASSESSMENT CENTER FOR IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL PROJECT MANAGERS: A CHANCE FOR SYSTEMATIC HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT Dipl. Psych. Ingo Heyn, ALLIANZ LEBENSVERSICHERUNGS-AG, Germany, 1999 Paper for the 6th

More information

Measuring The Costs Of Chapter 11 Cases

Measuring The Costs Of Chapter 11 Cases Measuring The Costs Of Chapter 11 Cases Professional Fees in American Corporate Bankruptcy Cases Proefschrift ter verkrijging van het doctoraat in de Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

More information

Science and teaching students about

Science and teaching students about Teaching The Science Process Skills What Are the Science Process Skills? Science and teaching students about science means more than scientific knowledge. There are three dimensions of science that are

More information

A Guide to Curriculum Development: Purposes, Practices, Procedures

A Guide to Curriculum Development: Purposes, Practices, Procedures A Guide to Curriculum Development: Purposes, Practices, Procedures The purpose of this guide is to provide some general instructions to school districts as staff begin to develop or revise their curriculum

More information

Factoring. Techniques for experienced mental calculators

Factoring. Techniques for experienced mental calculators Factoring Techniques for experienced mental calculators Presentation held at the Mental Calculation World Cup 2012 by A.W.A.P Bouman Factoring Factoring is breaking down a given number in the smallest

More information

REFLECTING ON EXPERIENCES OF THE TEACHER INDUCTION SCHEME

REFLECTING ON EXPERIENCES OF THE TEACHER INDUCTION SCHEME REFLECTING ON EXPERIENCES OF THE TEACHER INDUCTION SCHEME September 2005 Myra A Pearson, Depute Registrar (Education) Dr Dean Robson, Professional Officer First Published 2005 The General Teaching Council

More information

Welcome Address by the. State Secretary at the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Dr Georg Schütte

Welcome Address by the. State Secretary at the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Dr Georg Schütte Welcome Address by the State Secretary at the Federal Ministry of Education and Research Dr Georg Schütte at the "Systems Biology and Systems Medicine" session of the World Health Summit at the Federal

More information

SIXTH GRADE UNIT 1. Reading: Literature

SIXTH GRADE UNIT 1. Reading: Literature Reading: Literature Writing: Narrative RL.6.1 RL.6.2 RL.6.3 RL.6.4 RL.6.5 RL.6.6 RL.6.7 W.6.3 SIXTH GRADE UNIT 1 Key Ideas and Details Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly

More information

A Programming Language for Mechanical Translation Victor H. Yngve, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts

A Programming Language for Mechanical Translation Victor H. Yngve, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts [Mechanical Translation, vol.5, no.1, July 1958; pp. 25-41] A Programming Language for Mechanical Translation Victor H. Yngve, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts A notational

More information

Internationalization of Higher Education: Nine Misconceptions. Hans de Wit. Management, Hogeschool van Amsterdam, University of Applied Sciences,

Internationalization of Higher Education: Nine Misconceptions. Hans de Wit. Management, Hogeschool van Amsterdam, University of Applied Sciences, INTERNATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATION NUMBER 64 SUMMER 2011 Pages 6-7. Internationalization of Higher Education: Nine Misconceptions Hans de Wit Hans de Wit is professor of internationalization at the School

More information

Consulting projects: What really matters

Consulting projects: What really matters Consulting projects: What really matters The factors that influence the success of management consulting projects Case 138: het 'Zwijsen future proof' project met de inzet van GEA Results PhD 2014, Bart

More information

Style Characterization of Machine Printed Texts

Style Characterization of Machine Printed Texts Style Characterization of Machine Printed Texts Andrew D. Bagdanov This book is typeset by the author using L A TEX2 ε. The main body of the text is set using the Computer Modern family of fonts. The images

More information

For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 times 10⁸ and the

For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 times 10⁸ and the CCSS: Mathematics The Number System CCSS: Grade 8 8.NS.A. Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers. 8.NS.A.1. Understand informally that every number

More information

(Refer Slide Time 00:56)

(Refer Slide Time 00:56) Software Engineering Prof.N. L. Sarda Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture-12 Data Modelling- ER diagrams, Mapping to relational model (Part -II) We will continue

More information

RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT GRONINGEN BOTTOM-UP REHABILITATION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT GRONINGEN BOTTOM-UP REHABILITATION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT GRONINGEN BOTTOM-UP REHABILITATION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA Proefschrift ter verkrijging van het doctoraat in de Geneeskunde aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen op gezag van de Rector Magnificus

More information

ANOTHER GENERATION OF GENERAL EDUCATION

ANOTHER GENERATION OF GENERAL EDUCATION ANOTHER GENERATION OF GENERAL EDUCATION Peter K. Bol Charles H. Carswell Professor of East Asian Languages and Civilizations I was asked to set forth some personal reflections rather than to summarize

More information

M.A.Lips. Copyright 2014, M.A.Lips, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

M.A.Lips. Copyright 2014, M.A.Lips, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Calorie Restriction: Differences and Similarities of Endocrine and Metabolic Effects in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Mirjam Anne Lips Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Calorie

More information

Accident Investigation

Accident Investigation Accident Investigation ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION/adentcvr.cdr/1-95 ThisdiscussionistakenfromtheU.S.Department oflabor,minesafetyandhealthadministration Safety Manual No. 10, Accident Investigation, Revised

More information

A framework to plan monitoring and evaluation

A framework to plan monitoring and evaluation 6. A framework to plan monitoring and evaluation Key ideas Monitoring and evaluation should be an integral part of (and therefore affect) all stages of the project cycle. As mentioned earlier, you need

More information

The Role of Gestalt in Language Processing

The Role of Gestalt in Language Processing 378 Abstracts HILKE ELSEN The Role of Gestalt in Language Processing This article discusses gestalt phenomena in language processing, compiling data from three empirical studies that analyze language acquisition,

More information

Asking Essential Questions

Asking Essential Questions The Miniature Guide to The Art of Asking Essential Questions by Dr. Linda Elder and Dr. Richard Paul Based on Critical Thinking Concepts and Socratic Principles The Foundation for Critical Thinking The

More information

M.A. Handbook Department of Theological Studies Concordia University

M.A. Handbook Department of Theological Studies Concordia University M.A. Handbook Department of Theological Studies Concordia University Updated October 2015 Mailing Address: Department of Theological Studies Concordia University 1455 Boulevard De Maisonneuve West Montreal,

More information

Game Theory and Poker

Game Theory and Poker Game Theory and Poker Jason Swanson April, 2005 Abstract An extremely simplified version of poker is completely solved from a game theoretic standpoint. The actual properties of the optimal solution are

More information

GUIDELINES: Applying for your first IFS Individual Research Grant

GUIDELINES: Applying for your first IFS Individual Research Grant GUIDELINES: Applying for your first IFS Individual Research Grant TO COMPLETE THE APPLICATION FORM The Application Form is a Word document, available for downloading on the IFS website (here). It should

More information

Item Analysis of Single-Peaked Response Data. The Psychometric Evaluation of Bipolar Measurement Scales

Item Analysis of Single-Peaked Response Data. The Psychometric Evaluation of Bipolar Measurement Scales Item Analysis of Single-Peaked Response Data The Psychometric Evaluation of Bipolar Measurement Scales Acknowledgement Financial support for the printing costs of this thesis was provided by the Developmental

More information

Errors in Operational Spreadsheets: A Review of the State of the Art

Errors in Operational Spreadsheets: A Review of the State of the Art Errors in Operational Spreadsheets: A Review of the State of the Art Stephen G. Powell Tuck School of Business Dartmouth College sgp@dartmouth.edu Kenneth R. Baker Tuck School of Business Dartmouth College

More information

ESSAYS ON MONTE CARLO METHODS FOR STATE SPACE MODELS

ESSAYS ON MONTE CARLO METHODS FOR STATE SPACE MODELS VRIJE UNIVERSITEIT ESSAYS ON MONTE CARLO METHODS FOR STATE SPACE MODELS ACADEMISCH PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad Doctor aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, op gezag van de rector magnificus

More information

Network Theory: 80/20 Rule and Small Worlds Theory

Network Theory: 80/20 Rule and Small Worlds Theory Scott J. Simon / p. 1 Network Theory: 80/20 Rule and Small Worlds Theory Introduction Starting with isolated research in the early twentieth century, and following with significant gaps in research progress,

More information

Core Ideas of Engineering and Technology

Core Ideas of Engineering and Technology Core Ideas of Engineering and Technology Understanding A Framework for K 12 Science Education By Cary Sneider Last month, Rodger Bybee s article, Scientific and Engineering Practices in K 12 Classrooms,

More information

BASIC STATISTICAL METHODS FOR GENOMIC DATA ANALYSIS

BASIC STATISTICAL METHODS FOR GENOMIC DATA ANALYSIS BASIC STATISTICAL METHODS FOR GENOMIC DATA ANALYSIS SEEMA JAGGI Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute Library Avenue, New Delhi-110 012 seema@iasri.res.in Genomics A genome is an organism s

More information

Behavioral Corporate Governance: Four Empirical Studies. Gerwin van der Laan

Behavioral Corporate Governance: Four Empirical Studies. Gerwin van der Laan Behavioral Corporate Governance: Four Empirical Studies Gerwin van der Laan RIJKSUNIVERSITEIT GRONINGEN BEHAVIORAL CORPORATE GOVERNACE: Four Empirical Studies Proefschrift ter verkrijging van het doctoraat

More information

Rochester Institute of Technology Master's Thesis Guidelines for Students and Faculty

Rochester Institute of Technology Master's Thesis Guidelines for Students and Faculty Rochester Institute of Technology Master's Thesis Guidelines for Students and Faculty The objective of this document is to provide guidance for students and faculty committees concerning the planning,

More information

A THESIS/DISSERTATION FORMATTING MANUAL FOR THE PURDUE UNIVERISTY CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT. A Manual. Submitted to the Faculty and Graduate Students

A THESIS/DISSERTATION FORMATTING MANUAL FOR THE PURDUE UNIVERISTY CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT. A Manual. Submitted to the Faculty and Graduate Students A THESIS/DISSERTATION FORMATTING MANUAL FOR THE PURDUE UNIVERISTY CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT A Manual Submitted to the Faculty and Graduate Students of Purdue University by Arwen N. Revis To help fulfill the

More information

Chapter 1. What is Biology? Worksheets. (Opening image copyright by Kirsty Pargeter, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.

Chapter 1. What is Biology? Worksheets. (Opening image copyright by Kirsty Pargeter, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com. Chapter 1 What is Biology? Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Kirsty Pargeter, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) Lesson 1.1: Science and the Natural World Lesson 1.2: Biology: The Study

More information

Introduction to Business Process Improvement

Introduction to Business Process Improvement Introduction to Business Process Improvement Learning Objectives By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: Define a business process. State the objectives of business process improvement. Explain

More information

Research into competency models in arts education

Research into competency models in arts education Research into competency models in arts education Paper presented at the BMBF Workshop International Perspectives of Research in Arts Education, Nov. 4 th and 5 th, 2013. Folkert Haanstra, Amsterdam School

More information

High School Algebra Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities Solve equations and inequalities in one variable.

High School Algebra Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities Solve equations and inequalities in one variable. Performance Assessment Task Quadratic (2009) Grade 9 The task challenges a student to demonstrate an understanding of quadratic functions in various forms. A student must make sense of the meaning of relations

More information

SECTION 10-2 Mathematical Induction

SECTION 10-2 Mathematical Induction 73 0 Sequences and Series 6. Approximate e 0. using the first five terms of the series. Compare this approximation with your calculator evaluation of e 0.. 6. Approximate e 0.5 using the first five terms

More information

Guidelines for the master s thesis

Guidelines for the master s thesis FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Guidelines for the master s thesis 1. Introduction Every master s degree requires the fulfillment of a master s thesis. The master s thesis consists of a personal and original manuscript

More information

COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION. Adopted May 31, 2005/Voted revisions in January, 2007, August, 2008, and November 2008 and adapted October, 2010

COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION. Adopted May 31, 2005/Voted revisions in January, 2007, August, 2008, and November 2008 and adapted October, 2010 COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION Adopted May 31, 2005/Voted revisions in January, 2007, August, 2008, and November 2008 and adapted October, 2010 All students are required to successfully complete the Comprehensive

More information

Making the title page for your dissertation a practical guide

Making the title page for your dissertation a practical guide Making the title page for your dissertation a practical guide Contents: 1. The front the basics 2. The reverse side the basics 2.1 The reverse side Adding the (co)promotor(s) and 2.2 The reverse side Adding

More information

Topic #6: Hypothesis. Usage

Topic #6: Hypothesis. Usage Topic #6: Hypothesis A hypothesis is a suggested explanation of a phenomenon or reasoned proposal suggesting a possible correlation between multiple phenomena. The term derives from the ancient Greek,

More information

WRITING A CRITICAL ARTICLE REVIEW

WRITING A CRITICAL ARTICLE REVIEW WRITING A CRITICAL ARTICLE REVIEW A critical article review briefly describes the content of an article and, more importantly, provides an in-depth analysis and evaluation of its ideas and purpose. The

More information

The Mathematics of Alcoholics Anonymous

The Mathematics of Alcoholics Anonymous The Mathematics of Alcoholics Anonymous "As a celebrated American statesman put it, 'Let's look at the record. Bill Wilson, Alcoholics Anonymous, page 50, A.A.W.S. Inc., 2001. Part 2: A.A. membership surveys

More information

[Refer Slide Time: 05:10]

[Refer Slide Time: 05:10] Principles of Programming Languages Prof: S. Arun Kumar Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Lecture no 7 Lecture Title: Syntactic Classes Welcome to lecture

More information

PRACTICE BOOK MATHEMATICS TEST (RESCALED) Graduate Record Examinations. This practice book contains. Become familiar with

PRACTICE BOOK MATHEMATICS TEST (RESCALED) Graduate Record Examinations. This practice book contains. Become familiar with This book is provided FREE with test registration by the Graduate Record Examinations Board. Graduate Record Examinations This practice book contains one actual full-length GRE Mathematics Test (Rescaled)

More information

DIFFICULTIES AND SOME PROBLEMS IN TRANSLATING LEGAL DOCUMENTS

DIFFICULTIES AND SOME PROBLEMS IN TRANSLATING LEGAL DOCUMENTS DIFFICULTIES AND SOME PROBLEMS IN TRANSLATING LEGAL DOCUMENTS Ivanka Sakareva Translation of legal documents bears its own inherent difficulties. First we should note that this type of translation is burdened

More information

PROCEDURES AND COSTS FOR PATENTS

PROCEDURES AND COSTS FOR PATENTS Attorneys At Law Patents, Trademarks & Copyrights Columbus, Ohio 7632 Slate Ridge Blvd. 614/575-2100 Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068-8159 www.ohiopatent.com PROCEDURES AND COSTS FOR PATENTS PLEASE NOTE: This

More information

IMEO International Mass Event Organization based on Recent Experience of Euro 2012

IMEO International Mass Event Organization based on Recent Experience of Euro 2012 IMEO International Mass Event Organization based on Recent Experience of Euro 2012 1. Name of the project: Project Management 2. Leader of the workshop (materials' author): Szymon Włochowicz 1 Objectives

More information

UNIVERSITY OF READING

UNIVERSITY OF READING UNIVERSITY OF READING MARKING CRITERIA CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR TAUGHT POSTGRADUATE PROGRAMMES (for non-greenlands cohorts entering Autumn Term 2008 and thereafter) (for Greenlands cohorts entering

More information

FORMAT GUIDELINES FOR DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS. Northwestern University The Graduate School Last revised 1/23/2015

FORMAT GUIDELINES FOR DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS. Northwestern University The Graduate School Last revised 1/23/2015 FORMAT GUIDELINES FOR DOCTORAL DISSERTATIONS Northwestern University The Graduate School Last revised 1/23/2015 Formatting questions not addressed in this document should be directed to Student Services,

More information

Modeling Guidelines Manual

Modeling Guidelines Manual Modeling Guidelines Manual [Insert company name here] July 2014 Author: John Doe john.doe@johnydoe.com Page 1 of 22 Table of Contents 1. Introduction... 3 2. Business Process Management (BPM)... 4 2.1.

More information

College of Graduate Studies and Research Master s Thesis Manual

College of Graduate Studies and Research Master s Thesis Manual College of Graduate Studies and Research Master s Thesis Manual Table of Contents GENERAL INFORMATION... 1 Selecting and formulating a thesis topic... 1 Preparing a thesis proposal... 2 Acceptance of a

More information

Educating for Hope in Troubled Times: Climate Change and the Transition to a Post-Carbon Future

Educating for Hope in Troubled Times: Climate Change and the Transition to a Post-Carbon Future Educating for Hope in Troubled Times: Climate Change and the Transition to a Post-Carbon Future Author David HICKS Formerly Professor in the School of Education, Bath Spa University, UK 281 Reviewer Danuta

More information

Higher Degree by Research Thesis Presentation - Guidelines

Higher Degree by Research Thesis Presentation - Guidelines Higher Degree by Research Thesis Presentation - Guidelines Introduction These Guidelines apply to theses prepared for Higher Degrees by Research (HDR). HDR candidates at the University of the Sunshine

More information

Managing Successful Programs (2007) Page 2 of 11. Book Structure

Managing Successful Programs (2007) Page 2 of 11. Book Structure Managing Successful Programs (2007) Published for Office of Government Commerce, UK (A book review by R. Max Wideman) (Note: North American spelling has been adopted throughout.) 2/1/09 Introduction Managing

More information

Videogaming and the development of the scientific mind

Videogaming and the development of the scientific mind Report of the Workshop Gaming and the scientific mind- Designing games to develop the scientific mind BtSM 2009 Cairo Designed and held by Carlo Fabricatore, Ph. D. (carlo.fabricatore@initium-studios.com)

More information

REGULATIONS OF THE WORLD STUDENTS INTERNET CONTEST ON ECONOMICS

REGULATIONS OF THE WORLD STUDENTS INTERNET CONTEST ON ECONOMICS REGULATIONS OF THE WORLD STUDENTS INTERNET CONTEST ON ECONOMICS 1. General Provisions 1.1. These regulations concern the order and procedure of the organization and holding of the World Students Internet

More information

Reporting Student Progress: Policy and Practice

Reporting Student Progress: Policy and Practice Reporting Student Progress: Policy and Practice Table of Contents Contents Introduction... 5 Policy... 6 Formal Reports... 6 Performance Scale... 6 Letter Grades... 7 Reporting on Daily Physical Activity...

More information

Exploring the Synoptic Gospels: Mark and His Careful Readers

Exploring the Synoptic Gospels: Mark and His Careful Readers Summarizing the Sessions This summary, published in January 2000 by the Franciscans and St. Anthony Messenger Press, reinforces the general themes covered in the previous study sessions. Use it as a final

More information