1 SPECIAL REPORT JUNE 2011 Cloud Storage Deep Dive Extending storage infrastructure into the cloud Copyright 2011 InfoWorld Media Group. All rights reserved. Sponsored by
2 2 How to get the most from cloud-based storage As organizations turn to the cloud to accommodate exponential data growth, dozens of providers offer services to match almost any mix of requirements i By David S. Linthicum ACCORDING TO IDC, storage requirements grow from 50 to 100 percent annually at most global 2000 enterprises. Other analysts go even further. A study by Strategic Research Corp. predicted that enterprise storage demands will increase sevenfold over the next three years, while storage management resources will remain flat. Until recently, the response to ballooning storage requirements has been to contact the usual storage technology vendor and buy yet another box for the data center. But eventually, to keep up, enterprises are going to have to turn to storage services in the cloud. The long-term vision is to make cloud-based storage systems a seamless extension of on-premise storage systems, with the ability to move data reliably and securely between the two. This model is known as hybrid cloud computing, which mixes public cloud computing services with private, on-premise cloud systems. As it applies to storage, the hybrid cloud allows enterprises to incorporate public services as another tier in their overall storage strategy. Unfortunately, workable hybrid architectures are not yet practical, in part because the protocols and standards to make cloud storage an extension of local storage are incomplete. Also, cloud storage costs are currently high when compared to those of traditional on-premise storage. But as the cloud matures, per-gigabyte costs will continue to drop and the technology will evolve into services that approach and sometimes surpass those of existing storage solutions. Meanwhile, early adopters are turning to cloud providers for point solutions. Cloud storage can work as a kind of escape valve, providing temporary storage or an alternative to the capital expense of new hardware. Also, the cost and complexity of complying with regulations such as HIPAA or SOX have compelled a number of enterprises to outsource the special handling of financial, medical, or other sensitive data to cloud storage services that guarantee compliance. And when building a business continuity strategy, a growing number of organizations are finding that cloud storage costs less than maintaining a warm site. Finally, some small businesses reluctant to invest in their own modern storage infrastructure are instead going all in and offloading all shared storage to the cloud. Of course, there s always a downside. With cloud storage, it s all about trust: What about outages or the accidental destruction of data? What if the provider goes out of business? Moreover, your cloud storage service needs to know how to handle data covered by regulations, not to mention data security and privacy. And because many providers use proprietary approaches to storage, the portability of data may be an issue. Each cloud storage provider offers a different mix of services. But there are some common patterns to this technology and it s helpful to understand them before you determine whether or what type of cloud storage is right for you. THE FUNDAMENTALS OF CLOUD STORAGE Mission-critical storage is not to be confused with consumer-oriented backup services such as Mozy and Carbonite. Cloud storage providers that target IT offer many of the same storage and storage management capabilities as those developed by such premium storage vendors as EMC and NetApp. They also support advanced, wellknown data center utilities such as SCP, FTP, SAMBA/ CIFS, and RSYNC. They provide management consoles, deep encryption services, and the ability to support most compliance requirements around storage.
3 3 The primary advantage of leveraging cloud storage is on-demand expandability, which many call storage elasticity. Many IaaS (infrastructure as a service) providers that offer storage services sell cloud storage as infinitely scalable. While nothing is infinitely scalable, you pay only for what you use and can allocate resources to meet your storage requirements as you need them. This provides business agility as well, allowing IT to better adapt to changing market conditions. DETERMINING COST AND UPTIME Prices and terms vary for cloud storage. For example, at this writing, GoGrid allows you to store up to 10GB per month at no cost and charges 15 cents per gigabyte per month after that. On the other hand, Amazon S3 services charges 15 cents per gigabyte for the first 50TB, then 14 cents after that. Then there s Google s Cloud Storage Service, which charges 17 cents per gigabyte per month for simple storage, 10 cents per gigabyte for uploading data, and 15 to 30 cents per gigabyte for downloads. Such permutations make cloud storage costs difficult to calculate and compare. You have to look at pricing on a case-by-case basis, considering that they are typically pennies apart, and adjust as your usage increases. So while Amazon S3 may be more cost effective than GoGrid when storing more than 50TB, GoGrid may be more cost effective when storing less. You also need to consider data transfer costs. Either there is a cost to transfer the data to the cloud storage system over the Internet in one big upload, or cloud storage providers allow you to transfer data to them in more conventional ways, meaning tapes and disks sent via FedEx, which also incur service charges. Most enterprises will find that getting their data in the cloud costs thousands of dollars before the service is even up and running. Another detail to consider is the SLA (service-level agreement), which also varies greatly from provider to provider. Most promise five 9s ( percent) of uptime, with lower-cost services such as Amazon s Reduced Redundancy Storage providing four nines (99.99 percent). Amazon s S3 premium service actually offers ten nines ( percent). The more nines, the more you pay. Many cloud storage services, such as those used primarily for client file backup, may offer no SLA whatsoever, but charge about $5 per client. A WALK THROUGH AMAZON S3 Amazon S3 seems to be setting the pace for cloud storage, with most cloud storage providers offering quick comparisons with S3, including either API or management console access to the storage services. Setting up and maintaining cloud storage is not as straightforward as many would imagine; it can be highly technical and involved, depending upon the storage provider and the use case. So how do you get down to business with cloud storage? In the case of Amazon S3, you begin by creating a Bucket to store your data and deciding where that Bucket will physically reside -- an approach that allows you to reduce latency. Location is also important when considering compliance issues. For instance, in Europe, financial data cannot be transferred outside of the country of origin, or it must meet other regulations. S3 has physical locations in regions all over the world to provide its users with options that fulfill their requirements. Once you set up a Bucket, you can upload Objects to the Bucket, where they can be accessed as if they were on a local mounted storage device. S3 Objects represent the data you store on S3, and they leverage a key (the number of the object) and a value (the data inside of the object). You can store an object on S3 using an API by specifying a key, its data, and the name of the bucket you want to put it in. INTEGRATING CLOUD STORAGE API access to storage services is a critical component. Many applications require access to storage services using an API that s optimized for that specific storage system, either on-premise or cloud-based. The S3 API provides developers with SDKs for.net and Java, along with libraries for additional platforms and languages. These interfaces typically use the Web services protocols REST and/or SOAP. At this writing, many cloud storage providers still don t have public APIs, but most are moving in that direction. Or you can simply drag and drop files from your local systems to your cloud storage provider and back again. All cloud storage providers offer a UI like this -- or they use native operating system tools to expose the remote storage systems as mounted file systems. If the cloud service can provide storage that looks like a logical drive, then you can typically use your own native file management tools.
4 4 To enable customers to integrate cloud storage with the data center, cloud storage providers need to support existing storage utilities. RSYNC, for instance, is a utility for Unix systems, which is able to synchronize files and directories between different storage locations. You should be able to manage your cloud storage with this utility as if it were a locally mounted drive, as well as use FTP and SCP (Secure Copy Protocol) for data transfer. For cloud storage as an extension of the data center to succeed, those who currently manage the data center must also be able to manage their cloud storage systems using the same approaches and tools. Indeed, that should be a core criterion for selecting a cloud storage provider. CLOUD STORAGE PROVIDERS AND USE CASES The fastest-growing area of cloud computing is cloud storage. No wonder: Simple cloud storage services are fairly easy to build and launch. But the range of functionality is wide, and if you re in search of high availability or services for specialized needs, you ll want to turn to providers that have been around for a while and have a verifiable track record. At the lowest level are the commodity services that offer a minimal SLA and a minimal price, such as Amazon s Reduced Redundancy Storage and Rackspace s Host Based Replication Services. This space will expand quickly and prices will fall as more providers move into the market. At the other end of the spectrum, if you re looking for disaster recovery services, you ll find a number of providers optimized for that, with special features as part of their services. The brand names with major market share are familiar: Amazon, Rackspace, and GoGrid. Each has its own approach to disaster recovery, typically providing two levels of service: low and high availability (with low and high pricing). On the high-availability side, you have offerings such as Enterprise Replication Services from Rackspace, which uses an enterprise-class, array-based, fileand-block- level replication technology. This solution supports high-end data replication services, including dedicated NAS and SAN devices, with replication services such as NetApp SnapMirror for NAS and EMC RPA technology for SANs. Several third parties layer backup services onto other cloud storage providers offerings, adding new backup and recovery features. For example, Amanda Enterprise from Zamanda uses Amazon S3 to back up, archive, and retrieve data from anywhere on the Internet. In the future, we can expect third parties like this to add cutting-edge features, which will in turn be adopted by the major cloud storage providers. Meanwhile, users need to understand the concerns surrounding audits, particularly such compliance issues as SOX or HIPAA. Several cloud storage providers offer a range of compliance services, from archiving to special handling of electronic documents for vertical industries. Iron Mountain s cloud offerings, for example, address secure digital archiving, e-discovery services, and health information management. Offloading data compliance to a service provider can be a cost-saving strategy. Do you really want your data center staffers worrying about the details of handling documents covered by complex regulations, or would you rather hand the whole mess to a provider? Obviously, trust in that provider is key, so it s essential for such sensitive material to be handled by a company with a proven track record. If your organization ever becomes entangled in litigation related to regulation, your own company, not your provider, is ultimately responsible. CLOUD STORAGE STANDARDS Missing from today s cloud storage are widely accepted standards, including standardized storage APIs -- the absence of which makes it quite difficult for customers to switch providers. Right now, once you ve bound an application to a cloud storage service, you re pretty much stuck with that service unless you re willing to marshal the money and effort to move. The Storage Networking Industry Association has released early drafts of a couple of documents created in the new Cloud Storage working group. The Cloud Storage Reference Model defines cloud storage elements, describing a logical view of their functions and capabilities. With this model as the foundation, the industry should be able to define the standards we need to move toward a standardized terminology for cloud storage services. The model also describes standard interfaces for cloud storage. All that sounds good, but the day when such standards will have a real impact is a long way off. At this
5 5 point, what are the incentives for storage providers to foster portability? For the short term, you need to pick your cloud storage provider carefully, because you re likely to be married to it for a while. Those charged with determining the value of this technology should consider opening trial accounts now and testing the viability of cloud-base storage. As you calculate the effects of the ongoing explosion in storage requirements, you can no longer omit cloud-based storage from the mix. The agility that this technology provides to business is likely to be a key strategic advantage. i
Moving from Legacy Systems to Cloud Computing A Tata Communications White Paper October, 2010 White Paper 2010 Tata Communications Table of Contents 1 Executive Summary... 4 2 Introduction... 5 2.1 Definition
Choosing the Right Approach to Public Cloud Infrastructure as a Service issue 1 Pellentesque Pede Nibh Sed Laoreet Sagittis inside this issue Welcome Address from the CEO The Bluelock + VMware vcloud Advantage
THE BENEFITS OF CLOUD NETWORKING 1 White Paper The Benefits of Cloud Networking Enable cloud networking to lower IT costs & boost IT productivity 2 THE BENEFITS OF CLOUD NETWORKING Table of Contents Introduction
The Definitive Guide tm To Cloud Computing Ch apter 10: Key Steps in Establishing Enterprise Cloud Computing Services... 185 Ali gning Business Drivers with Cloud Services... 187 Un derstanding Business
www.cloudtp.com Building Blocks of the Private Cloud Private clouds are exactly what they sound like. Your own instance of SaaS, PaaS, or IaaS that exists in your own data center, all tucked away, protected
Cloud Computing: Transforming the Enterprise Cloud computing is not just a trend. It is changing the way IT organizations drive business value. THINK SMART. ACT FAST. FLEX YOUR BUSINESS. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
White Paper NetApp for the Private Cloud: Enable the Delivery of IT as a Service Theresa Villatore-Silva, NetApp June 2011 WP-7112 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Cloud computing is increasingly being adopted as a way
HOW SAAS CHANGES AN ISV S BUSINESS A GUIDE FOR ISV LEADERS Sponsored by Microsoft Corporation Copyright 2012 Chappell & Associates Contents Understanding the Move to SaaS... 3 Assessing SaaS...3 Benefits
Chapter 2 Basic Cloud Computing Types Abstract Cloud computing s marquee feature is the availability of all required software on the web. The principal service that provides this feature is Software as
FRAUNHOFER RESEARCH INSTITUTION AISEC CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY PROTECTION GOALS.TAXONOMY.MARKET REVIEW. DR. WERNER STREITBERGER, ANGELIKA RUPPEL 02/2010 Parkring 4 D-85748 Garching b. München Tel.: +49
Migrating your Existing Applications to the AWS Cloud A Phase-driven Approach to Cloud Migration Jinesh Varia firstname.lastname@example.org October 2010 Page 1 of 23 Abstract With Amazon Web Services (AWS), you can
Product Overview for Windows Small Business Server 2011 December 2010 Abstract Microsoft offers Windows Small Business Servers as a business solution for small businesses by providing a simplified setup,
WHITE PAPER Meeting Backup and Archive Challenges Today and Tomorrow Sponsored by: Fujitsu Nick Sundby November 2014 IDC OPINION IDC's end-user surveys show data integrity and availability remains a top
The Benefits of Integrated Cloud Recovery as a Service The Benefits of Integrated Cloud Backup and Recovery Cloud computing is today s hottest topic in IT. Businesses of all sizes are trying to achieve
White Paper Creating and Implementing an Enterprise Cloud Strategy David Linthicum Blue Mountain Labs Introduction Cloud computing is about the ability to share IT resources more efficiently. Thus, the
How AWS Pricing Works May 2015 (Please consult http://aws.amazon.com/whitepapers/ for the latest version of this paper) Page 1 of 15 Table of Contents Table of Contents... 2 Abstract... 3 Introduction...
SOME CLOUDS ARE MEANT TO BE KEPT PRIVATE Addressing the Application Needs of Business for Sensitive Data & Customized Applications WHITE PAPER Contents 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2. INTRODUCTION 3. THE RIGHT
WHITE PAPER How to choose and implement your cloud strategy INTRODUCTION Cloud computing has the potential to tip strategic advantage away from large established enterprises toward SMBs or startup companies.
Whitepaper The ABC of Private Clouds A viable option or another cloud gimmick? Although many organizations have adopted the cloud and are reaping the benefits of a cloud computing platform, there are still
Frequently Asked Questions about Cloud and Online Backup With more companies realizing the importance of protecting their mission-critical data, we know that businesses are also evaluating the resiliency
white paper Public or Private Cloud: The Choice is Yours Current Cloudy Situation Facing Businesses There is no debate that most businesses are adopting cloud services at a rapid pace. In fact, a recent
The Definitive Guide To tm Building Highly Scalable Enterprise File Serving Solutions Chris Wolf Chapter 5: Building High-Performance, Scalable, and Resilient Linux File-Serving Solutions...87 Challenges
An Oracle White Paper May 2010 Oracle Cloud Computing 1 Executive Overview Cloud computing is a significant advancement in the delivery of information technology and services. By providing on demand access
QLIKVIEW AND THE CLOUD A QlikView Technology White Paper July 2012 qlikview.com Table of Contents Overview 4 Who Is This Paper For? 4 Cloud Terminology and QlikView 5 Software as a Service - SaaS 6 QlikView
Workbook EXIN Cloud Computing Foundation Edition May 2012 2 Colophon Title: EXIN CLOUD Computing Foundation Workbook Authors: Johannes W. van den Bent (CLOUD-linguistics) and Martine van der Steeg (The