Une campagne de sensibilisation est lancée (1) pour lutter (1) contre les conséquences de l'alcool au volant. Il faut absolument réussir (2).

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1 > les verbes du groupe deux la forme passive beaucoup de, trop de: les adverbes de quantité L'affiche est posée (1) sur le bord des routes pour sensibiliser (1) les gens au problème de l'alcool au volant. The poster is placed on the roadsides to raise awareness among people about the problem of drinkdriving. Selon les statistiques il y a beaucoup d'accidents sur les routes à cause de la consommation d'alcool et à cause de la conduite en état d'ivresse. According to the statistics, there are lots of accidents on the roads caused by the consumption of alcohol and caused by driving while in a state of drunkenness. Souvent, beaucoup de problèmes arrivent (1) à cause de l'alcool. C'est beaucoup trop. C'est une réelle catastrophe. Il faut lutter contre ce phénomène social. Often, a lot of problems arrive because of alcohol. It's much too much. It is a real catastrophe. It's necessary to campaign against this social phenomenon. Une campagne de sensibilisation est lancée (1) pour lutter (1) contre les conséquences de l'alcool au volant. Il faut absolument réussir (2).

2 An awareness campaign is launched to fight against the consequences of drink-driving. It is absolutely necessary to succeed. Un plan est élaboré (1) actuellement par le gouvernement. La police est mobilisée (1). Les conducteurs sont avertis (2) par les médias. Les sanctions sont augmentées (1). A plan is devised at the moment by the government. The police are mobilised. Drivers are warned by the media. Punishments are increased. Si nous ne réagissons (2) pas, nous courons vers une catastrophe. Mais, si les mesures de prévention réussissent (2), c'est une belle victoire. Boire ou conduire, en effet il faut choisir (2). If we don't react, we are heading for a catastrophe. But if the prevention measures succeed, it will be a great victory. Drink or drive, effectively it's necessary to choose. le vocabulaire féminin une belle affiche a beautiful poster une route dangereuse a dangerous road une statistique impressionnante a powerful statistic une catastrophe épouvantable a dreadful catastrophe une campagne efficace an effective campaign la conséquence imprévisible the unpredictable consequence la police nationale the national police une victoire incontestable an uncontestable victory une mesure critiquable a measure open to criticism la sensibilisation* awareness la sanction* punishment, sanction la prévention* prevention une augmentation* an increase la consommation* the consumption *Remember: all words ending in -tion are feminine le vocabulaire

3 masculin un bord a side les gens (m.pl) the people un accident an accident un problème a problem un alcool alcohol, a spirit un volant a steering wheel le plan the plan le gouvernement the government un conducteur a driver les médias (m.pl) the media...en trois points The lesson in three points 1) Les verbes du deuxième groupe You have already come across verbs ending in -er like chanter - to sing: Je chante une chanson d'amour. I sing a love song. Tu chantes bien. You sing well. Il chante faux. He sings off-key. Nous chantons en choeur. We sing in chorus. Vous chantez victoire trop vite! You're crying victory too soon! Elles chantent à tue-tête. They sing their hearts out. Regular verbs ending in -er are known as les verbes du premier groupe verbs from the first group There are three groups of verbs in French and today we are going to look at verbs from the second group: les verbes du deuxième groupe

4 verbs from the second group Verbs in the second group have two defining characteristics: their infinitive ends in - ir and they have a form -iss in the plural. Let's look at an example: choisir - to choose le présent de l'indicatif je choisis tu choisis il choisit elle choisit nous choisissons vous choisissez ils choisissent elles choisissent Here are some other examples of verbs in the second group: réussir to succeed Nous réussissons la campagne publicitaire. We succeed with an advertising campaign. avertir to warn Nous avertissons les clients réguliers. We warn our regular clients. réagir to react Nous réagissons immédiatement. We react immediately. obéir to obey Nous obéissons en principe. We obey in principle. désobéir to disobey Nous désobéissons parfois. We disobey sometimes. rougir to turn red Nous rougissons sur la plage. We turn red on the beach. guérir to get well

5 Nous guérissons si nous écoutons le docteur. We get well if we listen to the doctor. If you look now at the text at the beginning of the lesson you'll understand why there is a number (1) and a number (2) after many of the verbs. This refers to the number of the group in which the verbs are to be found. Notice that not all verbs with an -ir in the infinitive are in the second group. For example: courir to run dormir to sleep look like verbs from the second group, but in the plural we have Nous courons à la campagne. We run in the countryside. Nous ne dormons pas assez. We don't sleep enough. not so they are in the third group of irregular verbs. And conduire ends in -ire and not ir, as do lire (to read) and écrire (to write). They too are to be found in the third group of irregular verbs, which we will look at another time. 2) La forme passive

6 Un plan est élaboré par le gouvernement. A plan is devised by the government. is a sentence in the passive voice. The structure in French is the same as it is in English: le verbe être au présent + le participe passé the verb to be in the present the past participle To form the past participle of a verb in the first group, replace the -er ending of the infinitive with -é. The infinitive and the past participle are pronounced the same: élaborer élaboré For verbs in the second group, replace the -ir of the infinitive with i. The pronunciation changes: choisir choisi When constructing a verb in the passive voice, the past participle must agree with the subject: add an e when the subject is feminine and an s when the subject is plural. For example: la forme passive masculin singulier féminin singulier masculin pluriel féminin pluriel Le plan est élaboré. The plan is devised. La police est mobilisée. The police force is mobilised. Les conducteurs sont avertis. The drivers are warned. Les sanctions sont augmentées. The sanctions are increased.

7 3) Beaucoup de, trop de, pas de... Take a look at the following sentence. Notice in particular the de that comes after the French word beaucoup meaning 'a lot': de is like the word 'of' in English. Il y a beaucoup de problèmes. There are a lot of problems. But in French the de comes up whenever there is an adverb that describes quantity: even where there's no 'of' in English. For example trop de - 'too many': Or ne... pas de... 'not any': Il y a trop de problèmes. There are too many problems. (lit: There are too many of problems) Il n'y a pas de problèmes. There aren't any problems. Notice too that the noun doesn't have an article before it, it comes straight after the de. When we talk about defined quantities of something, the article disappears. To recap, when we talk about undefined amounts of something 'problems in general', we need to use the indefinite article des: Il y a des problèmes. There are problems. But when we define a quantity (and 'none at all' counts as a defined quantity), we use de without an article: de is contracted to d' before a vowel. Il n'y a pas de problèmes. There aren't any problems.

8 Il y a trop d'accidents. There are too many accidents. It's good to learn this structure by heart. Because it's different from the English, it can cause problems. Here are some more examples to practise with: Il y a beaucoup d'accidents. Boire ou conduire il faut choisir: pas d'alcool au volant. Il y a un problème. Il n'y a pas de problème. Il y a un accident. Il n'y a pas d'accident. Il y a des problèmes. Il n'y a pas de problèmes. Il y a trop de problèmes. Il y a trop d'accidents à cause de l'alcool. Il ne faut pas boire d'alcool au volant. Voulez-vous un peu de sucre dans le café? We'll come across more adverbs that behave in this way in the future.

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