PROPERTIES OF ELLIPTIC CURVES AND THEIR USE IN FACTORING LARGE NUMBERS

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "PROPERTIES OF ELLIPTIC CURVES AND THEIR USE IN FACTORING LARGE NUMBERS"

Transcription

1 PROPERTIES OF ELLIPTIC CURVES AND THEIR USE IN FACTORING LARGE NUMBERS A ver important set of curves which has received considerabl attention in recent ears in connection with the factoring of large numbers are the elliptic curves- + a+ b where a and b are integers. We will discuss here some of their properties and then show how the can be used to factor large numbers. Our starting point will be to look at several specific eamples. We show ou the cases of ( a-b and ( a-9, b below- Note that the graphs are smmetric about the ais and that the derivative becomes infinite at one or three distinct values of. Also the curves go to ± as +. The first and second derivatives of these curves are given b- d ( + a d [ ( + and For a>0, there are no points where the derivative is zero and inflection points are encountered when the numerator of the second derivative vanishes. The curves become singular when d/0/0 and thus when -a and 0 simultaneousl. Net consider two neighboring points P(, and Q(, ling along the upper branch of the curve for >0. If we draw a straight line through these points the will generall intersect the curve at a third point R(,. The equation for this straight line will be- 4 a

2 s+ c s( + where s is its slope s ( ( Of particular interest for number factoring is the limiting case where P and Q coincide. Under that condition s can be replaced b the derivative at P(, and one finds on equating the straight line to the cubic we have at that- [ s ( + + a+ b This result ma be rewritten as the cubic- s + ( a s( s + ( b ( s ( ( Looking at just the coefficient of the term and setting it to zero ( since an elliptic curve has no quadratic term, we find that- ( + a ( since when PQ. It also follows that- ( + a ( + to ield a unique point R(,. For the case ( above where a and b-, we find R(, if one takes P(,Q(,. For the case ( where a-9 and b, we find R(69/, 57sqrt(/4 when P(,sqrt(Q(,sqrt(. We test this result b plugging into the cubic curve to find- (57sqrt(/4 (69/ - 9(69/ which checks. In standard mathematical notation one calls R(, P(,. Another particularl interesting elliptic curve is-

3 ( ( + It is rich in integer solutions starting with [, [,4 followed b [6,4, [,6,[8,76,etc. These points along the upper branch of the solution curve are easiest to determine b substituting subsequent values of into the equation and then seeing which sum equals the square of an integer. We find that n+ n +(n+ for the integer solution pair[ n+, n+. A little manipulation then predicts the ver simple result- n + n, n( n +, n,,,4,... n Thus the integer point [980, is guaranteed to lie on the solution curve. Net we demonstrate how one can use elliptic integrals to factor a number N. The idea behind this approach is due to H. Lenstra (An.of Math6,649-67,987 and works as follows. Take the first elliptic curve mentioned above and choose the simple composite number N. We write- + (modn withn This elliptic curve has the simple integer point P(, ling along it and we have alread shown that another point is R(,. To get a point further out on the upper branch of the curve we must first do a bit of manipulation involving modular arithmetic. We note that the derivative of the curve at (, is /6 and that this will not produce a larger value for a new. To get an further out along the upper branch of the curve we must first manipulate the /6 derivative term b carring out a Euclidian Algorithm on the numbers N and 6. Calculating first the greatest common divisor (gcd, we have ; 6 + 0; Looking at the remainder in the first equation, we have the gcd(,6. So we see at once that 6 and are both factored b and hence- Furthermore we can break down the b appling Euclid s Algorithm to and 6. This produces the gcd(,6 so that both 6 and are factored b. Thus we have the final result Which factors our number N. In most cases the factoring is not quite as simple as this and one must work rather hard to actuall find the inverse of a number M appearing in the

4 denominator of the derivative of ( to obtain larger values for. Also one is free to change the a and bs in the elliptic equation. The work can become easier b an appropriate choice of a and b usuall not known beforehand. Net, consider factoring the number N6 7 using the equation +8-8 which also has an integer point P(,. Here the derivative at P(, is d( //. One finds on appling the Euclid Algorithm between and 6 that- 6 + ; So that gcd(6, and on inverting- 6 mod(6 The inverse of then becomes -+[integer (6. One possibilit for - is. Thus we can write- [( ( 90 [(( Notice that these two new large values are integers which contradicts the fact that the cubic +8-8 has onl a limited number of integer points including (,, (,4, (6,6, (7,7 and (,04 along the upper branch. This means that and must be approimations, but probabl prett good ones. Let s check. We find- ( So we indeed see close agreement but not an eact match. Continuing on, we net look at the derivative at the new (. It ields- d( meaning that we have to be able to invert the denominator in the last epression to get the net. It is s clear that 465 and 6 have as its greatest common denominator since the first number is prime. So the process must be continued until a point is reached where the denominator of the derivative factors N6. The factor will turn out to be, 7,or in this case. Computer automation makes this elliptic curve method of factoring large numbers N one of the best presentl available. However, the challenge still remains

5 to find additional and superior methods for quickl factoring ver large numbers of 00 digits or larger as required in crptograph. Finall let us generate the differential equation which has +a+b as a solution. We alread have given the form of the first and second derivatives above. Differentiating the first derivative again one has- d [ + a ( + a d d ( So the governing second order non-linear equation for elliptic curves is- d d Just to show that things work, take the simple solution (/. Here- 9 ( 4 4 / August 00

Core Maths C2. Revision Notes

Core Maths C2. Revision Notes Core Maths C Revision Notes November 0 Core Maths C Algebra... Polnomials: +,,,.... Factorising... Long division... Remainder theorem... Factor theorem... 4 Choosing a suitable factor... 5 Cubic equations...

More information

Higher. Polynomials and Quadratics 64

Higher. Polynomials and Quadratics 64 hsn.uk.net Higher Mathematics UNIT OUTCOME 1 Polnomials and Quadratics Contents Polnomials and Quadratics 64 1 Quadratics 64 The Discriminant 66 3 Completing the Square 67 4 Sketching Parabolas 70 5 Determining

More information

Simplification of Rational Expressions and Functions

Simplification of Rational Expressions and Functions 7.1 Simplification of Rational Epressions and Functions 7.1 OBJECTIVES 1. Simplif a rational epression 2. Identif a rational function 3. Simplif a rational function 4. Graph a rational function Our work

More information

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Chapter 6 Eponential and Logarithmic Functions Section summaries Section 6.1 Composite Functions Some functions are constructed in several steps, where each of the individual steps is a function. For eample,

More information

Solving Quadratic Equations by Graphing. Consider an equation of the form. y ax 2 bx c a 0. In an equation of the form

Solving Quadratic Equations by Graphing. Consider an equation of the form. y ax 2 bx c a 0. In an equation of the form SECTION 11.3 Solving Quadratic Equations b Graphing 11.3 OBJECTIVES 1. Find an ais of smmetr 2. Find a verte 3. Graph a parabola 4. Solve quadratic equations b graphing 5. Solve an application involving

More information

Polynomials. Jackie Nicholas Jacquie Hargreaves Janet Hunter

Polynomials. Jackie Nicholas Jacquie Hargreaves Janet Hunter Mathematics Learning Centre Polnomials Jackie Nicholas Jacquie Hargreaves Janet Hunter c 26 Universit of Sdne Mathematics Learning Centre, Universit of Sdne 1 1 Polnomials Man of the functions we will

More information

2.2 Absolute Value Functions

2.2 Absolute Value Functions . Absolute Value Functions 7. Absolute Value Functions There are a few was to describe what is meant b the absolute value of a real number. You ma have been taught that is the distance from the real number

More information

The Quadratic Function

The Quadratic Function 0 The Quadratic Function TERMINOLOGY Ais of smmetr: A line about which two parts of a graph are smmetrical. One half of the graph is a reflection of the other Coefficient: A constant multiplied b a pronumeral

More information

HI-RES STILL TO BE SUPPLIED

HI-RES STILL TO BE SUPPLIED 1 MRE GRAPHS AND EQUATINS HI-RES STILL T BE SUPPLIED Different-shaped curves are seen in man areas of mathematics, science, engineering and the social sciences. For eample, Galileo showed that if an object

More information

Mathematics of Cryptography Modular Arithmetic, Congruence, and Matrices. A Biswas, IT, BESU SHIBPUR

Mathematics of Cryptography Modular Arithmetic, Congruence, and Matrices. A Biswas, IT, BESU SHIBPUR Mathematics of Cryptography Modular Arithmetic, Congruence, and Matrices A Biswas, IT, BESU SHIBPUR McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 Set of Integers The set of integers, denoted by Z,

More information

1 Determine whether an. 2 Solve systems of linear. 3 Solve systems of linear. 4 Solve systems of linear. 5 Select the most efficient

1 Determine whether an. 2 Solve systems of linear. 3 Solve systems of linear. 4 Solve systems of linear. 5 Select the most efficient Section 3.1 Systems of Linear Equations in Two Variables 163 SECTION 3.1 SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES Objectives 1 Determine whether an ordered pair is a solution of a system of linear

More information

8 Primes and Modular Arithmetic

8 Primes and Modular Arithmetic 8 Primes and Modular Arithmetic 8.1 Primes and Factors Over two millennia ago already, people all over the world were considering the properties of numbers. One of the simplest concepts is prime numbers.

More information

Quadratic Functions. MathsStart. Topic 3

Quadratic Functions. MathsStart. Topic 3 MathsStart (NOTE Feb 2013: This is the old version of MathsStart. New books will be created during 2013 and 2014) Topic 3 Quadratic Functions 8 = 3 2 6 8 ( 2)( 4) ( 3) 2 1 2 4 0 (3, 1) MATHS LEARNING CENTRE

More information

To Be or Not To Be a Linear Equation: That Is the Question

To Be or Not To Be a Linear Equation: That Is the Question To Be or Not To Be a Linear Equation: That Is the Question Linear Equation in Two Variables A linear equation in two variables is an equation that can be written in the form A + B C where A and B are not

More information

Objectives. By the time the student is finished with this section of the workbook, he/she should be able

Objectives. By the time the student is finished with this section of the workbook, he/she should be able QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS Completing the Square..95 The Quadratic Formula....99 The Discriminant... 0 Equations in Quadratic Form.. 04 The Standard Form of a Parabola...06 Working with the Standard Form of a

More information

12 Greatest Common Divisors. The Euclidean Algorithm

12 Greatest Common Divisors. The Euclidean Algorithm Arkansas Tech University MATH 4033: Elementary Modern Algebra Dr. Marcel B. Finan 12 Greatest Common Divisors. The Euclidean Algorithm As mentioned at the end of the previous section, we would like to

More information

Implicit Differentiation

Implicit Differentiation Revision Notes 2 Calculus 1270 Fall 2007 INSTRUCTOR: Peter Roper OFFICE: LCB 313 [EMAIL: roper@math.utah.edu] Standard Disclaimer These notes are not a complete review of the course thus far, and some

More information

2.2 Absolute Value Functions

2.2 Absolute Value Functions . Absolute Value Functions 7. Absolute Value Functions There are a few was to describe what is meant b the absolute value of a real number. You ma have been taught that is the distance from the real number

More information

Math Rational Functions

Math Rational Functions Rational Functions Math 3 Rational Functions A rational function is the algebraic equivalent of a rational number. Recall that a rational number is one that can be epressed as a ratio of integers: p/q.

More information

15.1. Exact Differential Equations. Exact First-Order Equations. Exact Differential Equations Integrating Factors

15.1. Exact Differential Equations. Exact First-Order Equations. Exact Differential Equations Integrating Factors SECTION 5. Eact First-Order Equations 09 SECTION 5. Eact First-Order Equations Eact Differential Equations Integrating Factors Eact Differential Equations In Section 5.6, ou studied applications of differential

More information

7.7 Solving Rational Equations

7.7 Solving Rational Equations Section 7.7 Solving Rational Equations 7 7.7 Solving Rational Equations When simplifying comple fractions in the previous section, we saw that multiplying both numerator and denominator by the appropriate

More information

INVESTIGATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 1.1.1 1.1.4. Example 1

INVESTIGATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 1.1.1 1.1.4. Example 1 Chapter 1 INVESTIGATIONS AND FUNCTIONS 1.1.1 1.1.4 This opening section introduces the students to man of the big ideas of Algebra 2, as well as different was of thinking and various problem solving strategies.

More information

Rotated Ellipses. And Their Intersections With Lines. Mark C. Hendricks, Ph.D. Copyright March 8, 2012

Rotated Ellipses. And Their Intersections With Lines. Mark C. Hendricks, Ph.D. Copyright March 8, 2012 Rotated Ellipses And Their Intersections With Lines b Mark C. Hendricks, Ph.D. Copright March 8, 0 Abstract: This paper addresses the mathematical equations for ellipses rotated at an angle and how to

More information

Polynomial and Rational Functions

Polynomial and Rational Functions Chapter Section.1 Quadratic Functions Polnomial and Rational Functions Objective: In this lesson ou learned how to sketch and analze graphs of quadratic functions. Course Number Instructor Date Important

More information

CALCULUS 1: LIMITS, AVERAGE GRADIENT AND FIRST PRINCIPLES DERIVATIVES

CALCULUS 1: LIMITS, AVERAGE GRADIENT AND FIRST PRINCIPLES DERIVATIVES 6 LESSON CALCULUS 1: LIMITS, AVERAGE GRADIENT AND FIRST PRINCIPLES DERIVATIVES Learning Outcome : Functions and Algebra Assessment Standard 1..7 (a) In this section: The limit concept and solving for limits

More information

SOLUTIONS FOR PROBLEM SET 2

SOLUTIONS FOR PROBLEM SET 2 SOLUTIONS FOR PROBLEM SET 2 A: There exist primes p such that p+6k is also prime for k = 1,2 and 3. One such prime is p = 11. Another such prime is p = 41. Prove that there exists exactly one prime p such

More information

5.3 Graphing Cubic Functions

5.3 Graphing Cubic Functions Name Class Date 5.3 Graphing Cubic Functions Essential Question: How are the graphs of f () = a ( - h) 3 + k and f () = ( 1_ related to the graph of f () = 3? b ( - h) 3 ) + k Resource Locker Eplore 1

More information

Elementary Number Theory We begin with a bit of elementary number theory, which is concerned

Elementary Number Theory We begin with a bit of elementary number theory, which is concerned CONSTRUCTION OF THE FINITE FIELDS Z p S. R. DOTY Elementary Number Theory We begin with a bit of elementary number theory, which is concerned solely with questions about the set of integers Z = {0, ±1,

More information

SAMPLE. Polynomial functions

SAMPLE. Polynomial functions Objectives C H A P T E R 4 Polnomial functions To be able to use the technique of equating coefficients. To introduce the functions of the form f () = a( + h) n + k and to sketch graphs of this form through

More information

Graphing Nonlinear Systems

Graphing Nonlinear Systems 10.4 Graphing Nonlinear Sstems 10.4 OBJECTIVES 1. Graph a sstem of nonlinear equations 2. Find ordered pairs associated with the solution set of a nonlinear sstem 3. Graph a sstem of nonlinear inequalities

More information

U.C. Berkeley CS276: Cryptography Handout 0.1 Luca Trevisan January, 2009. Notes on Algebra

U.C. Berkeley CS276: Cryptography Handout 0.1 Luca Trevisan January, 2009. Notes on Algebra U.C. Berkeley CS276: Cryptography Handout 0.1 Luca Trevisan January, 2009 Notes on Algebra These notes contain as little theory as possible, and most results are stated without proof. Any introductory

More information

Practice Problems for First Test

Practice Problems for First Test Mathematicians have tried in vain to this day to discover some order in the sequence of prime numbers, and we have reason to believe that it is a mystery into which the human mind will never penetrate.-

More information

Graphing Quadratic Equations

Graphing Quadratic Equations .4 Graphing Quadratic Equations.4 OBJECTIVE. Graph a quadratic equation b plotting points In Section 6.3 ou learned to graph first-degree equations. Similar methods will allow ou to graph quadratic equations

More information

Slope-Intercept Form and Point-Slope Form

Slope-Intercept Form and Point-Slope Form Slope-Intercept Form and Point-Slope Form In this section we will be discussing Slope-Intercept Form and the Point-Slope Form of a line. We will also discuss how to graph using the Slope-Intercept Form.

More information

SUNY ECC. ACCUPLACER Preparation Workshop. Algebra Skills

SUNY ECC. ACCUPLACER Preparation Workshop. Algebra Skills SUNY ECC ACCUPLACER Preparation Workshop Algebra Skills Gail A. Butler Ph.D. Evaluating Algebraic Epressions Substitute the value (#) in place of the letter (variable). Follow order of operations!!! E)

More information

Filling in Coordinate Grid Planes

Filling in Coordinate Grid Planes Filling in Coordinate Grid Planes A coordinate grid is a sstem that can be used to write an address for an point within the grid. The grid is formed b two number lines called and that intersect at the

More information

Core Maths C1. Revision Notes

Core Maths C1. Revision Notes Core Maths C Revision Notes November 0 Core Maths C Algebra... Indices... Rules of indices... Surds... 4 Simplifying surds... 4 Rationalising the denominator... 4 Quadratic functions... 4 Completing the

More information

SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS

SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS Sstems of linear equations refer to a set of two or more linear equations used to find the value of the unknown variables. If the set of linear equations consist of two equations

More information

Graphing Quadratic Functions

Graphing Quadratic Functions A. THE STANDARD PARABOLA Graphing Quadratic Functions The graph of a quadratic function is called a parabola. The most basic graph is of the function =, as shown in Figure, and it is to this graph which

More information

POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS

POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Polynomial Division.. 314 The Rational Zero Test.....317 Descarte s Rule of Signs... 319 The Remainder Theorem.....31 Finding all Zeros of a Polynomial Function.......33 Writing a

More information

Core Maths C3. Revision Notes

Core Maths C3. Revision Notes Core Maths C Revision Notes October 0 Core Maths C Algebraic fractions... Cancelling common factors... Multipling and dividing fractions... Adding and subtracting fractions... Equations... 4 Functions...

More information

Higher. Functions and Graphs. Functions and Graphs 18

Higher. Functions and Graphs. Functions and Graphs 18 hsn.uk.net Higher Mathematics UNIT UTCME Functions and Graphs Contents Functions and Graphs 8 Sets 8 Functions 9 Composite Functions 4 Inverse Functions 5 Eponential Functions 4 6 Introduction to Logarithms

More information

Continued fractions and good approximations.

Continued fractions and good approximations. Continued fractions and good approximations We will study how to find good approximations for important real life constants A good approximation must be both accurate and easy to use For instance, our

More information

The Big Picture. Correlation. Scatter Plots. Data

The Big Picture. Correlation. Scatter Plots. Data The Big Picture Correlation Bret Hanlon and Bret Larget Department of Statistics Universit of Wisconsin Madison December 6, We have just completed a length series of lectures on ANOVA where we considered

More information

ELLIPTIC CURVES AND LENSTRA S FACTORIZATION ALGORITHM

ELLIPTIC CURVES AND LENSTRA S FACTORIZATION ALGORITHM ELLIPTIC CURVES AND LENSTRA S FACTORIZATION ALGORITHM DANIEL PARKER Abstract. This paper provides a foundation for understanding Lenstra s Elliptic Curve Algorithm for factoring large numbers. We give

More information

Math Review. for the Quantitative Reasoning Measure of the GRE revised General Test

Math Review. for the Quantitative Reasoning Measure of the GRE revised General Test Math Review for the Quantitative Reasoning Measure of the GRE revised General Test www.ets.org Overview This Math Review will familiarize you with the mathematical skills and concepts that are important

More information

Today s Topics. Primes & Greatest Common Divisors

Today s Topics. Primes & Greatest Common Divisors Today s Topics Primes & Greatest Common Divisors Prime representations Important theorems about primality Greatest Common Divisors Least Common Multiples Euclid s algorithm Once and for all, what are prime

More information

Polynomial Degree and Finite Differences

Polynomial Degree and Finite Differences CONDENSED LESSON 7.1 Polynomial Degree and Finite Differences In this lesson you will learn the terminology associated with polynomials use the finite differences method to determine the degree of a polynomial

More information

Math 31 - Homework 1 Solutions

Math 31 - Homework 1 Solutions Math 31 - Homework 1 Solutions 1. Find gcd(a, b) and express gcd(a, b) as ma + nb for: (a) (116, 84) Solution. Use the Euclidean algorithm: 116 = ( 1)( 84) + 32 84 = ( 3)(32) + 12 32 = (2)(12) + 8 12 =

More information

Lesson 6: Linear Functions and their Slope

Lesson 6: Linear Functions and their Slope Lesson 6: Linear Functions and their Slope A linear function is represented b a line when graph, and represented in an where the variables have no whole number eponent higher than. Forms of a Linear Equation

More information

Integers and division

Integers and division CS 441 Discrete Mathematics for CS Lecture 12 Integers and division Milos Hauskrecht milos@cs.pitt.edu 5329 Sennott Square Symmetric matrix Definition: A square matrix A is called symmetric if A = A T.

More information

Alex and Morgan were asked to graph the equation y = 2x + 1

Alex and Morgan were asked to graph the equation y = 2x + 1 Which is better? Ale and Morgan were asked to graph the equation = 2 + 1 Ale s make a table of values wa Morgan s use the slope and -intercept wa First, I made a table. I chose some -values, then plugged

More information

INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHS AND FUNCTIONS Introductory Topics in Graphing Distance Between Two Points On The Coordinate Plane.

INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHS AND FUNCTIONS Introductory Topics in Graphing Distance Between Two Points On The Coordinate Plane. P ( 1, 1 ) INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHS AND FUNCTIONS Introductor Topics in Graphing Distance Between Two Points On The Coordinate Plane Q (, ) R (, 1 ) The straight line distance between two points P ( 1, 1

More information

Mathematics of Cryptography Part I

Mathematics of Cryptography Part I CHAPTER 2 Mathematics of Cryptography Part I (Solution to Odd-Numbered Problems) Review Questions 1. The set of integers is Z. It contains all integral numbers from negative infinity to positive infinity.

More information

5.2 Inverse Functions

5.2 Inverse Functions 78 Further Topics in Functions. Inverse Functions Thinking of a function as a process like we did in Section., in this section we seek another function which might reverse that process. As in real life,

More information

Systems of Equations. from Campus to Careers Fashion Designer

Systems of Equations. from Campus to Careers Fashion Designer Sstems of Equations from Campus to Careers Fashion Designer Radius Images/Alam. Solving Sstems of Equations b Graphing. Solving Sstems of Equations Algebraicall. Problem Solving Using Sstems of Two Equations.

More information

DISTANCE, CIRCLES, AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

DISTANCE, CIRCLES, AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS a p p e n d i g DISTANCE, CIRCLES, AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS IN THE PLANE Suppose that we are interested in finding the distance d between two points P (, ) and P (, ) in the

More information

1.6 Graphs of Functions

1.6 Graphs of Functions .6 Graphs of Functions 9.6 Graphs of Functions In Section. we defined a function as a special tpe of relation; one in which each -coordinate was matched with onl one -coordinate. We spent most of our time

More information

STRAND: ALGEBRA Unit 3 Solving Equations

STRAND: ALGEBRA Unit 3 Solving Equations CMM Subject Support Strand: ALGEBRA Unit Solving Equations: Tet STRAND: ALGEBRA Unit Solving Equations TEXT Contents Section. Algebraic Fractions. Algebraic Fractions and Quadratic Equations. Algebraic

More information

PYTHAGOREAN TRIPLES KEITH CONRAD

PYTHAGOREAN TRIPLES KEITH CONRAD PYTHAGOREAN TRIPLES KEITH CONRAD 1. Introduction A Pythagorean triple is a triple of positive integers (a, b, c) where a + b = c. Examples include (3, 4, 5), (5, 1, 13), and (8, 15, 17). Below is an ancient

More information

10.1. Solving Quadratic Equations. Investigation: Rocket Science CONDENSED

10.1. Solving Quadratic Equations. Investigation: Rocket Science CONDENSED CONDENSED L E S S O N 10.1 Solving Quadratic Equations In this lesson you will look at quadratic functions that model projectile motion use tables and graphs to approimate solutions to quadratic equations

More information

Linear Equations and Arithmetic Sequences

Linear Equations and Arithmetic Sequences CONDENSED LESSON 3.1 Linear Equations and Arithmetic Sequences In this lesson ou will write eplicit formulas for arithmetic sequences write linear equations in intercept form You learned about recursive

More information

LESSON EIII.E EXPONENTS AND LOGARITHMS

LESSON EIII.E EXPONENTS AND LOGARITHMS LESSON EIII.E EXPONENTS AND LOGARITHMS LESSON EIII.E EXPONENTS AND LOGARITHMS OVERVIEW Here s what ou ll learn in this lesson: Eponential Functions a. Graphing eponential functions b. Applications of eponential

More information

Functions and Graphs

Functions and Graphs PSf Functions and Graphs Paper 1 Section B 1. The points A and B have coordinates (a, a 2 ) and (2b, 4b 2 ) respectivel. Determine the gradient of AB in its simplest form. 2 2. hsn.uk.net Page 1 Questions

More information

Polynomial and Synthetic Division. Long Division of Polynomials. Example 1. 6x 2 7x 2 x 2) 19x 2 16x 4 6x3 12x 2 7x 2 16x 7x 2 14x. 2x 4.

Polynomial and Synthetic Division. Long Division of Polynomials. Example 1. 6x 2 7x 2 x 2) 19x 2 16x 4 6x3 12x 2 7x 2 16x 7x 2 14x. 2x 4. _.qd /7/5 9: AM Page 5 Section.. Polynomial and Synthetic Division 5 Polynomial and Synthetic Division What you should learn Use long division to divide polynomials by other polynomials. Use synthetic

More information

Zero and Negative Exponents and Scientific Notation. a a n a m n. Now, suppose that we allow m to equal n. We then have. a am m a 0 (1) a m

Zero and Negative Exponents and Scientific Notation. a a n a m n. Now, suppose that we allow m to equal n. We then have. a am m a 0 (1) a m 0. E a m p l e 666SECTION 0. OBJECTIVES. Define the zero eponent. Simplif epressions with negative eponents. Write a number in scientific notation. Solve an application of scientific notation We must have

More information

MATH Area Between Curves

MATH Area Between Curves MATH - Area Between Curves Philippe Laval September, 8 Abstract This handout discusses techniques used to nd the area of regions which lie between two curves. Area Between Curves. Theor Given two functions

More information

Inverse Relations and Functions

Inverse Relations and Functions 11.1 Inverse Relations and Functions 11.1 OBJECTIVES 1. Find the inverse of a relation 2. Graph a relation and its inverse 3. Find the inverse of a function 4. Graph a function and its inverse 5. Identif

More information

GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR

GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR DEFINITION: GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR The greatest common divisor (gcd) of a and b, denoted by (a, b), is the largest common divisor of integers a and b. THEOREM: If a and b are nonzero integers, then their

More information

Problem Set 7 - Fall 2008 Due Tuesday, Oct. 28 at 1:00

Problem Set 7 - Fall 2008 Due Tuesday, Oct. 28 at 1:00 18.781 Problem Set 7 - Fall 2008 Due Tuesday, Oct. 28 at 1:00 Throughout this assignment, f(x) always denotes a polynomial with integer coefficients. 1. (a) Show that e 32 (3) = 8, and write down a list

More information

Quadratic Equations and Inequalities

Quadratic Equations and Inequalities MA 134 Lecture Notes August 20, 2012 Introduction The purpose of this lecture is to... Introduction The purpose of this lecture is to... Learn about different types of equations Introduction The purpose

More information

Mathematics of Cryptography

Mathematics of Cryptography CHAPTER 2 Mathematics of Cryptography Part I: Modular Arithmetic, Congruence, and Matrices Objectives This chapter is intended to prepare the reader for the next few chapters in cryptography. The chapter

More information

Section P.9 Notes Page 1 P.9 Linear Inequalities and Absolute Value Inequalities

Section P.9 Notes Page 1 P.9 Linear Inequalities and Absolute Value Inequalities Section P.9 Notes Page P.9 Linear Inequalities and Absolute Value Inequalities Sometimes the answer to certain math problems is not just a single answer. Sometimes a range of answers might be the answer.

More information

13 Graphs, Equations and Inequalities

13 Graphs, Equations and Inequalities 13 Graphs, Equations and Inequalities 13.1 Linear Inequalities In this section we look at how to solve linear inequalities and illustrate their solutions using a number line. When using a number line,

More information

1. a. standard form of a parabola with. 2 b 1 2 horizontal axis of symmetry 2. x 2 y 2 r 2 o. standard form of an ellipse centered

1. a. standard form of a parabola with. 2 b 1 2 horizontal axis of symmetry 2. x 2 y 2 r 2 o. standard form of an ellipse centered Conic Sections. Distance Formula and Circles. More on the Parabola. The Ellipse and Hperbola. Nonlinear Sstems of Equations in Two Variables. Nonlinear Inequalities and Sstems of Inequalities In Chapter,

More information

3.1 Quadratic Functions

3.1 Quadratic Functions Section 3.1 Quadratic Functions 1 3.1 Quadratic Functions Functions Let s quickl review again the definition of a function. Definition 1 A relation is a function if and onl if each object in its domain

More information

Functions and Equations

Functions and Equations Centre for Education in Mathematics and Computing Euclid eworkshop # Functions and Equations c 014 UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Euclid eworkshop # TOOLKIT Parabolas The quadratic f(x) = ax + bx + c (with a,b,c

More information

2-5 Rational Functions

2-5 Rational Functions -5 Rational Functions Find the domain of each function and the equations of the vertical or horizontal asymptotes, if any 1 f () = The function is undefined at the real zeros of the denominator b() = 4

More information

Algebra I Vocabulary Cards

Algebra I Vocabulary Cards Algebra I Vocabulary Cards Table of Contents Expressions and Operations Natural Numbers Whole Numbers Integers Rational Numbers Irrational Numbers Real Numbers Absolute Value Order of Operations Expression

More information

7.3 Solving Systems by Elimination

7.3 Solving Systems by Elimination 7. Solving Sstems b Elimination In the last section we saw the Substitution Method. It turns out there is another method for solving a sstem of linear equations that is also ver good. First, we will need

More information

Review of Intermediate Algebra Content

Review of Intermediate Algebra Content Review of Intermediate Algebra Content Table of Contents Page Factoring GCF and Trinomials of the Form + b + c... Factoring Trinomials of the Form a + b + c... Factoring Perfect Square Trinomials... 6

More information

Introduction to Diophantine Equations

Introduction to Diophantine Equations Introduction to Diophantine Equations Tom Davis tomrdavis@earthlink.net http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles September, 2006 Abstract In this article we will only touch on a few tiny parts of the field

More information

In this this review we turn our attention to the square root function, the function defined by the equation. f(x) = x. (5.1)

In this this review we turn our attention to the square root function, the function defined by the equation. f(x) = x. (5.1) Section 5.2 The Square Root 1 5.2 The Square Root In this this review we turn our attention to the square root function, the function defined b the equation f() =. (5.1) We can determine the domain and

More information

Section C Non Linear Graphs

Section C Non Linear Graphs 1 of 8 Section C Non Linear Graphs Graphic Calculators will be useful for this topic of 8 Cop into our notes Some words to learn Plot a graph: Draw graph b plotting points Sketch/Draw a graph: Do not plot,

More information

When I was 3.1 POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS

When I was 3.1 POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS 146 Chapter 3 Polnomial and Rational Functions Section 3.1 begins with basic definitions and graphical concepts and gives an overview of ke properties of polnomial functions. In Sections 3.2 and 3.3 we

More information

2.5 Library of Functions; Piecewise-defined Functions

2.5 Library of Functions; Piecewise-defined Functions SECTION.5 Librar of Functions; Piecewise-defined Functions 07.5 Librar of Functions; Piecewise-defined Functions PREPARING FOR THIS SECTION Before getting started, review the following: Intercepts (Section.,

More information

10.2 The Unit Circle: Cosine and Sine

10.2 The Unit Circle: Cosine and Sine 0. The Unit Circle: Cosine and Sine 77 0. The Unit Circle: Cosine and Sine In Section 0.., we introduced circular motion and derived a formula which describes the linear velocit of an object moving on

More information

CHAPTER 7: FACTORING POLYNOMIALS

CHAPTER 7: FACTORING POLYNOMIALS CHAPTER 7: FACTORING POLYNOMIALS FACTOR (noun) An of two or more quantities which form a product when multiplied together. 1 can be rewritten as 3*, where 3 and are FACTORS of 1. FACTOR (verb) - To factor

More information

Mathematics 31 Pre-calculus and Limits

Mathematics 31 Pre-calculus and Limits Mathematics 31 Pre-calculus and Limits Overview After completing this section, students will be epected to have acquired reliability and fluency in the algebraic skills of factoring, operations with radicals

More information

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Chapter 3 Eponential and Logarithmic Functions Section 3.1 Eponential Functions and Their Graphs Objective: In this lesson ou learned how to recognize, evaluate, and graph eponential functions. Course

More information

Course notes on Number Theory

Course notes on Number Theory Course notes on Number Theory In Number Theory, we make the decision to work entirely with whole numbers. There are many reasons for this besides just mathematical interest, not the least of which is that

More information

An Insight into Division Algorithm, Remainder and Factor Theorem

An Insight into Division Algorithm, Remainder and Factor Theorem An Insight into Division Algorithm, Remainder and Factor Theorem Division Algorithm Recall division of a positive integer by another positive integer For eample, 78 7, we get and remainder We confine the

More information

z 0 and y even had the form

z 0 and y even had the form Gaussian Integers The concepts of divisibility, primality and factoring are actually more general than the discussion so far. For the moment, we have been working in the integers, which we denote by Z

More information

If (a)(b) 5 0, then a 5 0 or b 5 0.

If (a)(b) 5 0, then a 5 0 or b 5 0. chapter Algebra Ke words substitution discriminant completing the square real and distinct imaginar rational verte parabola maimum minimum surd irrational rationalising the denominator Section. Quadratic

More information

Algebra Concept-Readiness Test, Form A

Algebra Concept-Readiness Test, Form A Algebra Concept-Readiness Test, Form A Concept : The Distributive Property Study the concept, and then answer the test questions on the net page. You can use the distributive property to simplify an epression

More information

3.1. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

3.1. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS 3.1. RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS RATIONAL NUMBERS In previous courses you have learned how to operate (do addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) on rational numbers (fractions). Rational numbers

More information

2 The Euclidean algorithm

2 The Euclidean algorithm 2 The Euclidean algorithm Do you understand the number 5? 6? 7? At some point our level of comfort with individual numbers goes down as the numbers get large For some it may be at 43, for others, 4 In

More information

2 Analysis of Graphs of

2 Analysis of Graphs of ch.pgs1-16 1/3/1 1:4 AM Page 1 Analsis of Graphs of Functions A FIGURE HAS rotational smmetr around an ais I if it coincides with itself b all rotations about I. Because of their complete rotational smmetr,

More information

Math 139 Problem Set #6 Solution 15 April 2003

Math 139 Problem Set #6 Solution 15 April 2003 Math 139 Problem Set #6 Solution 15 April 2003 A1 (Based on Barr, 41, exercise 3) (a) Let n be an integer greater than 2 Consider the list of numbers n! + 2, n! + 3, n! + 4,, n! + n Explain why all the

More information

Section 11.4: Equations of Lines and Planes

Section 11.4: Equations of Lines and Planes Section 11.4: Equations of Lines and Planes Definition: The line containing the point ( 0, 0, 0 ) and parallel to the vector v = A, B, C has parametric equations = 0 + At, = 0 + Bt, = 0 + Ct, where t R

More information