Sustainable development in the Lake Vänern region, Sweden a multi-disciplinary research program

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1 Sustainable development in the Lake Vänern region, Sweden a multi-disciplinary research program Margareta Dahlström, Larry Greenberg, Lars Nyberg, Lars Aronsson, Lotta Braunerhielm, Mikael Granberg, Lena Grip, Andreas Pettersson, John Piccolo, and Eva Svensson April 2013

2 Sustainable development in the Lake Vänern region, Sweden a multi-disciplinary research program Margareta Dahlström, Larry Greenberg, Lars Nyberg, Lars Aronsson, Lotta Braunerhielm, Mikael Granberg, Lena Grip, Andreas Pettersson, John Piccolo, and Eva Svensson April 2013

3 Margareta Dahlström, Larry Greenberg, Lars Nyberg, Lars Aronsson, Lotta Braunerhielm, Mikael Granberg, Lena Grip, Andreas Pettersson, John Piccolo, and Eva Svensson Sustainable development in the Lake Vänern region, Sweden a multi-disciplinary research program ISBN The authors Karlstad University Forum on Region Building SE Karlstad Print: Universitetstryckeriet, Karlstad 2013

4 Contents Sustainable development in the Lake Vänern region 1 An introduction 1 Setting the scene 3 Research approach 6 Multi-disciplinary research 6 A resource perspective 6 Research theme: Ecosystem management - Sustaining Lake Vänern s ecosystem services and ecological integrity through effective co-management 8 Research theme: Climate change adaptation 9 Research theme: Green growth and innovation - Exploring roads to sustainable development in the Lake Vänern region 11 Research theme: Building Attractive and dynamic environments - Culture, heritage and tourism in the Lake Vänern region 13 Research theme: A governance perspective on climate change in the Lake Vänern region 15 Cross-thematic issues 17 Outside the metropolis - Heritage and attractivity for planning and innovation 17 Climate change adaptation and green growth - Challenges and opportunities in the Lake Vänern region 17 Managing lake ecosystems in a globally changing climate 19 Collaboration 20 Research projects 22 Recently finished projects 22 Research in progress 24 Planned research projects 25 References 26 Appendix A - Contact information of researchers in the program 31 Main contact person for each of the research themes 31 Contact details for other researchers active in the research program 32 Contact details for PhD students active in the research program 34 III

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6 Sustainable development in the Lake Vänern region An introduction Managing our natural water resources requires a holistic, watershed approach where one balances the needs of people with the limits of the ecosystem. This way of thinking is what is meant by sustainable development, which according to the United Nation s Brundtland Report of 1987 refers to a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED 1987, p.43). Encompassed within this definition are two ideas that must be in balance. One is the notion that natural ecosystems have limits as to what they can provide humankind in terms of ecosystem services, and the other has to do with the social needs of people. The concept of sustainable development has often been described as resting on three supporting pillars, environmental, economic and social, all of which are necessary if sustainable development is to be maintained. The Lake Vänern region of Sweden offers a unique opportunity to look at the different components of sustainable development and their inter-linkages. Lake Vänern, the European Union s largest lake, and its tributaries are used to produce hydropower, are a source of drinking water, are used for transportation and support an extensive fishery. The lake is used for recreation, both by locals and tourists, and is an attractive area for building homes and industries. Even though the Lake Vänern ecosystem has a long history of use, this ecosystem remains relatively intact, with few invasive species, which is rare for lakes of this size. This is not to say that the lake has not had environmental problems. During the 1960s and 1970s, for example, industrial pollution was a serious problem. The current multifaceted use of the Lake Vänern region beckons the need for research that will contribute to a sustainable development of the region. Developing sustainability guidelines for the Lake Vänern region is not only a critical regional need, but is also internationally relevant for large lake regions in general. Addressing sustainability issues in the Lake Vänern region is a complex problem, however, because the watershed is surrounded by numerous governmental entities: municipalities, provinces, two countries and supranational governance structures such as the EU. Interest from scientists from different disciplines at Karlstad University to work together in the Lake Vänern region arose during While some researchers had been independently working in the Lake Vänern region, it was not until researchers at Karlstad University attended two research seminars organized by the Forum on Region Building that discussions initiated about building a common research 1

7 program. These two seminars, one from the Center for Climate and Safety on climate change and Lake Vänern and a second from Professor Paul Hart from the University of Leicester on managing a common pool resource, led to discussions about the importance of multidisciplinary actions in managing lake ecosystems, and in particular Lake Vänern. The Lake Vänern region poses an interesting challenge in this regard. Its size and complexity make it more than suitable for multidisciplinary studies of sustainable development. From a resource perspective, working on the Lake Vänern region allows scientists from different disciplines to work on sustainable development in the broadest sense of the word, where studies of economic, ecological and social sustainability will be encouraged. Karlstad University is uniquely situated to play a leading role in developing a sustainability research program for the Lake Vänern region, being the only major research institution situated near the lake and the River Klarälven, Lake Vänern s largest tributary. At the university, there is a broad level of expertise in ecological, political, and socio-economic research, and an extensive national and international research network. In addition, researchers at the university are collaborating extensively with many important public and private actors of relevance to the sustainable development of the Lake Vänern region (see further information about collaboration later in this document). Combined, these factors should allow Karlstad University to lead a research program of international significance that will provide multiple benefits for the people of the Lake Vänern region. The aim of this research program is multifaceted. First and foremost, we want to create a strong multidisciplinary research environment on sustainable development, with focus on the Lake Vänern region. We believe that our program will provide essential knowledge that will contribute to informed decision making. A second goal for this program is to develop a network of relationships with other researchers, both in Sweden and in other countries, as well as with relevant stakeholders. Yet another goal of this research program is to provide economic support for graduate students. It is our hope that through this research program we will produce research of high quality that will be of interest to both academics and practitioners and that can be utilized by public and private stakeholders engaged in sustainable development in the Lake Vänern region and beyond. We address a clear knowledge gap by establishing the first coordinated research program for EU s largest lake. The remainder of this document will be used to present the research program. First, we will present the background for this program, introducing the reader to the Lake Vänern region. This will be followed by a presentation of the five different research themes or petals currently active within the program. After 2

8 this, we will briefly point out where some of these five research themes overlap. This will be followed by sections describing some of the more important networks of interactions, both with researchers and with other actors, as well as some of the program s ongoing and planned projects. At the end of the document, a list of researchers that are working within the program is provided. Setting the scene The geographical context of this research program is the Lake Vänern region, here defined as the catchment of Lake Vänern and the Göta älv River. This catchment is 50,000 km 2, with 15% of the catchment situated in Norway. Lake Vänern, with a surface area of over 5600 km 2 and a volume of 153 km 3, is the largest lake within the European Union and the third largest lake in all of Europe. Within the region, the River Klarälven-Göta älv is Scandinavia s longest river, with its headwaters in the mountains of Norway and Sweden. The region is dominated by forests but also contains mountainous and agricultural areas. Figure 1. The Lake Vänern region as defined as the catchment of Lake Vänern and the Göta älv River The Lake Vänern watershed has been a defining force in the identity of south central Sweden and its inhabitants (Degerman 2004, Jakobsson 2010, Ibsen et al. 2011). Moreover, the socio-economic development of the Lake Vänern region is diverse, including sparsely-populated rural areas, particularly to the north, as well as Gothenburg, the second largest city of Sweden, with over 500,000 inhabitants. Throughout the region there are many small mill and market towns, and of course the regional center of Karlstad. The economy in 3

9 rural areas is dominated by forestry, particularly in the north, and agriculture. The mill towns manufacture a range of products, including wood, paper, pulp and steel. In recent years, the rural areas and mill towns have undergone extensive industrial restructuring, which has led to out-migration, particularly by young people, and especially by young women, resulting in declining populations. Population growth is concentrated to the greater urban areas, such as Gothenburg, but also Karlstad- Hammarö. In many rural areas and mill towns in the Lake Vänern region challenges for regional development range from issues dealing with mismatches between skills and labor demands, to limited employment opportunities, an ageing population and a limited tax base. In Gothenburg, Karlstad and other urban areas along the shores of Lake Vänern, the cities are faced with challenges in relation to the development of new housing, especially in old industrial and port areas. Within the context of sustainable development, the Lake Vänern region can be described in terms of its ecological, social and economic values. The lake, the coast and the 22,000 island large archipelago set the stage for a multitude of habitats for organisms and living-environments for humans. There are unique strains of landlocked trout and salmon. Nesting birds use large portions of the archipelago. Historically, bird habitats were affected by the large variation in water level. After the lake was regulated in the late 1930s, the more stable water level led to a massive increase in vegetative growth, with effects for birds and other organisms. Water quality has improved dramatically since the 1960s and 1970s when pollution was severe. Nowadays sewage from households and industries is treated before entering the lake, and as a result water quality is comparable to the pre-industrial conditions found in the late 19 th century. The lake water is currently used as drinking water for about 800,000 people in the region, including the greater Gothenburg area. New challenges are awaiting, such as the expected changes in climate, with subsequent effects on the Lake Vänern ecosystem and life conditions for people. Lake Vänern is an important contributor to the quality of life for many people living in the 13 municipalities around the lake. In terms of social values, the Lake Vänern region is used by people for recreation and tourism, by various business sectors and is regarded as an attractive living environment. The thousands of summer houses and leisure boats bear witness to the large interest in living near Lake Vänern during the summer. The large number of fish species forms the basis for an extensive fishery, both commercial and recreational. A recent initiative, the Man-and-Biosphere Reserve Kinnekulle and the Väner archipelago, has been established for the study of natural and human resources. 4

10 There are many economic interests connected to Lake Vänern. Being the largest hydropower reservoir in Sweden, it is an integral component for the production of electricity in central Sweden. The lake is also used for shipping, linking industries in the Lake Vänern region to the port in Gothenburg. Shipping is regarded as energyefficient and there are ongoing studies focused on how to increase shipping in the Göta älv River and Lake Vänern. Commercial fishers and recreational fisheries contribute significantly to the economy in the region, although an economic analysis is currently lacking. World-wide, economic analyses of commercial and sport fisheries clearly demonstrate their importance in local economies. Lake Vänern as a tourism resource has great potential, but is not fully realized at this point. Climate scenarios for the future show increased flood risks for Lake Vänern because of increased precipitation. Flooding, which can cause landslides, may be responsible for industrial accidents and impair water quality, and has potentially high economic and social costs, which are expected to be greatest in the more populated lower reaches of the catchment. Flooding may also have large effects on tourism, private boating and entrepreneurs around Lake Vänern, who base their income on boat traffic for tourists. It also affects living environments and homes near the coastline, as well as is a threat to the coastal cities of Karlstad, Kristinehamn and Mariestad, cities with high cultural historical value (Braunerhielm & Nilsson, 2007) 5

11 Research approach This section presents the program s research approach by describing how the complex issues of sustainable development in the Lake Vänern region will be addressed. Multi-disciplinary research The concept of sustainable development encompasses ecological, economic and social perspectives. Consequently, researching issues of sustainable development often requires a multi-disciplinary approach. Research questions are too complex to be addressed with contributions from single academic disciplines. Multidisciplinary research calls for openness and respect for the different disciplines and researchers involved and can lead to new approaches and generate new knowledge in ways that are not generally possible to achieve in single-disciplinary research. Our research program is based on multi-disciplinary research, and it involves researchers with prior leadership roles in such approaches. The aim of the program is to carry out multidisciplinary research on various issues in the Lake Vänern region and to develop new multi-disciplinary methods and approaches. Many of the researchers in the program are involved in trans-disciplinary research, which involves the active engagement of practitioners and/or users in the research process to solve real-world problems (Hirsch Hadorn et al. 2008; Klein et al. 2001). A resource perspective The unifying concept of this research program is resources, whether they be natural, social or cultural ones. These resources are under constant change due to their use at local and regional levels as well as due to global scale developments such as climate change and globalization. The numerous demands on these resources lead to conflicts and call for sound management and policy regulations. This research program addresses a wide range of issues related to resources, ranging from identifying threats to resources, organized and non-organized interests in resources, overlapping uses of resources, resource-use conflicts and resource management and planning, 6

12 The currently-active five research themes of the program are schematically represented as a flower with five overlapping petals. Figure 2.The five active research themes of the research program. 7

13 Research theme: Ecosystem management - Sustaining Lake Vänern s ecosystem services and ecological integrity through effective co-management Ecosystems support all of their inhabitants, including humans, through primary production and nutrient cycling. The multitude of services that ecosystems provide includes food, water, fuel, recreation, and cultural and spiritual values (MEA 2005). Thus it can truly be said that sustainable development can only be achieved through considering ecosystem services. Only recently, however, has the sociopolitical-ecological organization begun to move towards ecosystem-based management (Belgrano and Fowler 2011; see The complex links within ecosystems can be difficult to assess, and stressors can have unexpected consequences. In marine ecosystems, for example, fishing has often reduced or eliminated large predators (Christensen et al. 2003), altering ecosystem structure and dynamics (Pauly et al 1998, Araújo et al 2006). In marine fisheries, however, identifying and quantifying the multitude of ecosystem pathways is a formidable challenge. By focusing on Lake Vänern, researchers active within this theme hope to contribute to both the sustainability of the region and to the science of ecosystem-based management. The Lake Vänern watershed is of immense ecological, social, and economic value, providing water, transportation, and ecosystem services (Ibsen et al. 2011, Peilot 2011), all of which are important for the future development of the region. The current level of biodiversity in Vänern makes it imperative to develop a better understanding of the ecosystem s function before any major impacts from climate change or invasive species occur. At present, Lake Vänern supports an annual fishery of over 1000 tons (Peilot 2011), and the fauna includes a number of genetically-unique glacial relicts (Nilsson 1979, Palm et al 2012, Piccolo et al. 2012). There are currently few tools available that can be used to predict how natural- or management-induced stressors will influence key species and their effects on the Lake Vänern food web. Given its regional importance, it is surprising to find that there has been no attempt to quantify Lake Vänern s key ecological relationships and ecosystem services. This knowledge is critical, however, to accurately predict future environmental or anthropogenic changes to the Lake Vänern ecosystem and to work towards a sustainable management of the ecosystem. Thus, the research theme to be addressed in this petal will focus on developing a management system that ensures conservation of Lake Vänern s ecosystem services. The Management and Ecology of River Resources research group, together with other interested scientists, conducts research on different aspects of this theme. 8

14 Research theme: Climate change adaptation Climate has been a defining factor for human existence throughout history. Settlements, practices and cultural identities are shaped by and adapted to certain climate conditions. Modern day anthropogenic-driven climate change as described by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change poses great challenges for societies and natural environments, today and for future generations (IPCC, 2012). Although climate change is a global phenomenon, its impact on humanity will vary on the regional level. Regions have different climatic conditions, and climate change is not only expected to strike regions unevenly but also regional resources and coping-capacities of different regions are expected to differ. Adaptation to climate change could be immediate if the benefits are obvious for a certain actor. For larger and more complex adaptation processes, public initiatives and plans are often needed. The goal of regional climate adaptation is to strengthen copingcapacity, to minimize future negative impacts and to facilitate future positive effects of a changing climate. A challenge at the outset of any long-term planning process is that knowledge of the future is filled with uncertainty. Climate adaptation is based on scenarios of future climate conditions generated by climate models. In the case of the Lake Vänern region such scenarios show increased temperatures and increased precipitation, especially during winter (SMHI, 2012). The impact of climate change has been analyzed by the Swedish Commission on Climate and Vulnerability, and the Commission has highlighted some of the challenges that the Lake Vänern region will face in a changed climate (SOU 2006:94; 2007:60). Some of the most harmful effects are expected to be related to water and an increased risk of flooding (Bergström et al., 2010), which will have negative effects on the increasingly popular development of waterfront properties. In addition to more direct impacts like those from natural hazards, climate change is expected to have long-term effects on nature and society, some examples of which are: The preconditions for ecosystems, including biotopes and species Human health, through changes in temperature, changed patterns of bacteria/viruses/parasites, quality of drinking-water, etc. Sectors like forestry, agriculture, fishery, transportation and technical services in municipalities The commission also highlights potentially positive outcomes, examples of which are: 9

15 Potentially increased hydropower production, due to increased precipitation Reduced energy consumption, due to reduced need of heating buildings Higher yields for forestry and agriculture, due to longer growth seasons The main research focus in this research petal follows two paths: Climate adaptation processes in a broad sense. It could include collaboration with researchers and practitioners in sectors like forestry, agriculture, public health, physical planning, etc. One example project conducted by the Centre for Climate and Safety has been the development of a web-based knowledge platform on regional climate adaptation in the county of Värmland (www.klimatanpassningvarmland.se). More of this research topic is described in the section about cross-thematic research. The flood risk situation in Lake Vänern, in all its tributaries and in the outlet river Göta älv. Risk analyses also include landslide risks along rivers, industrial risks and other risks pertaining to the drinking-water supply. When it comes to flood risk management for Lake Vänern our research is directed towards different interests in relation to floods in the Lake Vänern region: Firstly, the interest to keep a low and relatively constant water level in the lake to reduce flood risks, which contrasts with the interests of conservationists who advocate large variation in water level amplitude as was the case prior to 1937, when the lake was first regulated. Secondly, the distribution of flood risk as it relates to risks of landslides, industrial accidents and water quality around the lake as well as downstream of the lake in the River Göta älv and in Sweden s second most populated city, Gothenburg. The risk of landslides along the river valley corresponds to periods of high precipitation as well as to erosion due to high discharge from the lake. Therefore it is important to set a maximum discharge for the river to protect the city, even if this means that flooding risks increase for the lake. These issues have been recently addressed in Nyberg et al. (2012). Climate scenarios for the 21 st century predict a substantial increase in flood risk for Lake Vänern due to increased precipitation. The predicted increase in sea-level will affect the discharge of the River Göta älv, without causing flooding problems in Gothenburg and the lower portion of the river valley. One measure that has been proposed to reduce flood risks is to stabilize landslide-prone areas in the river valley with various technical constructions. Non-technical solutions such as changed urban planning or land use around the lake have also been discussed. 10

16 The Centre for Climate and Safety has an on-going study on flood risks in Lake Vänern, analyzing damages and costs for four different situations with high water. The study is but one of the many types of multi-disciplinary studies conducted within this theme. Research theme: Green growth and innovation - Exploring roads to sustainable development in the Lake Vänern region Green growth, the green economy and sustainable development are related concepts that are partly overlapping and not always clearly defined. It can be argued that sustainable development, which emphasizes all three dimensions of sustainability, ecological, economic and social, is the fundamental concept to which the other two are related. The concepts of green growth and the green economy do not replace sustainable development, but more clearly highlight the progress and change needed with regards to the economic dimension to be able to attain sustainable development. In this context, green growth and the green economy are closely linked to innovation of goods, services and processes, e.g. in relation to clean energy and production processes, the reduction of waste, but also to organizational systems and behavioral changes that contribute to sustainable development. The role of policies at all levels from the local to the global also has a strong bearing on the concepts and green growth as well as the green economy are significant concepts for the EU, OECD and the UN (European Commission, 2010; OECD, 2011; United Nations Environment Programme, 2011). OECD states (2011, p. 11): Green growth strategies need to encourage greener behavior by firms and consumers, facilitate smooth and just reallocation of jobs, capital and technology towards greener activities and provide adequate incentives and support to green innovation. They stress the links between the ecological, economic and social dimensions of sustainable development and also the need to find more accurate methods of measuring growth where old methods such as GDP/capita are inadequate. Innovations, in the broadest sense of the word, and policies promoting and supporting a wide spectrum of innovative activities are needed to bring about green growth. Furthermore, the emphasis on green behavior of consumers and of firms relates to the challenges of the behavioral changes needed to contribute to climate change adaptation. This is reflected in the quote by Spaargaren (2011): How do ordinary people deal with environmental matters and in what ways do they perceive, understand, evaluate and manage the connections between their personal lifestyles and routine (consumption) practices on the one hand and global environmental change on the other?. 11

17 An important concept for understanding green economic growth is the concept of knowledge dynamics, which stresses that changes in knowledge are the driving force behind innovation. Knowledge dynamics are increasingly cross-sectorial, multi-actor and multi-scalar. A broad perspective on innovation, recognizing that innovation relates to goods, services and processes and is not only about technology and natural scientific knowledge, is applied. Cross-sectorial knowledge interactions draw on different disciplines, industries and expertise, whereas multiactor knowledge interactions involve different actors such as researchers, producers, consumers and public policy makers. Multi-scalar knowledge interactions highlight the fact that local and regional networks of interactions between actors are not sufficient. It is increasingly difficult for actors to access all necessary knowledge for innovation within their home region. Innovation typically involves knowledge transfer between regions, countries and continents (Simmie, 2004; Wolfe and Gertler, 2004; Bathelt, 2007; Moodysson, 2008; Crevoisier and Jeannerat, 2009; Cooke et al., 2010; Dahlström and Hedin, 2010). Cross-sectorial, multi-actor and multi-scalar knowledge interactions often play an important role for more radical innovations rather than for incremental changes in goods and services. Radical innovations include the likes of steam engines and computers (Cooke, 2011) but include less technological changes that are characterized by competence-destroying, discontinuous changes that seek the replacement of existing components or entire systems and the creation of new networks, creating value added. (Carrillo-Hermosilla et al. 2010, p. 1075). Radical innovations will likely allow us to achieve sustainability goals such as climate change adaptation. Similarities between the knowledge dynamics literature and that of eco-innovation (Cariollo-Hermosilla et al. 2009) stress the diversity that characterizes eco-innovation (cross-sectorial knowledge interactions), userinvolvement in innovation processes and the need for policy interactions e.g. public-private collaboration (multi-actor knowledge interactions) and market interactions (multi-scalar knowledge interactions) (Carrillo-Hermosilla et al. 2010). Eco-innovations can be broadly defined as: innovations that reduce the environmental impact caused by consumption and production activities, whether the main motivation for their development or deployment is environmental or not (Ibid, p. 1073). Demands for the sustainable production of goods and services call for the generation and processing of new knowledge. Innovations needed for developing ecologically sustainable production, require knowledge from more than one scientific discipline. Knowledge from various disciplines as well as different types of knowledge, whether it be analytic, synthetic or symbolic are needed for solving problems associated with a green economy. 12

18 The aim of this theme is to address socio-economic sustainable regional development challenges in the Lake Vänern region from a green growth perspective. Such issues include matters in relation to restructuring of the economy, demographic change, planning for sustainable and attractive housing development, to mention a few. Can such challenges act as drivers for innovation of products, services and processes, contributing to sustainable development? Can traditional industries such as the forestry based value chain, ranging from the forest to paper, be transformed to a bio based economy through (eco)-innovations? For the past ten years, the Centre for Research on Regional Development (Cerut) has been involved in research on a wide range of issues related to regional development, focusing on the Värmland region, the northern part of the Lake Vänern region. Some of these studies relate to innovation and the knowledge economy. Research theme: Building Attractive and dynamic environments - Culture, heritage and tourism in the Lake Vänern region Consideration of culture, nature and heritage is necessary when planning for sustainable development, especially in rural and non-metropolitan communities. However, culture, nature and heritage may play a role in various conflicts, as they involve people of different backgrounds and interests. Three areas of potentially conflicting interests, views and perspectives are attractivity, economic growth and citizen participation, and these are presented below, with suggestions for how to address these potential conflicts (Smith 2006, Smith & Waterton 2009, Svensson 2009, Svensson & Skoglund 2010). The first area is referred to as attractivity. Many small municipalities in Sweden tend to experience demographic and economic downturns as young people move out and traditional industries close down. To avert this situation, new ways of attracting people, not the least of which from the new creative class, but also from businesses, are emerging. In this context, heritage and nature have become increasingly more important for regional development and for place development and cultural economy when striving for an attractive living environment (Aronsson & Braunerhielm, 2011, Aronsson, Braunerhielm, Dahlgren & Westlind, 2012). However, these new ways of attracting people will probably lead to social stratification, as less attractive segments of the populace are excluded. To maintain attractivity, factors such as the economy, social aspects, culture, landscape and the physical environment need to be integrated into our ideas of how to attain 13

19 sustainable development. Thus, there needs to be a balance between conservation aspects and commodification of attractive places (Braunerhielm & Nilsson, 2007). The second area is (economic) growth. According to politicians, the economic future of rural and small non-metropolitan areas lies in tourism, even though tourism does not always fit in well with the lifestyles of local inhabitants and their relationships with nature and heritage. Moreover, many small businesses that work with nature and heritage have problems with profitability. Nevertheless, from a resource perspective, the Lake Vänern region has a large potential for tourism, businesses and recreation. Commercial interests and multi-functional usage of water versus aspects of conservation and natural resources must be considered. This ia challenge that requires balancing the needs and demands for accessibility of the region, development of activities and areas for recreation, the needs for continuing conservation and protection and the needs for cooperation among entrepreneurs in the tourism industry. In other words, we need a strategy of sustainable development that combines a user perspective with a conservation perspective (Braunerhielm & Nilsson, 2007). The third area is the increased demand for citizen participation in the management of nature and heritage. The management of nature and heritage has mostly been a top-down affair, where authorities decide the values that should be protected and implemented. This way of doing things has been challenged by the citizens' demands for information and knowledge. There is also an institutional perspective, and the balance between authorities planning for living areas and recreation in light of changes mediated by climate change and other factors versus involving local citizens is a challenging one. Questions one frequently faces include: How should different interests be considered? and How can cooperation between authorities and citizens around Lake Vänern be ensured? Nature, culture and heritage, and how these resources contribute to sustainable development, is controversial and is subject of debate. Thus, there is a need for new ways of working with the contributions from nature, culture and heritage to attain sustainable development (Henson 2012, cf. Groenewoudt 2012). Possible ways to achieve sustainable development will probably involve Living Labs, cultural planning laboratories/methods and the creation of innovative systems. Some specific theoretical frameworks, such as the Authoritative Heritage Discourse (Smith 2006), Cultural Planning and the model Innovative System for Sustainable Development (Tukker et al. 2008), are of inspirational importance to sustainable development approaches. Authoritative Heritage Discourse views heritage in an authoritative way, based on the concept of the nation-state, and thus 14

20 this view of heritage is excluding. Cultural Planning emphasizes cultural perspectives in a broad sense, based on community values and resources, and should be included in planning processes. The Innovative System for Sustainable Development offers a model for integrating different sectors of society and changes within both the sectors and the system. Other theoretical perspectives include cultural economy, destination development, place-making, local and regional development and identities as well as the development of tourism and exploration contra heritage preservation. The Centre for Research on Regional Development (Cerut) has for ten years been involved in research on a wide range of issues related to regional development, with a particular focus on the Värmland region, which is the northern part of the Lake Vänern region. Several of these studies relate to attractivity, development and heritage, and include tourism-related research in the Lake Vänern archipelago. Research theme: A governance perspective on climate change in the Lake Vänern region Climate change will affect sustainable development in all its dimensions, including political considerations (Dessler & Parson, 2010; Glover, 2006; Schneider, et al., 2010). Accordingly, a governance perspective on climate change can help in understanding the challenges to create relevant policies aiming at creating a sustainable, social-ecological system. It is clear that a changing climate leads to extreme weather and to changes in climatic conditions, which impact society, and that this development drives demands from society to adjust and adapt (IPCC, 2012; Schipper & Burton, 2009). From a governance perspective, Lake Vänern and its surroundings can be perceived as an ecological common that is affected by changes in the climate (Ostrom, 1990; Evans, 2012). A common pool resource is owned and handled by the society s citizens and, accordingly, challenges to a common pool resource have to be handled collectively. One important aspect concerns potential tensions between individual and collective rationality, and governing commons demands efficient coordination based on interactive and adaptive steering. From this perspective it is plausible that adaptation can be in the interest of everybody in the long term but that specific measures can be perceived as conflicting with the interest of individuals and specific organizations in the short term. In isolation, adaptation responses for individual items of infrastructure or for relatively small locations are feasible and have been successfully executed as shown in numerous examples from around the world. Adaptation in integrated systems, such as Lake 15

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