TU/e Dept. of the Built Environment Building Performance group

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1 7S9X0 Environmental Performance of Buildings TU/e Dept. of the Built Environment Building Performance group Environmental Performance of Buildings 7S9X0 TU/e TU/e Building Building Performance Group Group

2 Do you know how much m 3 gas the dwelling you live in uses for heating? Is it performing well? Do you enjoy the IEQ? IEQ: Indoor Environmental Quality Thermal comfort, Indoor air quality, Acoustical comfort, Visual comfort PAGE 2

3 Lecturers Prof. Jan Hensen Dr. Ignacio Torrens Galdiz Dr. Marcel Loomans Rajesh Kotireddy Isabella Gaetani Who? Unit Building Physics and Services Department of the Built Environment 3 PAGE 3

4 Students Who?

5 What? Building performance - a definition High Performance Building:, the term "high performance building" means a building that integrates and optimizes all major high-performance building attributes, including energy efficiency, durability, life-cycle performance, and occupant productivity... NICB. Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law ) Section 914. Building Standardshttps://www.nibs.org 5 Quality indoor environment PAGE 5

6 Why? Built Environment consumes ~30-40% world primary energy use is where we spend ~90% of our time (i.e. indoors) combines a complex system of requirements PAGE 6

7 Requirements Source: revolutietheorie.be PAGE 7

8 Shelter Source: survival-homestead.com Built Environment Source: dilbercik.seesaa.net Source: brickfields.org.uk Source: trendsnow.net Source: wealddown.co.uk PAGE 8

9 Comfort Comfort Zeiler et al. TVVL Magazine 2010) PAGE 9

10 Comfort Energy use [Chen Working toward the very low energy consumption bulding of the future. Lbnl - Visited ] PAGE 10

11 Performance What to assess? How to assess? Comfort & Energy [from: presentation Monica Melhado 2008, TU/e] PAGE 11

12 Conflicting requirements optimization Comfort complaints Theoretical optimum Comfort & Energy Required: - Performance indicators - Performance assessment methods Design solutions Pareto front Yearly energy use PAGE 12

13 Performance Based Building Performance approach work with the end result in mind, not the means. Performance is about what a building has to do, not how it is built. A building needs to be assessed on its performance in an objective manner. Design Construction Use Demolition Alternative: prescriptive approach PAGE 13

14 Performance based building Prescriptive versus performance Turn left at the next traffic lights, then take the fourth street to the right, go right ahead at the first roundabout, turn to the right at the second rondabout and keep the left lane, then turn.. 7S815 Jan Hensen / Marcel Loomans 14 [from: key note presentation on PeBBu, Dik Spekkink, CIB Conference, Helsinki, 2005] PAGE 14

15 Performance based building Prescriptive versus performance To the airport! 7S815 Jan Hensen / Marcel Loomans 15 [from: key note presentation on PeBBu, Dik Spekkink, CIB Conference, Helsinki, 2005] PAGE 15

16 Performance Based Building A (simple) example Have meetings with max. 25 attendants in different settings (theatre/round table) Performance requirements Air quality near persons: high (e.g. CO 2 <1000 ppm) Thermal comfort: high (e.g < PMV < 0.2) Speech intelligibility: Illuminance: high (e.g reverberation time: sec; back ground noise (external sources): max.35 db(a)) high (e.g. table illuminance level: min.500 lux) Yearly energy use: Peak cooling load: medium (e.g. <60 W/m 2 ) low (e.g. <100 kwh/m 2.a) [based on key note presentation on PeBBu, Dik Spekkink, CIB Conference, Helsinki, 2005] PAGE 16

17 Compare and agree Client wishes Design solution Performance Based Building [from: key note presentation on PeBBu, Dik Spekkink, CIB Conference, Helsinki, 2005] Performance indicators Performance requirements Compare & agree Predicted / measure performance Evaluation techniques PAGE 17

18 Performance Based Building Problem Performance indicators Evaluation techniques Potential Innovation!!! PAGE 18

19 Performance indicator (PI) Performance indicator Property of a product, building part of building that represents the performance of it in relation to the performance requirement set. The indicator should be a quantitative, qualitative or descriptive parameter that can be assessed in a relative straightforward manner. Example: Thermal comfort PPD e.g. <10% T air, T mrt, v, RH (M, I clo ) (PI) (target value) (parameters) PAGE 19

20 Prestatie indicatoren Performance indicators Some examples Energy related: Heating energy demand; Cooling energy demand; Primary energy use Load related: Maximum heating load, Maximum cooling load Thermal comfort related: PMV, Operative temperature, Overheating hours PAGE 20

21 Prestatie indicatoren Building Performance Methods BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method - UK, also in NL) LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design US, used in many other countries) CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency - Japan) EPBD (Energy Performance of Buildings Directive EU) PAGE 21

22 Performance Based Building Problem Performance indicators Evaluation techniques Potential Innovation!!! PAGE 22

23 Performance assessment How to determine in-use building comfort? Kemenade et al Building comfort performance assessment using a monitoring tool. Proc. Indoor Air 2104 (questionnaires) PAGE 23

24 Performance assessment How to determine Energy use? What is good? Energy Use Intensity [*(0.293/0.093) kwh/m2.a] PAGE 24

25 Evaluation techniques Objective performance assessment (Expert) Measurement Simulation Design Construction In-use PAGE 25

26 Evaluation techniques Experiments (lab study) Schellen, L. Loomans, M., Wit, M., Olesen B.W. & Marken Lichtenbelt, W. van The influence of local effects on thermal sensation under non-uniform environmental conditions - gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity during convective and radiant cooling. Physiology & Behavior, 107(2), Boerstra 4/23/2015 et al Comfort and performance impact of personal control over thermal environment in summer: results from a laboratory study. Building and Environment (accepted) PAGE 26

27 Evaluation techniques Measurements buildings in-use - offices - dwellings - schools - hospitals - long-term care facilities T RH CO2 Building sensors (BS) T CO2 Measurements Monitored data Kemenade et al Building comfort performance assessment using a monitoring tool. Proc. Indoor Air 2104 Mors, S. ter, Hensen, J.L.M., Loomans, M.G.L.C. & Boerstra, A "Adaptive thermal comfort in primary school classrooms: Creating and validating PMV-based comfort charts". Building and Environment, Volume 46, Issue 12, December 2011, Pages Boerstra, A.C., Loomans, M.G.L.C. & Hensen, J.L.M. (2013). Personal control over temperature in winter in Dutch office buildings. HVAC&R Research, 19(8), Te Kulve et al Indoor Air in Long Term Care Facilities and Spread of Infectious Diseases. Proc. Indoor Air 2014 PAGE 27

28 Evaluation techniques Measurements building in-use Results on question thermal sensation: Neutral to warm Kemenade et al Building comfort performance assessment using a monitoring tool. Proc. Indoor Air 2104 Mors, S. ter, Hensen, J.L.M., Loomans, M.G.L.C. & Boerstra, A "Adaptive thermal comfort in primary school classrooms: Creating and validating PMV-based comfort charts". Building and Environment, Volume 46, Issue 12, December 2011, Pages Boerstra, A.C., Loomans, M.G.L.C. & Hensen, J.L.M. (2013). Personal control over temperature in winter in Dutch office buildings. HVAC&R Research, 19(8), Te Kulve et al Indoor Air in Long Term Care Facilities and Spread of Infectious Diseases. Proc. Indoor Air 2014 PAGE 28

29 Evaluation techniques Simulation - Whole building simulation (energy, comfort) - Computational Fluid Dynamics (local comfort) - Raytracing techniques (visual comfort) Schellen, L. Loomans, M., Kingma, B., Wit, M. de., Frijns, A. & Marken Lichtenbelt, W. van The use of a thermophysiological model in the built environment to predict thermal sensation: Coupling 4/23/2015 with the indoor environment and thermal sensation. Building and Environment, Volume 59, January 2013, Pages PAGE 29

30 Performance Based Building Problem Performance indicators Evaluation techniques Potential Innovation!!! PAGE 30

31 Innovation PAGE 31

32 Learning objectives Students should be able to A. introduce and describe the concepts, assumptions and limitations which underlie the methods currently used to appraise the environmental performance of buildings. B. perform and evaluate basic measurements necessary for assessing building environmental performance. C. utilize a state of the art building performance simulation software on at least a basic level for design and operational performance.

33 How? A B C theory measurement simulation 3 Tracks (ref. learning objectives) PAGE 33

34 How? A B C Project PAGE 34

35 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7-8 Assignments How? A B C Project PAGE 35

36 (Pre-)design In-use How? A B C Project PAGE 36

37 Type of assessment Assignments Track A Concept maps method (groups of 2 students) Track B individual weekly assignments (incl. measurements in your own home during the course). Track C individual weekly assignments (use of simulation program) Detailed descriptions per week (incl. evaluation criteria) are provided on the course website: Templates are provided for the reports and must be used! Reporting (weekly): digitally on OASE 7S9X0 submit folder (per week; note the file name structure) AND on paper (handed in before lecture or if hand-in date does not coincide with lecture at VRT floor 6 (VRT 6.08) Deadlines are strict (assignments sequential)!! 37

38 Concept maps 38

39 3-Steps Concept Script Action: Description of what concept/question should be discussed. Student A: description as indicated in the Action based on the reference(s) mentioned below. <...> Student B: description as indicated in the Action based on the reference(s) found elsewhere (other resources). <...> Student A and Student B: First, discuss and pose critical questions regarding the meanings of the concept/answer to the question. Second, improve your formulations by additional descriptions, elaborations and/or comments. Finally formulate jointly the meaning of the concept/answer to the question upon which you agree. <... > References: Besides the reference(s) mentioned in the concepts below, you will need to include references that are used in the description and discussion of the concepts/questions. Note that the role of Student A en student B are alternated. 39 Assessment per group (two students); per week one CM as representative for all CMs for that week.

40 3-Steps Concept Script Action: Description of what concept/question should be discussed. Student A: description as indicated in the Action based on the reference(s) mentioned below. <...> Student B: description as indicated in the Action based on the reference(s) found elsewhere (other resources). <...> Student A and Student B: First, discuss and pose critical questions regarding the meanings of the concept/answer to the question. Second, improve your formulations by additional descriptions, elaborations and/or comments. Finally formulate jointly the meaning of the concept/answer to the question upon which you agree. <... > References: Besides the reference(s) mentioned in the concepts below, you will need to include references that are used in the description and discussion of the concepts/questions. Note that the role of Student A en student B are alternated. 40 Assessment per group (two students); per week one CM as representative for all CMs for that week.

41 Concept maps 41

42 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7-8 Assignments Grading course A B C Project 30% 7S9X2 70% 7S9X1 PAGE 42

43 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7-8 Assignments Grading course A B C Project 7S9X0 >5.5 30% 7S9X2 (average week 1-3 per track [weighted]; no resubmittance) 70% 7S9X1 (average week 4-6 per track + project [weighted]; max. 4 assignments resubmitted [within 2 weeks after grade provided]) PAGE 43

44 Week period Dates Lecture hours (reserved) 44 Question hours (reserved) Hand in deadline. OASE and printed version 20/04 28/04 (week 1) Mo 20/04 Th 23/04 Tu 28/04 28/04 07/05 (week 2) Th 30/04 Th 30/04 Th 07/05 07/05 18/05 (week 3) Th 07/05 Mo 11/05 We 13/05 18/05 26/05 (week 4) Mo 18/05 Th 21/05 Tu 26/05 26/05 01/06 (week 5) Th 21/05 Th 28/05 Mo 01/06 01/06 08/06 (week 6) Mo 01/06 Th 04/06 Mo 08/06 08/06 22/06 (week 7-8) project Mo 08/06 Mo 15/06 Th 11/06 Th 18/06 Mo 22/06

45 Full information Read the website carefully! environmental-performance-of-buildings VABI software:\\archbps1\cbps\software\vabi_elements\vabi.htm 45

46 Topic Summing up Introduction: performance indicators, performance assessment More methods to perform the assessment Performance evaluation has to be thought through. Overview lay-out of the course. PAGE 46

3. Pre-design applications

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