CSMC 417. Computer Networks Prof. Ashok K Agrawala Ashok Agrawala. January 11 CMSC417 Set 1 1

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1 CSMC 417 Computer Networks Prof. Ashok K Agrawala 2011 Ashok Agrawala 1

2 General Instructor - Ashok K. Agrawala 4149 AVW TA - Office Hours Class Meets Tu Th 8:00 9:30 CSIC

3 Prerequisite Required Background must have 351 and 330 (412 or 430 would be helpful) Expectations Understand the basics of Computer Architecture Experience in implementing non-trivial systems-type projects Should know Processor Memory Kernel vs. user process Familiar with basic probability 3

4 Expectations After the course Understand the fundamentals of networking protocols, including protocol layering, basic medium access including wireless protocols, routing, addressing, congestion control Understand the principles behind the Internet protocols and some application layer protocols such as http, ftp, and DNS, and a few peer-to-peer systems/protocols such as Gnutella and Chord. Understand some of the limitations of the current Internet and its service model Understand the causes behind network congestion, and explain the basic methods for alleviating congestion Design, implement, and test substantial parts of network protocols 4

5 Announcements Required Work will require about the same amount of effort as a (slightly) harder project to debug 417 project is (by design) more ambiguous Required Texts Computer Networks 5th Edition, Tanenbaum and Wetherall, Prentice Hall ISBN TCP/IP Sockets in C: A Practical Guide for Programmers 2nd Edition by Jeff Donahoo and KenCalvert, Morgan Kaufmann, ISBN

6 Other Material Recommended Texts Computer Networking, 5e: A Top Down Approach Featuring the Internet by Jim Kurose and Keith Ross, Addison-Wesley, (ISBN: ). The on-line version of this book is at Computer Networks: A Systems Approach by Larry Peterson and Bruce Davie, MorganKaufman, 4rd Edition, ISBN An Engineering Approach to Computer Networking, by S. Keshav. Addison-Wesley,1997. ISBN Computer Networking with Internet Protocols by William Stallings, Prentice-Hall, ISBN 10: TCP/IP Illustrated volume 1 by W. Richard Stevens. Addison-Wesley. ISBN: RFCs 6

7 Grading Final 30% InTerm Exam(s) 30% Programming Assignments 35% Class Participation 5% 7

8 What is this course all about? Computer Networking??? User A User B Computer A Computer B Internet 8

9 Uses of Computer Networks Business Applications Home Applications Mobile Users Social Issues 9

10 Business Applications of Networks A network with two clients and one server. 10

11 Business Applications of Networks (2) The client-server model involves requests and replies. 11

12 Home Network Applications Access to remote information Person-to-person communication Interactive entertainment Electronic commerce 12

13 Home Network Applications (2) In peer-to-peer system there are no fixed clients and servers. 13

14 Home Network Applications (3) Some forms of e-commerce. 14

15 Mobile Network Users Combinations of wireless networks and mobile computing. 15

16 Social Issues Network neutrality Digital Millennium Copyright Act Profiling users Phishing Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

17 Network Hardware Local Area Networks Metropolitan Area Networks Wide Area Networks Wireless Networks Home Networks Internetworks 17

18 Personal Area Network Bluetooth PAN configuration Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

19 Local Area Networks Wireless and wired LANs. (a) (b) Switched Ethernet. Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

20 Local Area Networks Two broadcast networks (a) Bus (b) Ring 20

21 Metropolitan Area Networks A metropolitan area network based on cable TV. Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

22 Wide Area Networks Relation between hosts on LANs and the subnet. 22

23 Wide Area Networks (2) A stream of packets from sender to receiver. 23

24 Wide Area Networks (1) WAN that connects three branch offices in Australia Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

25 Wide Area Networks (2) WAN using a virtual private network. Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

26 Wide Area Networks (3) WAN using an ISP network. Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

27 Broadcast Networks Types of transmission technology Broadcast links Point-to-point links 27

28 Broadcast Networks (2) Classification of interconnected processors by scale. 28

29 Wireless Networks Categories of wireless networks: System interconnection Wireless LANs Wireless WANs 29

30 Wireless Networks (2) (a) Bluetooth configuration (b) Wireless LAN 30

31 Wireless Networks (3) (a) Individual mobile computers (b) A flying LAN 31

32 Home Network Categories Computers (desktop PC, PDA, shared peripherals Entertainment (TV, DVD, VCR, camera, stereo, MP3) Telecomm (telephone, cell phone, intercom, fax) Appliances (microwave, fridge, clock, furnace, airco) Telemetry (utility meter, burglar alarm, babycam). 32

33 Network Software Protocol Hierarchies Design Issues for the Layers Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Services Service Primitives The Relationship of Services to Protocols 33

34 Network Software Protocol Hierarchies Layers, protocols, and interfaces. 34

35 Protocol Hierarchies (2) The philosopher-translator-secretary architecture Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

36 Protocol Hierarchies (3) Example information flow supporting virtual communication in layer 5. 36

37 Design Issues for the Layers Addressing Error Control Flow Control Multiplexing Routing 37

38 Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Services Six different types of service. 38

39 Service Primitives Five service primitives for implementing a simple connection-oriented service. 39

40 Service Primitives (2) Packets sent in a simple client-server interaction on a connection-oriented network. 40

41 Services to Protocols Relationship The relationship between a service and a protocol. 41

42 Reference Models The OSI Reference Model The TCP/IP Reference Model A Comparison of OSI and TCP/IP A Critique of the OSI Model and Protocols A Critique of the TCP/IP Reference Model 42

43 Reference Models The OSI reference model. 43

44 OSI Reference Model Layers Physical layer Data link layer Network layer Transport layer Session layer Presentation layer Application layer Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

45 The TCP/IP Reference Model Layers Link layer Internet layer Transport layer Application layer Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

46 Reference Models (2) The TCP/IP reference model. 46

47 Reference Models (3) Protocols and networks in the TCP/IP model initially. 47

48 Comparing OSI and TCP/IP Models Concepts central to the OSI model Services Interfaces Protocols 48

49 A Critique of the OSI Model and Protocols Why OSI did not take over the world Bad timing Bad technology Bad implementations Bad politics 49

50 Bad Timing The apocalypse of the two elephants. 50

51 A Critique of the TCP/IP Reference Model Problems: Service, interface, and protocol not distinguished Not a general model Host-to-network layer not really a layer No mention of physical and data link layers Minor protocols deeply entrenched, hard to replace 51

52 Hybrid Model The hybrid reference model to be used in this book. 52

53 The Internet Example Networks Connection-Oriented Networks: X.25, Frame Relay, and ATM Ethernet Wireless LANs: 802:11 53

54 The ARPANET (a) Structure of the telephone system. (b) Baran s proposed distributed switching system. 54

55 The ARPANET (2) The original ARPANET design. 55

56 The ARPANET (3) Growth of the ARPANET (a) December (b) July (c) March (d) April (e) September

57 NSFNET The NSFNET backbone in

58 Internet Usage Traditional applications ( ) News Remote login File transfer 58

59 Architecture of the Internet Overview of the Internet architecture Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

60 Third-Generation Mobile Phone Networks (1) Cellular design of mobile phone networks Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

61 Third-Generation Mobile Phone Networks (2) Architecture of the UMTS 3G mobile phone network. Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

62 Third-Generation Mobile Phone Networks (3) Mobile phone handover (a) before, (b) after. Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

63 Fourth-Generation Mobile Phone Networks Technologies WiMAX LTE MAXWell Lab at UMd TDM Based Higher user level bandwidth 63

64 Ethernet Architecture of the original Ethernet. 64

65 Wireless LANs (a) Wireless networking with a base station. (b) Ad hoc networking. 65

66 Wireless LANs: (2) Multipath fading Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

67 Wireless LANs (3) The range of a single radio may not cover the entire system. 67

68 Wireless LANs (4) A multicell network. 68

69 Wireless LANs: (3) The range of a single radio may not cover the entire system. Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

70 RFID and Sensor Networks (1) RFID used to network everyday objects. Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

71 RFID and Sensor Networks (2) Multihop topology of a sensor network Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

72 Ad hoc Networks Similar to Sensor Networks All nodes are equal Some distinguished nodes may have servers/external connections Information moves from node to node 72

73 Network Standardization Who s Who in the Telecommunications World Who s Who in the International Standards World Who s Who in the Internet Standards World 73

74 Main sectors ITU Radiocommunications Telecommunications Standardization Development Classes of Members National governments Sector members Associate members Regulatory agencies 74

75 Who s Who in International Standards (1) The 802 working groups. The important ones are marked with *. The ones marked with are hibernating. The one marked with gave up and disbanded itself. Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

76 Who s Who in International Standards (2) The 802 working groups. The important ones are marked with *. The ones marked with are hibernating. The one marked with gave up and disbanded itself. Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

77 Metric Units The principal metric prefixes. 77

78 Metric Units (1) The principal metric prefixes Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

79 Metric Units (2) The principal metric prefixes Computer Networks, Fifth Edition by Andrew Tanenbaum and David Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall, 2011

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