1 Michigan No Fault Law Essential Knowledge for Hospital and Medical Office Personnel Why Learn About No-Fault? A Presentation for Third Party Payer Day Mt. Pleasant, Michigan November 21, 2014 Robert E. Dice, Jr., Esq. Dice Law PLLC Telegraph Rd. Suite 200 Southfield, Michigan (248) (313) Auto insurance pays the highest percentage of all insurance options - Lack of knowledge often leads to write offs or submission to a lower percentage insurance option - Lack of knowledge leads to frustrating interactions with auto insurance adjusters - Increasing your knowledge leads to increased revenue without reducing costs or staff No-Fault Problems Can You Solve Them? - The patient leaves without providing any insurance information - The patient refuses to provide auto insurance information or make a claim - There is a dispute between auto insurers - There is a coordination dispute between an auto insurer and another insurer - The auto insurer claims that the treatment is not related to the auto accident - The adjuster keeps telling you the claim is under investigation - The adjuster refuses to pay your claim because the patient s claim is in litigation - The claim must be made through the Michigan Assigned Claims Plan - The claim involves treatment related to a motorcycle accident
2 Overview: 1. When should bills be paid by auto insurance? If a motor vehicle is involved in the accident, the injured person is entitled to nofault benefits (also known as first party or PIP (Personal Injury Protection) benefits). 2. What circumstances give rise to a claim for no-fault benefits? MCL provides that a no-fault insurer is liable for paying benefits for accidental injury arising out of the ownership, operation, maintenance or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle. 3. What medical expenses must the insurer pay? MCL provides that personal protection insurance benefits are available for allowable expenses. Allowable expenses are all reasonable charges incurred for reasonably necessary products, services and accommodations for an injured person s care, recovery or rehabilitation. 4. What must a medical provider establish in order to get paid? A) The claimed expense must be incurred (the insurer has no duty to preauthorize treatment). B) The expense must be for the injured person s care, recovery or rehabilitation. C) The charge must be reasonable. D) The treatment must be reasonably necessary. 5. When is payment due? MCL (2) provides that no-fault benefits are due 30 days after the insurer receives reasonable proof of the fact and of the amount of loss sustained. 6. How do I know which auto insurance company has to pay the bills? If a patient is injured in a car accident and has car insurance, you make a claim with that car insurance. But what about situations where it is not so simple? The Michigan Nofault Act (MCLA et. seq.) sets forth the rules for determining which insurance company pays under different circumstances. These rules are detailed on the following pages entitled No-fault PIP Priorities. No-Fault (PIP) Priorities: A Systematic Analysis First, you must determine whether or not benefits are available under the No-Fault Act. Ask the following questions: 1. Was there an accidental injury that arose out of the ownership, operation, maintenance or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle?
3 - If the answer is Yes, continue. There is a great body of law in which the courts have analyzed whether injuries arose out of the ownership, operation, maintenance or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle. Some examples: - Maintenance coverage generally allowed. - Loading/Unloading property into or out of the vehicle coverage generally allowed. - Slip and fall coverage available but limited. - Assault while in motor vehicle coverage generally NOT allowed. 2. Do any exclusions apply? - Uninsured owner/operator - If the patient is an owner and driver of an uninsured vehicle that was involved, he or she is not entitled to PIP. - Stolen Vehicle - A patient that participates in the theft of the accident vehicle is not entitled to PIP. - Intentional Act - A patient that intentionally crashes his car cannot claim PIP benefits. If the circumstances pass the tests above and none of the exclusions apply, you determine the responsible insurance company by first determining whether the patient is: - an Occupant of a privately owned vehicle, - a Non-Occupant or - a Motorcyclist according to the Michigan No-Fault law. The priority scheme for determining which auto insurance company is responsible for PIP benefits is different for an occupant, non-occupant and motorcyclist. The charts that follow explain the process for determining which company is responsible. MOTORCYCLES ARE NOT MOTOR VEHICLES UNDER THE MICHIGAN NO- FAULT ACT A motorcycle is not defined as a motor vehicle under the No-fault law. If patient was injured in a single motorcycle accident (e.g. a motorcyclist hits a tree, deer, or other motorcycle), no PIP benefits are available. However, if a motor vehicle hits a motorcycle or a motor vehicle cuts a motorcyclist off causing him to lose control and suffer injuries, a motor vehicle was involved and no-fault benefits are available.
4 OCCUPANTS 1. Named Insured: If the patient has a motor vehicle with insurance, that insurance company pays. If not, proceed to next level. 2. Spouse or Resident Relative: Does the patient live with a spouse or relative that has an insured motor vehicle? If so, that company pays. If not, proceed to next level. 3. Insurance Company of the Owner of the vehicle they were in: The insurance on the motor vehicle occupied pays. If none, proceed to next level. 4. Insurance Company of the Driver of the vehicle they were in: If the driver borrowed a friend s uninsured motor vehicle, the driver may have an insured motor vehicle. If so, the driver s insurance company pays. If not, proceed to next level. 5. Assigned Claims Facility: Some automobile insurance companies that do business in Michigan participate in the assigned claims plan. If there is no insurance at any of the levels described above and there are no exclusions that would bar coverage, the assigned claims facility will assign the claim to an insurance company for the payment of benefits. The state of Michigan reimburses the handling insurance company.
5 NON-OCCUPANTS (This includes pedestrians, joggers, bicyclists, snowmobilers, moped riders, tractor drivers, but not motorcyclists) 1. Named Insured: If the patient has a motor vehicle with insurance that company pays. If not, proceed to the next level. 2. Spouse or Resident Relative: Does the patient live with a spouse or relative that has an insured motor vehicle? If so, that company pays. If not, proceed to the next level. 3. Insurance Company of the Owner of the vehicle involved: If none, proceed to the next level. 4. Insurance Company of the Driver of the vehicle involved: If the driver borrowed a friend s uninsured motor vehicle, the driver may have an insured motor vehicle. If so, the driver s insurance company pays. If not, proceed to the next level. 5. Assigned Claims Facility: Some automobile insurance companies that do business in Michigan participate in the assigned claims plan. If there is no insurance at any of the levels described above and there are no exclusions that would bar coverage, the assigned claims facility will assign the claim to an insurance company for the payment of benefits. The state of Michigan reimburses the handling insurance company.
6 MOTORCYCLE PRIORITIES (Operators and passengers) 1. Insurance Company of the Owner of the Motor Vehicle involved. If none, proceed to the next level. 2. Insurance Company of the Operator of the Motor Vehicle (not motorcycle) involved. If none, proceed to the next level. 3. Insurance Company of the Motor Vehicle (not motorcycle) of the operator of the motorcycle. If none, proceed to the next level. 4. Insurance Company of the Motor Vehicle (not motorcycle) of the Owner or person on the registration of the motorcycle. If none, proceed to the next level. 5. Spouse or Resident Relative: Does the patient live with a spouse or relative that has an insured motor vehicle? If so, that company pays. If not, proceed to the next level. 6. Assigned Claims Facility: Some automobile insurance companies that do business in Michigan participate in the assigned claims plan. If there is no insurance at any of the levels described above and there are no exclusions that would bar coverage, the assigned claims facility will assign the claim to an insurance company for the payment of benefits. The state of Michigan reimburses the handling insurance company.
7 SPECIAL PRIORITY SITUATIONS: Company Car: If patient is injured and he has a car given to him or her to use by his or her employer, the only time that the insurance policy on that car pays is if the employee, spouse or resident relative was actually occupying that vehicle at the time of injury. Otherwise, the priority scheme for occupants of motor vehicles applies. MCL (3). Vehicles for Hire: If patient is in a vehicle for hire (limousine, ambulance) the hired vehicle s insurance company pays. If the hired vehicle has no insurance, you then follow the priority scheme for occupants of motor vehicles. For taxi cabs, school buses and certain other types of buses, the priority scheme is the same as that for occupants of motor vehicles. MCL (2). WHAT IF THE PATIENT IS NOT A RESIDENT OF MICHIGAN? Out of state Resident in Michigan Accident: An insurer that sells auto insurance in Michigan must file a certification pursuant to MCL If a resident of another state is involved in an accident in Michigan and his insurance company has filed the MCL certification, the out of state resident is entitled to Michigan No-Fault benefits. A list of insurers certified in Michigan can be found at Note: A $500, limit will likely apply to such claims. MCL (4). COORDINATION OF BENEFITS Pursuant to MCL a, an insurer may offer to coordinate health and accident coverages at an appropriate premium reduction. From a practical standpoint, most automobile insurance policies sold in Michigan provide for coordinated benefits. However, even where a patient has a coordinated auto insurance policy, it remains primary under certain circumstances: - The patient s health insurance is through Medicare or Medicaid, - The patient s health insurance is a self-funded ERISA plan, or - The patient s health insurance has a valid exclusion for treatment of auto accident-related treatment Generally, an election to coordinate auto insurance coverage with other coverages applies only to the named insured in the policy, the spouse of the named insured or any relative residing in the same household as the named insured. MCL (3). Practical recommendations for successfully dealing with coordination of benefits issues include:
8 - Get as much information as to all existing policies so that the order of priority of insurers can be determined. - If the health insurer is claiming secondary status as a self-funded ERISA plan, request the full Summary Plan Description from the health insurer because any auto insurer will demand a copy before agreeing to assume status as primary insurer. - If an auto insurance policy is primary but refusing to pay and the patient has Medicare coverage, there is a process for billing Medicare conditionally while you pursue payment from the auto insurer. Auto Insurance v. Workers Compensation If a patient sustains an injury that arises out of the ownership, operation, maintenance or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle while on the job, issues may arise. If the patient is covered under a workers compensation insurance policy, that policy is primary for medical benefits. However, when the patient says that he was injured on the job, you can t assume that workers compensation insurance is primary. First, the patient may not be covered under a work comp policy. Second, the work comp insurer may dispute the patient s right to benefits. If a work comp carrier disputes a worker s claim for benefits where the injury arises out of the ownership, operation, maintenance or use of a motor vehicle as a motor vehicle, the applicable auto insurance must pay the patient s medical benefits and intervene in the workers compensation claim to obtain reimbursement. Practical recommendations for situations involving on the job injuries and motor vehicles include: - Get as much information as to the circumstances of the accident so a determination can be made as to which insurer is likely responsible. - Don t stop gathering information after the patient gives the information regarding his workers compensation insurance get the auto insurance information on the employer-furnished vehicle and the employee s personal vehicles. - If the workers compensation carrier refuses to pay, make a claim with the auto insurance, advising them of their responsibility to pay and intervene in the patient s workers compensation case.
9 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE MICHIGAN NO FAULT LAW THE MICHIGAN ASSIGNED CLAIMS PLAN: BIG CHANGES TO THE ASSIGNED CLAIMS PROCESS Injured persons who are uninsured may still, under many circumstances, qualify for nofault insurance. Often, that insurance is provided through the Assigned Claims Plan. This Plan was formerly administered through the Assigned Claims Facility (ACF), an agency of the Michigan Secretary of State. Upon proper application, the ACF would assign the claim to one of the no-fault insurers that voluntarily participate with the Plan. Effective December 17, 2012, management of the Plan has been transferred from the ACF to the Michigan Assigned Claims Plan (MACP). The Plan is now administered through a private organization the Michigan Automobile Insurance Placement Facility (MAIPF). The new application form and additional information can be obtained at or by calling or writing to: Michigan Assigned Claims Plan PO Box Livonia, MI The Assigned Claims application has been completely changed and has been expanded from two pages to four pages to an online form that is just plain awful. The form is needlessly long, complex, and contains intimidating and misleading statements that are a real deterrent to people honestly pursuing their legitimate legal rights. Many people give up rather than even attempt to pursue an assigned claim. From a practical standpoint, with the new MACP it has been far more difficult to get a claim assigned to a participating insurer than in the past. Instead of assigning the claim upon receiving application, the MACP frequently responds by asking for additional information. The purpose of such requests is to frustrate claimants and cause them to give up because it simply isn t worth the time to deal with the MACP. Practical recommendations for making claims through the MACP include: - If you are unable to determine the applicable insurance company, file an assigned claim or encourage the patient to file. If there is no higher priority insurer, the MACP will assign the claim to a participating insurance company. - Do your investigation early and make an assigned claim as soon as possible to avoid problems with the one year statute of limitations. - Document all attempts to contact the patient or other persons relevant to the investigation of potential available insurance. Attempts to contact them in writing are best because you have documentation to show the MACP.
10 - You do not have to make the claim in the patient s name. You can make the claim in the name of the medical provider. - Although it is preferable, you do not have to submit a copy of the police report as proof of the auto accident. If you don t have time to get a police report or can t locate one, submit the EMS run sheet or even hospital records that document the accident. - Don t give up. The goal of the MACP is seemingly to make the claim process so onerous and intimidating that claimants will not complete the process. NO-FAULT DEDUCTIBLE NOW POTENTIALLY UNLIMITED Perhaps the biggest change to the no-fault law in many years occurred in late December 2012 but few people have noticed - yet. MCL (3) was changed to remove any limitation on the no-fault deductible that an insurer may charge. MCL (3) USED to read: An insurer providing personal protection insurance benefits may offer, at appropriately reduced premium rates, a deductible of a specified dollar amount which does not exceed $ per accident. Section 3109(3) NOW reads: An insurer providing personal protection insurance benefits under this chapter may offer, at appropriately reduced premium rates, a deductible of a specified dollar amount (the $ limitation has been removed). This piece of legislation was signed by the governor on 12/20/12 and is effective as of 12/27/12. Why is this important? There has been much talk of a cap on no-fault benefits but there has been a lot of resistance against a cap. This new legislation is NOT a cap, but it acts on the opposite end of no-fault benefits. For example, nothing in this legislation prevents an insurer from offering a deductible of $10,000 or $25,000 or even $100,000. High deductibles would likely lower the cost of no-fault coverage significantly, and therefore would be a very tempting option for consumers. From a practical standpoint, many patients who have purchased no-fault insurance will end up as self-pay because of their high deductibles.
11 INSOLVENT INSURERS Two insurers have recently entered into some form of rehabilitation proceedings as a result of insolvency: American Fellowship and Ullico Casualty Company. Another problem on the horizon is the probable bankruptcy of the City of Detroit as the City is self-insured for no-fault insurance on its vehicles. Is there a remedy other than settling for pennies on the dollar or awaiting the outcome of the receivership proceedings? Under the No-Fault Act a claimant does NOT have to await the outcome of such proceedings. Under MCL (1), the Michigan Assigned Claims Plan must assign the case if the only identifiable [no-fault] insurance applicable to the injury is, because of financial inability of one or more insurers to fulfill their obligations, inadequate to provide benefits up to the maximum prescribed. The moment the insurer goes into receivership this standard is met and a claim should be made to the MACP. MEDICAL PROVIDER CLAIMS How can a provider get involved in the No-Fault insurance claim? Often a patient is involved in a motor vehicle accident, yet the medical provider has difficulty submitting its claim and getting it paid by the automobile insurance. And now that there is effectively one year to get paid or file suit on a bill, fast action is even more crucial. Problems arise when: 1. The patient dies, disappears or does not cooperate. 2. You have little or no information as to what insurance company should cover the bill. 3. The auto insurance company delays payment or refuses to pay. 4. The patient has an attorney that you don t want to represent you. 5. The bill is unpaid and the one year anniversary of the treatment is near. How can a doctor, hospital or other provider bring a claim? There are four potential methods: 1. Through the patient with his cooperation. 2. Assignment: The patient assigns his legal rights to the medical provider. 3. Intervention: A medical provider can intervene in a pending lawsuit with its own lawyer. Michigan Court Rule provides for intervention, but it is up to the judge s discretion. Intervention can save a claim that would otherwise be lost to the statute of limitations if it is beyond one year from the date of service. 4. Direct action: Since 2002, Michigan law allows a provider to bring a lawsuit directly against the auto insurance carrier. (Warning: medical providers are subject to the same one-year statute of limitations that applies to the patient).
12 Because of the short statute of limitations on no-fault claims, usually a medical provider is involved in a lawsuit brought by the patient that includes a claim for medical expenses or as a Plaintiff in a direct action. As some insurance companies have started making legal challenges to medical providers right of direct action as a claimants, it is recommended that medical providers include an assignment of rights form in their discharge paperwork. The form must be signed at discharge because an assignment of rights to future no-fault benefits is void. Advantages of a direct action: - Most auto adjusters would rather pay a medical provider than a patient/claimant. They tend to become jaded and suspicious of claimants but this is usually not the case with most medical provider claims. - The adjuster is more likely to resolve a medical provider claim because these claims essentially become a battle between two witnesses: (1) an insurance hired gun that has performed a onetime examination and (2) a treating physician with a track record with the patient. - The adjuster knows that you will be able to produce a physician witness in support of the claim. (Note: it is often important that the physician have an accurate history in order to be persuasive). - You choose your own attorney and the terms of your payment to the attorney. The No-Fault Statute of Limitations: Warning Extreme Caution Required! Under the Michigan No-Fault Act, A claimant must give notice of a no-fault claim to the appropriate insurance company within 1 year of the date of the accident AND must submit reasonable proof of the fact and amount of loss for each expense claimed within 1 year of the date that the expense was incurred. Therefore, a medical provider has 1 year from the date of treatment to submit its bill to the appropriate auto insurance company. Until 2005, Michigan law stated that the 1 year limitation did not start running until the insurance company formally denied benefits. From a practical standpoint, the period for submission of medical bills was often extended well beyond the 1 year limitation. However, in Devillers v. Auto Club, 473 Mich 562 (2005) the Court overturned this tolling provision. Now, a medical provider must file suit if its bill is not paid within one year of the date of service to avoid losing the right to payment by operation of the statute of limitations.
13 Medical providers should track every account involving auto insurance where filing suit would be economically feasible so that suit can be filed if payment is not received within one year of the date of treatment. It doesn t matter whether the failure to pay results from the action or inaction of the insurance company if you don t file suit within one year, your claim is barred. Practical recommendations for dealing with the short statute of limitations include: - using a diary system for regular, frequent contacts with the insurance adjuster - submission of claims by certified mail is recommended because if it becomes necessary to file a lawsuit, the failure of the insurance company to pay within 30 days can be used to obtain interest and attorney fees - don t wait until the absolute last minute file suit within 30 days of the one year anniversary of the date of first treatment - don t accept promises from an insurance adjuster to extend the time to file suit beyond one year as such promises may not be enforceable An Attorney Collects Your Bill You Never Hired Him Do You Owe Him a Fee? You get a call from an attorney saying that he has forced an insurance company to pay your patient s bill. He wants you to compromise your bill and pay him a fee for collecting it. Can he do this? No - if the bills were paid voluntarily (that is, the bills were not in dispute). No - if he has never notified you (the medical provider) prior to collecting on its bills (however, per recent Michigan case law, very little notice is required). Yes - if the attorney notified the medical provider, allowed it to decline his services and he has performed substantial work to justify a fee. If the provider ignores the notice, the attorney may still be entitled to a fee if he performed substantial work. (Michigan Rule of Professional Conduct 1.5). Practical recommendations for dealing with patient attorneys include: - Don t ignore a letter from a patient s attorney offering to collect your bill. If you do, it can be interpreted as tacit approval and you may be required to pay the attorney. (In a recent case, the Court ruled that the attorney s
14 name on a Medicaid claim form and a medical record request was enough for the Court to find that the medical provider had notice of his involvement). - If you do not want the patient s attorney to represent your interests, notify the attorney and the insurance company in writing immediately. - If you do work out a deal with the patient s attorney to collect your bill, work out the fee arrangement in advance and get it in writing. Be careful as to what you are agreeing to accept (agree to accept a certain percentage of your outstanding charges NOT a percentage of the recovery on the case. - If you use your own attorney and pursue a direct action in your own name, contact your lawyer immediately so that you don t miss the one year deadline. - It usually makes sense to hire your own attorney as he/she will put your interests first and be less likely to compromise your bill. - If over a year has passed and you haven t filed suit, you are too late. However, you may still intervene in the patient s suit, if he has filed one. If you are too late to intervene, negotiate the best deal possible with the attorney. Demand that he document the substantial work that he performed in collecting your bill.
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THE TOP 10 QUESTIONS YOU SHOULD ASK YOUR CAR ACCIDENT LAWYER? Introduction After six straight years of decline, the National Highway Traffic Administration (NHTSA) reports that auto accidents, injuries
CHAPTER 5 AN ACT SB 411 Relating to personal injury protection benefits; creating new provisions; and amending ORS 742.500, 742.502, 742.504, 742.506, 742.524 and 742.544. Be It Enacted by the People of
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Changing Tort Reform In Kentucky Christel Siglock By changing its current No-Fault and Tort law options, Kentucky could; 1) Reduce the number of lawsuits filed, 2) Thus reducing insurance company payouts
Have you or someone you know suffered a personal injury? TIPS TO MAXIMIZE COMPENSATION If you have suffered a personal injury it is important to consider all potential sources of compensation. A personal
UNITED SERVICES AUTOMOBILE ASSOCIATION NEW JERSEY AUTO INSURANCE BUYER'S GUIDE New Jersey Department of Banking and Insurance 999NJ(31) Rev. 6-04 Page 1 of 10 WHAT'S INSIDE WHERE DO I START? PAGE 2 UNDERSTANDING
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ARE YOU DRIVING ON THIN ICE : FULL COVERAGE MIGHT NOT BE WHAT YOU THINK IT IS By: Jay R. Vaughn, Esq. Schachter, Hendy & Johnson, P.S.C. (859) 578-4444 firstname.lastname@example.org My practice focuses on personal
How recent changes in the law will affect you. Know YOUR Rights. Auto Accident Basics. IN THIS ISSUE Working with an Adjuster: What NOT to sign. Page 3 Medical Expenses: How will my initial medical expenses
GM Ignition Compensation Claims Resolution Facility FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS June 30, 2014 Table of Contents Section 1. General Information 4 1.1 What is the GM Ignition Compensation Claims Resolution
This document is made available electronically by the Minnesota Legislative Reference Library as part of an ongoing digital archiving project. http://www.leg.state.mn.us/lrl/lrl.asp.~l' ''''d:.,j i.;'~\;
Michigan Supreme Court Lansing, Michigan Syllabus This syllabus constitutes no part of the opinion of the Court but has been prepared by the Reporter of Decisions for the convenience of the reader. Chief
No-Fault Automobile Insurance By Margaret C. Jasper, Esq. Prior to the enactment of state no-fault insurance legislation, recovery for personal injuries sustained in an automobile accident were subject
78th OREGON LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY--2015 Regular Session Enrolled Senate Bill 411 Sponsored by Senators GELSER, ROSENBAUM; Senator SHIELDS (Presession filed.) CHAPTER... AN ACT Relating to personal injury
Ferguson & Ferguson Serious Injury Attorneys. Since 1993 AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENT GUIDE Facts & Myths AUTO ACCIDENT GUIDE By Randy W. Ferguson Ferguson & Ferguson GOOD START You now have access to information
STATE OF WISCONSIN Frequently Asked Questions Auto Insurance OFFICE OF THE COMMISSIONER OF INSURANCE PI-233 (C 03/2015) The Automobile Insurance Policy (page 1) Wisconsin's Financial Responsibility Law
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PROMPT PAYMENT, MANAGED CARE CLAIM BILLING AND COLLECTION ISSUES ERIC D. KATZ, ESQ. 1 1 I. PROMPT PAYMENT UNDER THE Laws equally applicable to pars and non pars (as long as there is an assignment) Physicians,
What are No-Fault benefits? "No-fault benefits" are also often referred to as "Personal Injury Protection benefits or "PIP Benefits" for short. No Fault refers to insurance coverage provided by your own
Health lh Care Provider Reimbursement Under Michigan s Workers Compensation System Marcus W. Campbell MAHAP October 25, 2013 The materials and information have been prepared p for informational purposes
Understanding Florida s PIP Laws Bacen & Jordan, P.A. Renee Jordan, Esq. 4801 South University Drive Suite 3100 Davie, FL 33328 (954) 961-5511 email@example.com PIP = No Fault!! No Fault are first
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Information for Worker s Compensation Clients Overview of the Worker s Compensation Act Indiana Worker s Compensation cases are governed by a State law known as the Worker s Compensation Act. The legislature
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NOT RECOMMENDED FOR FULL-TEXT PUBLICATION File Name: 14a0331n.06 No. 12-1887 ARTHUR HILL, JR., Plaintiff-Appellant, UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT v. CITIZENS INSURANCE COMPANY OF
ONYX BUSINESS AUTO POLICY COVERAGE Various provisions in this policy restrict overage Read the entire policy carefully to determine rights, duties and what is and is not covered. Throughout this policy