Maritime Integrated PNT System

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1 Maritime Integrated PNT System Core element for safe ship navigation Evelin Engler und Thoralf Noack DLR Institut für Kommunikation und Navigation Folie 1

2 Maritime Integrated PNT System = overlay of satellite based, ashore and aboard components, whose integrated use can ensure the accurate and reliable provision of PNT output data to applications during all phases of vessel navigation Port Coast Ocean Coast Port Accurate provision during changing accuracy requirements: P = Position data: Latitude, Longitude, and Altitude N = Navigation data: Heading, SoG, CoG, Attitude. T = Timing data: UTC Folie 2

3 Overview of PNT components practice, existing, and future Folie 3

4 Accuracy Requirements on future GNSS IMO A.915(22): Minimum Requirements on future GNSS System Level Parameters Service Level Parameters Absolute Accuracy Horizontal (m) Alert Limit (m) Integrity Time to Alarm 2 (s) Integrity Risk (per 3h) Availability (%) per 30 days Continuity (%) over 3 hours Coverage Fix Interval 2 (s) Ocean ,8 N/A 1 global 1 Coastal ,8 N/A 1 global 1 Port approach and restricted waters ,8 99,97 regional 1 Port , ,8 99,97 local 1 Automatic Docking 0,1 0, ,8 99,97 local Continuity is not relevant for ocean and coastal areas 2 - More stringent requirements may be necessary for ships operating above 30 knots Accuracy and Integrity Requirements for all PNT data? Folie 4

5 Identified User Needs [IMO NAV56-WP.5 E-NAV report] Examples Identification of Reliability Automatically assessment of accuracy and integrity of hydrographical data, position fixing data, radar data, and other navigation relevant data; Graphical indication of assessment results; Improvement of Reliability Reduction of failures and malfunction of electronic equipment Assessment and quantification of reliability Alert Management Coordination and weighting of bridge alerts Support of decision making without undue diversion Approaches Data and System Integrity Analysis Redundancy Backup Common Maritime Data / Information Structure Harmonised Meaning of Assessment Results Folie 5

6 Integrity Data Integrity Desired data are provided completely, undisturbed and accurately. X " true" or " accurate" System Integrity Fulfillment of specified functionalities and related requirements. State F x, x x " reliable" 1 2 N Estimated Error est(dx) False Alarm dx < AL < est(dx) Alarm Limit Nominal Operation dx < est(dx) < AL unusable usable Alarm Limit Misleading Operation est(dx) < dx < AL True Alarm AL < dx < est(dx) Misleading Operation AL<est(dX) < dx System should unusable not be used! dx > AL Real Error dx Folie 6

7 Objective of Integrated PNT System Accurate and reliable provision of P = Position data: Latitude, Longitude, and Altitude N = Navigation data: Heading, SoG, CoG, Attitude. T = Timing data: UTC I = Integrity data: Accuracy assessment results of PNT data A = Alert data: PNT&I data vs. requirements (paradigm shift) requires basis set of ship-board sensors and ashore services to ensure complete provision of PNT data with desired accuracy (basis functionality) redundant layout (multi-system and multi-sensor approach) to increase the reliability of PNT data provision and to ensure the accuracy assessment (integrity functionality) Folie 7

8 E-Navigation Architecture & Integrated PNT System Ship-side Links Shore-side Data Domain Information Domain Ship-board User PNT Shipboard Environment stated information needs / information items requested data provided in required format Shipboard technical equipment supporting e-navigation (incl. HMI) Integrated Navigation System Communication AIS Presentation Surface Alarm Management Operational Links Functional Links Physical Links VTS Operator Traffic Planning IALA National Member stated information needs / information items requested data provided in required format Common technical shore-based system harmonized for e-navigation (incl. HMI) GNSS Augmentation System (Coast) GNSS Augmentation System (Port) GNSS Backup System (global) MRCC Other Operator Operator Augmentation Backup System (Coast, Port) data provided in required format stated data requested IBS INS Maritime Service Portfolio stated data requested Machine-to-Machine Interface data provided in required format Other shore-based system Other SBAS shore-based etc. system World Wide Radio Navigation System (WWRNS) Folie 8

9 The future redundant GNSS GPS GLONASS GALILEO COMPASS L5 L2 L1 L1 L2 L1 E5a E5 B1 B2 B3 L1C L3 E6 Improved PT-data provision by: Alternative usable single-frequency GNSS services Use of dual- and triple-frequency GNSS service Increased total number of available satellite navigation signals : improved RAIM Modernisation of GNSS implicates: substitution of GNSS receiver equipment (new signals, multi-system positioning) harmonised utilisation concept of signals to provide the best PT&I-results. Folie 9

10 GNSS Augmentation Systems Aim Practice Completion Increase accuracy of GNSS based positioning by application of C-DGNSS Accuracy assessment (integrity) by monitoring of GNSS/DGNSS (LIM, FFIM) Provision of C-DGNSS related integrity information IALA Beacon DGNSS (IALA R-121): Fulfilment of IMO coast requirements Provision of C-DGNSS corrections (PRC, RRC) and integrity information AIS Base Station (IALA A-124): Provision of C-DGNSS and integrity corrections via AIS VHF Data Link (Message 17) Modernisation of IALA Beacon DGNSS: Exchange and modernisation of GNSS receiver equipment Cost-efficient approaches for services (VRS concept) Augmentation for port navigation: P-DGNSS based approaches (Rotterdam, Hamburg, FoHa Rostock, ) Standardisation is open task Folie 10

11 GNSS Backup Systems Aim Candidate 1 Compensation of GNSS vulnerability (interferences, jamming, and ionosphere) by GNSS independent determination of PNT data eloran (LOng-RAnge Navigation): based on ground wave signal propagation (100 KHz) additional data channel to provide differential eloran corrections to compensate ground wave propagation effects warnings of anomalous radio propagation conditions GNSS corrections enables work of eloran compass: requires H-field (Magentic Loop Antenna) for direction finding offers heading determination better than 1 Source: International eloran Assocoation, eloran Definition Document (2007) Folie 11

12 GNSS Backup Systems Aim Compensation of GNSS vulnerability (interferences, jamming, and ionosphere) by GNSS independent determination of PNT data Candidate 12 R-Mode eloran (LOng-RAnge (Ranging Mode): Navigation): based on ground existing wave IALA signal Beacon propagation DGNSS and (100 AIS service KHz) infrastructure (MF and VHF): additional requires data modification channel to provide of transmitting station differential and extension eloran with corrections GNSS independent to compensate timing sourceground wave propagation additional effects provision of timing information warnings to derive distance of anomalous measurements radio propagation conditions to enable GNSS independent position determination GNSS corrections based on multi-station enables approach work of eloran compass: next steps requires H-field (Magentic Loop Antenna) feasibility for study direction finding offers field tests heading determination better than 1 GNSS receiver MF D- & T-Mode ITU-R M.823 MF transmission service Precise Time base for ranging PVT processing Unit MF R-Mode LF D-, T- & R-Mode sensors ITU-R M.589 LF transmission service DGNSS correction service AIS D-,& R-Mode Shore-side system Source: International eloran Assocoation, eloran Definition Document (2007) Visionary concept:: Integrated Solutions for PVT (Hoppe, Oltmann) Ship-side system PVT PVT applications AIS device ITU-R M.1371 AIS (VHF) transmission service Data sources (T-Mode) Folie 12

13 Onboard PNT WWRNS PNT GNSS Receiver DGNSS Receiver Multi Radio Navigation Receiver etc. Radar PNT (processing) Unit P/I N/I T/I A Legend: - Product specification by Performance Standard P/I - Position and Integrity Data N/I - Navigation and Integrity Data T/I - Time and Integrity Data T/I - Alert Data Integrated PNT System Gyro / Compass Speed / Log World Wide Radio Navigation System (WWRNS) PNT COM AIS X etc. Presentation Surface Alarm Management Radio Links Individual Technical PNT Service Augmentation 1 Augmentation N etc. INS PNT Backup Integrated Navigation System Ship-side Shore-side Folie 13

14 Onboard PNT WWRNS Multi Radio Navigation Receiver PNT GNSS Receiver DGNSS Receiver etc. Radar Gyro / Compass Speed / Log Basis functionality PNT PNT (processing) Unit COM etc. Presentation AIS I Integrity Surface Processing Processing Functionality Chain Chain X 1 Status Monitor A Basis functionality Integrated Navigation SystemI Processing Processing Chain Chain N Integrity Functionality Status Monitor PNT PNT A Alarm Management Output Selection P/I N/I T/I A Creation Legend: of true redundancy by supported use of all PNT relevant sensor data including - Product specification by Performance Standard data of GNSS/DGNSS and future backup systems P/I - Position and Integrity Data N/I - Navigation and Integrity Data T/I - Time and Integrity Data Introduction T/I - of Alert parallel Data processing chains for robust PNT data provision under consideration Integrated of available PNT System augmentation and backup services World Wide Radio Navigation System (WWRNS) Implementation of accuracy assessment (integrity functionality) per processing chain, if possible Radio Links Individual Technical PNT Service Augmentation 1 Performance controlled provision of best Augmentation N PNT output data etc. Additional Provision of accuracy INS PNT Modul Backup assessment results (integrity data) PNT relevant Ship-side alert messaging for Shore-side alarm management of Integrated Navigation System (INS) paradigm shift Folie 14

15 Safety, Risk and Integrity Safety = System state free of intolerable risks Risk P Consequence(s) Accident Safety of Integrated PNT System requires risk distribution (fault tree analysis) & management Project MarNIS: Target Level of Safety (TLS): First fault tree for port approach: Max. 1 accident per year induced by GNSS is tolerable considering estimated number of global port approaches Accident/incident ratio: only accidents result into consequences. Equal risk distribution on continuity and integrity risk? Risk reduction by human factor tbc. Result of tolerable loss of continuity and integrity. Accident/incident ratio: Incident risk: Continuity risk: Pilot risk reduction Continuity loss: Integrity risk: Pilot risk reduction 17 Integrity loss: Risk distribution on components Folie 15

16 Conclusions (1) The integrated PNT system is an identified core element for safe ship navigation to avoid collision and grounding by resilient ship-side situation awareness by reliable vessel traffic management Automatically assessment of accuracy and integrity of PNT data is an identified user need. This requires completion of performance requirements for all PNT data redundancy introduced by sensors, services, and processing techniques integrated consideration of applicable complete processing chains regarding their achievable performance (error mitigation and propagation) introduction of performance key identifiers for integrity monitoring and alert generation per processing chain harmonised meaning of provided integrity information Automatically assessment of accuracy and integrity of PNT data enables the selection of the best PNT data at consistent common reference points. Folie 16

17 Conclusions (2) Detailed architecture design of the Integrated PNT System is necessary to describe the existing variety of multi-sensor, multi-system and multi-service based processing chains during berth to berth navigation to assess the processing chains regarding the accuracy of PNT data provision and the capability of integrity monitoring to enable safety assessment analysis and detailed identification of technical gaps The development of an overall integrity concept for the Integrated PNT System should be aimed to improve integrity monitoring with shared responsibilities (ashore, aboard) to enable scalability and quantification of reliability to prepare an operative risk management inside the Integrated PNT System A paradigm shift from sensor related alert messages to output data related alert messages can support the prioritisation and reduction of PNT relevant alarm messages. Folie 17

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