A Message from Regional Council

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2 Mayor Frank Scarpitti Town of Markham Regional Councillor Jim Jones Town of Markham Regional Councillor Jack Heath Town of Markham Regional Councillor Tony Wong Town of Markham Regional Councillor Gordon Landon Town of Markham Mayor David Barrow Town of Richmond Hill Mayor Linda D. Jackson City of Vaughan Regional Chair and CEO Bill Fisch A Message from Regional Council Regional Councillor Brenda Hogg Town of Richmond Hill We are pleased to provide residents of the Regional Municipality of York with the Emergency Preparedness Guide. Regional Councillor Joyce Frustaglio City of Vaughan This is a practical guide on what you can do to prepare for almost any type of disaster and emergency that we could face in York Region. A crucial part of emergency preparedness is being aware of potential situations that can arise and having an action plan in place to lessen their impact on our lives and community. Regional Councillor Vito Spatafora Town of Richmond Hill Emergencies and disasters can occur randomly and without warning. Experience tells us that preparedness works. Regional Councillor Mario Ferri City of Vaughan The information contained in this guide has been compiled from many people with expertise in emergency preparedness and management, and is the result of a collaborate effort by first responders and staff from York Region and our nine area municipal partners: Aurora, East Gwillimbury, Georgina, King Township, Markham, Newmarket, Richmond Hill, Vaughan and Whitchurch-Stouffville. Mayor Tony Van Bynen Town of Newmarket Emergency Services Department Regional Councillor Gino Rosati City of Vaughan Please take a moment to review this guide with your family, friends and neighbours and store it in a place for easy reference. Regional Councillor John Taylor Town of Newmarket Mayor Robert Grossi Town of Georgina Regional Councillor Danny Wheeler Town of Georgina Mayor Phyllis M. Morris Town of Aurora Mayor Wayne Emmerson Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville Mayor James Young Town of East Gwillimbury Mayor Margaret Black Township of King

3 PAGE 4 Emergency response phone numbers Before an EMERGENCY Expect the Unexpected ---- Plan for it Make a Plan Develop a Home Escape Plan Make a Kit Car Kit Tips for Persons with Disabilities/Special Needs Preparing an Emergency Food Supply Preparing an Emergency Water Supply Pets and Disasters During an EMERGENCY Emergency Sheltering Shelter-in-place Evacuation Returning Home Types of EMERGENCIES that could occur in York Region Hazardous Materials Incidents Severe Weather (thunderstorms, tornadoes, extreme heat, winter storms) Power Outage Pandemic Floods After an EMERGENCY Coping with Disaster ---- what you might experience How you can help Know your Insurance Resources School Boards Acknowledgements Resources Forms PAGE 5

4 PAGE 6 Proper use of the emergency telephone number and non-emergency numbers The emergency number provides instant access to emergency services and should be used only for immediate police, fire and ambulance response. When should you call 9-1-1? When a situation requires the immediate response of police, firefighting and/or ambulance personnel, call Some examples: downed power lines criminal activity injuries and life-threatening emergencies fire In a situation like a power outage where there is no immediate danger to human health or property, non-emergency numbers can be used. Please use correctly. If is flooded with non-emergency calls, then true emergency calls will have more difficulty getting through. Do not call to: locate relatives ask about the availability of gas at local pumps find out the location or availability of shelters and other services. These calls, though important, could be handled through the non-emergency numbers listed below. Using the non-emergency numbers leaves the service available to handle emergency calls. Non-Emergency Numbers York Region Public Health... Health Connection York Region Health Services For more information on Emergency Medical Services (EMS) contact Health Connection Police... York Regional Police Newmarket/Aurora/East Gwillimbury/... Mt. Albert/Keswick Richmond Hill/Oak Ridges/King Markham/Stouffville/Thornhill/... Vaughan Pefferlaw/Sutton Fire Aurora East Gwillimbury Georgina King City Markham Newmarket Nobleton Richmond Hill Schomberg Vaughan Whitchurch-Stouffville Hospitals York Central (Richmond Hill) Southlake Regional Health Centre (Newmarket) Markham/Stouffville (Markham) Expect the Unexpected --- Plan for it An emergency or disaster is an event or events that affect a large number of people and can overwhelm normal emergency services. In everyday life, a large-scale emergency or disaster seems like a remote possibility. But experience tells us that here in York Region we could experience hazardous chemical spills or releases, severe weather, power outages, infectious disease outbreaks, or heat emergencies. An emergency can occur without warning, leaving little or no time for you to plan what to do next. It can confine you to your home or workplace or force you to evacuate your neighbourhood. When an emergency occurs in our community, local government and non-government disaster-relief organizations will be there to assist you but it s important to remember that the local responders may not be able to reach you immediately or in the initial stages of the event when they may need to focus their efforts elsewhere. Every resident of York Region has a responsibility when it comes to emergency preparedness. Plan to be self-sufficient for at least 72 hours. It is important that you are prepared and understand your responsibilities during an emergency. When you are prepared, you become part of the solution. PAGE 7

5 Make a Plan Knowing what to do when disaster strikes will help you better control the situation and put you in a position to recover more quickly. That is why it is extremely important for you to have a household emergency plan. Being prepared and understanding what to do when faced with an emergency can reduce fear, anxiety and losses. Before creating a household emergency plan, use this guide to learn about the types of emergencies that may affect the communities in York Region, how you ll be notified of an event, and plans that may already be in place to deal with these events. Each municipality in York Region has an Emergency Response Plan in place that details the roles and responsibilities of municipal officials and first responders before, during and after an emergency. Contact your local municipal office, or visit your municipality s website for more information on the emergency plan for your area. Numbers and website addresses are listed in the Resources section of this guide. Notification and updates of emergencies that occur anywhere in York Region will be posted on municipal and regional websites and broadcast on greater Toronto area radio and television stations. Some municipalities also have emergency hotline phone numbers in place during a declared emergency where you can access information. Emergencies may occur when you are away from home, so find out about emergency plans at your workplace, school or anywhere else you and your family spend time. Steps to take in creating a household emergency plan include: Meet with household members and discuss the dangers of possible emergency events in your community, including fire, severe weather, hazardous spills, and infectious outbreaks Check off each step as you do it. Discuss how you and your family will respond to each possible emergency (e.g., flood, fire, evacuation, blackout) Draw a floor plan of your home and mark two escape routes from each room Plan how your household would stay in contact if separated. Identify two meeting places: the first should be near your home; the second should be away from your neighbourhood in case you cannot return home Learn how to turn off the water, gas and electricity at main switches. (Note: if for any reason you do turn off natural gas service to your home, call your local gas utility to restore service. NEVER attempt to restore gas service yourself) Post emergency contact numbers near all telephones. (If there s been a major disaster, use the phone only if it s absolutely necessary. Emergency responders will need all available lines) Teach children how and when to dial to get emergency assistance After creating a household emergency plan you should take the time to review it with your family every six months. PAGE 8 PAGE 9

6 Choose a friend or relative that all family members will call if separated (it is often easier to call out-of-province during an emergency than within the affected area) Take a Basic First Aid and CPR class. These are often available through your local municipal recreation department, or through organizations such as the York Region branches of the Canadian Red Cross or St. John s Ambulance Review property insurance policies to make sure they are current and meet your needs (type of coverage, amount of coverage, hazards covered) Keep a small amount of cash at home in a safe place where you can quickly gain access to it in case of an evacuation If any members of your household have disabilities or special health considerations, you may have to take additional steps to ensure their comfort and safety in an emergency Make arrangements for pets. Pets are not permitted in emergency shelters. Service animals for those who depend on them are allowed Keep family records (passports, birth certificates, etc.,) in a water and fireproof safe Develop a Home Escape Plan And Practice It! In a fire or other emergency, you may need to evacuate on a moment s notice. You should be ready to get out fast. Develop an escape plan: Draw a floor plan of your residence. Using a black or blue pen and the grid on the following page, show the location of doors, windows, stairways, and large furniture Indicate the location of emergency supplies (72 Hour - Emergency Preparedness Kit), fire extinguishers, smoke alarms, collapsible ladders, first aid kits and utility shut off points Next, use a coloured pen to draw a broken line charting at least two escape routes from each room Finally, mark a place outside of the home where household members should meet in case of fire Be sure to include important points outside such as garages, patios, stairways, elevators, driveways and porches PAGE 10 If your home has more than two floors, use an additional sheet of paper. Practice emergency evacuation drills with all household members at least two times each year. PAGE 11

7 Make a Kit Emergencies or disasters can sometimes make it unsafe for people to leave their homes for extended periods. Severe weather or long-term power outages may make it necessary for each household to take care of its own needs until the disaster abates, or until local officials and/or relief workers are able to help. Prepare for a disaster before it strikes. Assemble a 72-hour Emergency Kit to keep in your home to survive on your own for at least three days without utilities and outside sources of food and water. To prepare your kit: Review the suggested checklist below and determine which tools and supplies your family would need to survive without power and outside sources of food and water for three days. As each family has different needs, use the following checklist as a guide, revising or adding to it as necessary to meet the needs of your family Gather and store the supplies that are listed in an easily accessible area on the main living floor of your home PAGE 12 Assemble your Emergency Kit PAGE 13

8 Supplies There are six basics you should stock in your home: water, food, first aid supplies, tools and supplies, clothing and bedding, and special items. Keep the items that you would most likely need during an evacuation in an easy-to-carry container. Suggested items are marked with an asterisk (*). Possible containers include: A large, covered trash or storage container A camping backpack A duffel bag Include a selection of the following foods in you 72 Hour Emergency Kit: Ready-to-eat canned meats, fruits and vegetables Canned juices, milk, soup (if powdered, store extra water) Staples such as: sugar, salt, pepper, spices High energy foods (peanut butter, jelly, crackers, granola bars, trail mix)* Foods for infants, elderly persons or persons on special diets* Comfort /stress foods- cookies, hard candy, sweetened cereals, instant coffee, tea bags, hot chocolate Water (Also See Preparing an Emergency Water Supply) Store four litres of water per person per day (two litres for drinking, two litres for food preparation/sanitation)* First Aid Kit* may include: First Aid Manual Keep at least a three-day supply of water for each person in your household Sterile adhesive bandages in assorted sizes Store purification tablets or chlorine bleach and an eyedropper to disinfect water 2 inch sterile gauze pads (4-6) 4 inch sterile gauze pads (4-6) Food (Also See Preparing an Emergency Food Supply) Hypoallergenic adhesive tape Triangular bandages (3) Store at least a three-day supply of non-perishable food 2 inch sterile roller bandages (3 rolls) Select foods that require no refrigeration, preparation or cooking and little or no water 3 inch sterile roller bandages (3 rolls) Scissors PAGE 14 If you must heat food, pack a can of sterno or other heat source. Select food items that are compact and lightweight Tweezers PAGE 15

9 Heat Packs Rubbing Alcohol Moistened towelettes Antiseptic or antiseptic towelettes Thermometer Tongue depressor (2) Tube of petroleum jelly or other lubricant Assorted sizes of safety pins Cleansing agent/soap Vinyl gloves (2 pairs) Small (hand) clean towels sealed in a plastic bag Non-prescription drugs Pain relievers (i.e., acetaminophen)* Anti-diarrhoea medication* Sunscreen (SPF 15 or higher)* Antacid (for stomach upset)* Laxative* Non-prescription antihistamines for allergic reactions* Personal care items Toothpaste and brushes* Dental floss* Feminine napkins* Soap and shampoo* Cotton swabs* Deodorant* Toilet paper, towellettes* Razor* Shaving cream* Lip balm* Tools and supplies Mess kits or paper cups, plates and plastic utensils* Battery operated radio and extra batteries and/or wind up/crank radio* Flashlight and extra batteries and/or wind up/crank flashlight* Cash or traveller s cheques, credit cards, change* Non-electric can opener, utility knife* Fire Extinguisher (small canister, ABC type) PAGE 16 PAGE 17

10 Tube tent Duct tape Pliers Compass Matches in a waterproof container Aluminium foil Plastic storage containers Signal flare Paper, pencil Sewing kit Medicine dropper Shut-off wrench to turn off household gas and water Whistle Plastic sheeting Map of your community* Liquid detergent* Plastic garbage bags, ties (for personal sanitation use) Plastic bucket with tight lid Household chlorine bleach, unscented Hammer and nails/ crowbar Lantern and fuel, candles Emergency blanket Mosquito repellent Rope Shovel Corded telephone Sterno Emergency heat source Camp stove An extra set of car & house keys Clothing and bedding Include at least one complete change of clothing and footwear per person. Sturdy shoes or work boots* Rain gear* Blankets or sleeping bags* Hat and gloves, scarves* Underwear* Sweaters* PAGE 18 PAGE 19

11 Special items Remember family members with special needs, such as infants, elderly, and/or persons with disabilities or chronic illnesses. For baby* Formula with extra sterile water to mix (if powdered or concentrate) Bottles Disposable diapers Diaper Wipes Petroleum jelly Extra clothing as babies may soil more clothing than older children Snowsuit if cold Medications Toys For children and adults* Prescription and non-prescription medications (7 days supply) Contact lenses and supplies Denture needs Extra eye glasses Hearing aids and batteries Entertainment games and books Important family documents Keep these records in a waterproof, portable container or a bank safety deposit box: Will, insurance policies, contracts, deeds, stocks and bonds Passport, social insurance cards, health card, immunization records Bank account numbers Credit card account numbers and companies Inventory of valuable household goods, important telephone numbers Family records (birth, marriage, death certificates) Current photos of family members in case you are separated in an emergency* Car survival kit Every driver should carry a survival kit in his or her vehicle. Here are some important items to consider: Booster cables. The thicker the better. Look for four or six-gauge cables Vehicle fluids. These include windshield washer fluid, gas-line antifreeze, motor oil, transmission oil, power steering fuel, brake fluid, anti-freeze, and rags for wiping dipsticks so fluid levels can be checked properly PAGE 20 An approved container able to hold up to four litres of gasoline PAGE 21

12 Emergency flares and/or emergency triangles. If you ever have to use them, remember to place them at least 15 metres away from your car to give other drivers adequate warning of the problem Sand, salt or kitty litter during winter. This comes in handy when stuck and wheels are spinning on ice Emergency food pack An emergency candle and camping matches Road maps Ice scraper and brush Fire extinguisher (ABC type) Always remember to keep your vehicle serviced regularly. Keep your gas tank at least half full. Drive carefully. Shovel and axe or hatchet A mini air compressor to help inflate a flat tire and/or puncture seal gels A tire gauge for measuring the air pressure in your tires Spare fuses. Carry an assortment that includes at least one of 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 amp fuses Tips for Persons with Disabilities and/or Special Needs The information contained in this guide applies to everyone. However, people with special needs such as young children, the elderly, persons with disabilities or persons with chronic illness may want to consider some of the following steps as well: PAGE 22 A flashlight and spare batteries Tool kit, including a good quality screwdriver set with a flat head, Philips (X) head, Robertson head ( ), and a Torx head ( ), pliers, small hammer, utility knife, ratchet socket set, a four-way wrench, Vice-Grip pliers, rolls of electrical and duct tape First aid kit A blanket; the special "survival " blankets are best Create a network of relatives, friends, or co-workers to assist you in an emergency. Prior to a disaster, talk to these people and ask them to be part of your preparedness plan. Show them how to operate any medical equipment you use, and practice your emergency procedures, including advising you of broadcast emergency information or warnings if you are hearing impaired or deaf Maintain a list of important items and store it with your emergency supply kit. Give a copy to a family member, friend or neighbour. Important items might include: Special equipment and supplies; e.g., batteries for medical equipment or things like hearing aids, assistive devices, enteral feeding supplies, catheters, inner tubes for your wheelchair tires PAGE 23

13 PAGE 24 Current prescription names, strengths and dosages, and any special storage information Names and contact information for physicians and pharmacists Detailed information about the specifications of your medication regime In case you are incapacitated and unable to communicate, wear medical alert tags or bracelets to identify your illness or disability in an emergency Keep a whistle and flashlight near you as this will help others find you in an emergency situation. The international signal for help is three short blasts Keep your walking aids near you at all times, and, if possible, an extra cane or walking aid in different rooms and at work If you have a Seeing Eye dog, keep a cane handy in case your dog is injured or too frightened to help you during a major crisis If possible, have a seven day supply of all medications in your 72 - Hour Emergency Kit If a member of the household is bedridden and requires constant medical care, or has electrical life support equipment at home, discuss this NOW with the primary care physician Persons who receive home health care services should discuss emergency plans with their caregiver or home care agency. Individuals should check with their physician to establish whether prior arrangements would be necessary for evacuation to a hospital Preparing an emergency food supply Short Term Food Supplies There is a possibility that during an emergency, access to food supply sources may be disrupted temporarily, you should prepare a food supply that will last at least 3 days. The easiest way to develop a three-day stockpile is to increase the amount of basic foods you normally keep on your shelves. Storage Tips Keep food in a dry, cool spot in the house, in a dark area if possible Keep food covered at all times Open food boxes or cans carefully so that you can close them in tightly after each use Wrap cookies and crackers in plastic bags, and keep them in airtight containers Empty opened packages of sugar, dried fruits and nuts into screw-top jars or airtight cans to protect them from pests Inspect all food for signs of spoilage before use Use foods before they go bad, and replace them with fresh supplies, dated with ink or marker. Place new items at the back of the storage area and older ones in front Nutrition Tips During and immediately after a disaster, it will be vital that you maintain your strength. So remember: Eat at least one well-balanced meal each day and snack regularly on foods that are high in energy Drink enough liquid to enable your body to function properly (two litres a day) Take in enough calories to enable you to do any necessary work Limit your intake of foods and drinks containing caffeine and/or alcohol PAGE 25

14 When Food Supplies Are Low Use canned foods, dry mixes and other staples on your cupboard shelves. Most of these foods are easy to open and prepared. Familiar foods are also important. They can lift morale and give a feeling of security in times of stress. If activity is reduced, healthy people can survive on half their usual food intake for an extended period and without any food for many days. Food, unlike water may be rationed safely, except for children, and pregnant women, diabetics and those with special needs. If your water supply is limited, try to avoid foods that are high in fat and protein, and don t stock salty foods, since they will make you thirsty. Try to eat salt-free crackers, whole-grain cereals and canned foods with high liquid content. Special Considerations As you stock food, take into account your family s unique needs and taste. Try to include foods that they will enjoy and that are also high in calories and nutrition. Foods that require no refrigeration, preparation or cooking are best. Individuals with special diets and allergies will need particular attention, as will babies, toddlers and the elderly. Nursing mothers may need liquid formula, in case they are unable to nurse. Canned foods, juices and soups may be helpful for the ill or elderly. Make sure you have a manual can opener and disposable utensils, and don t forget non-perishable foods for your pets. Shelf Life of Stored Food Here are some general guidelines for rotating emergency foods: Don't store longer than six months: Powdered milk (boxed) Dried fruit (in sealed container) Dry, crisp crackers (in sealed container) Potatoes Don't store longer than one year: Canned meat and condensed vegetable soups Canned fruits, fruit juices and vegetables Ready-to-eat cereals and uncooked instant cereals (in containers) Peanut butter & jams (if seal unbroken) Hard candy, chocolate bars and canned nuts May be stored indefinitely (in proper containers and conditions): Wheat Salt White Rice Dried Corn Non-carbonated drinks Vegetable Oils Soybeans Bouillon products Powdered milk (in nitrogen-packed cans) Dry Pasta Baking powder Instant coffee, tea & cocoa PAGE 26 PAGE 27

15 If there is a Power Failure First, use perishable food and foods from the refrigerator Then use foods from the freezer. To minimize the number of times you open the freezer door, post a list of freezer contents on it. In a well-filled, wellinsulated freezer, foods will usually still have ice crystals in their centres (meaning the foods are safe to eat) for possibly up to three days Finally, begin to use non-perishable foods and staples How to Cook if the Power Goes Out For emergency cooking: Use a barbeque, a charcoal grill or camp stove, outdoors only You can also heat food indoors using candle warmers, chafing dishes and fondue pots Caution! The cooking area should be safely vented to prevent Carbon Monoxide poisoning. Canned foods can be eaten right out of the can. If you heat it in the can, be sure to open the can and remove the label first. Preventing Food Poisoning Food poisoning can be easily prevented by following some guidelines on the storage and preparation of food. Foods that do not require refrigeration are: Fresh vegetables Fruit Bread Dried pasta Flour Canned foods The following foods can be hazardous if not stored properly and must be kept at a temperature of 4 degrees Celsius (39.2 degrees Fahrenheit) or lower or must be kept frozen at 18 degrees Celsius (-0.4 degrees Fahrenheit) or lower: All meat products including beef, poultry, fish and pork All dairy products including cream, milk, cheeses, and eggs Frozen foods, if thawed and kept at room temperature higher than 4 degrees Celsius (39.2 degrees Fahrenheit) for longer than 4 hours must be thrown out and not cooked or eaten Storing foods properly without refrigeration The hazardous foods noted above must be stored at temperatures 4 degrees Celsius or lower (use thermometers to be sure of temperature). Bacteria grows at temperatures between 5 degrees Celsius and 60 degrees Celsius Food can be stored in coolers if individually wrapped. To keep cooler at required temperature, fill with ice or ice packs and keep covered to help insulate AVOID-any food prepared with mayonnaise or any foods that have been cooked and kept without refrigeration Keep raw foods separate from prepared foods Prevent meats from dripping on other foods by placing them on the bottom of the cooler (drippings can cause contamination) PAGE 28 PAGE 29

16 If a power outage occurs, cover freezers with blankets for extra insulation Do not refreeze thawed foods Do not eat foods that have come in contact with flood water or sewage water, or smoke damaged from a fire A good rule when dealing with food is when in doubt, throw it out Without power, a full upright or chest freezer will keep food frozen for about two days. A half-full freezer will keep food frozen for one day. Keep the door shut as much as possible. The refrigerator will keep food cool for 4-6 hours, depending on the kitchen temperature and keeping the door closed as much as possible. Ice can keep food on the refrigerator shelves cooler. Check the temperature of the food to ensure that it is 4 degrees Celsius or lower. Preparing an Emergency Water Supply In a disaster, you might be unable to get food; water and the electricity supply could be interrupted for days. By preparing emergency provisions, you can turn what could be a life-threatening situation into a manageable problem. Water: the Absolute Necessity Stocking water reserves and learning how to purify contaminated water should be your top priority in preparing for an emergency. You should store at least a threeday supply of water for each member of your family. Everyone s needs will differ, depending upon age, physical condition, activity, diet and climate. A normally active person needs to drink at least two litres of water each day. Hot environments can double that amount. Children, nursing mothers and people who are ill will need more. You will need additional water for food preparation and hygiene. Store at least four litres per person per day. Washing hands properly before handling food is important in the prevention of food poisoning. Although it may seem basic, proper handwashing is not always practiced. Washing hands should take a minimum of 15 seconds. If supplies begin to run low, remember: Never ration water. Drink the amount you need today, and try to find more for tomorrow. You can minimize the amount of water your body needs by reducing activity and staying cool. PAGE 30 Please follow these steps: Wet hands with running water Apply soap in the middle of wet hands Lather well Use vigorous friction by rubbing the hands together Pay attention to your nails and between fingers and thumbs Rinse hands thoroughly with running water Pat hands dry with a paper towel Turn water tap off with paper towel If running water is not available, follow the above steps using a bucket or pail of potable water (see article on making potable water). If a water source of any kind is not available, liquid hand sanitizer is recommended. Hidden Water Sources in Your Home If a disaster catches you without a stored supply of clean water, you can use water in your hot-water tank, in your plumbing and in ice cubes. As a last resort, you can use water in the reservoir tank of your toilet (not the bowl), but purify it first. To use the water in your pipes, let air into the plumbing by turning on the highest faucet in your house and draining the water from the lowest one. PAGE 31

17 To use the water in your hot-water tank, be sure the electricity or gas is off, and open the drain at the bottom of the tank. Start the water flowing by turning off the water intake valve and turning on a hot-water faucet. Do not turn on the gas or electricity when the tank is empty. Do you know the location of your incoming water valve? It is normally located in the basement. You ll need to shut it off to stop contaminated water from entering your home if you hear reports of broken water or sewage lines. Before storing your water, treat it with a disinfectant, such as chlorine bleach, to prevent the growth of micro-organisms. Use liquid bleach that contains 5.25 per cent sodium hypochlorite. Do not use scented bleaches, colour-safe bleaches or bleaches with added cleaners. When using bleach to purify water, use household bleach that contains hypochlorite as the only active ingredient and use only the small quantities in the instructions that follow. Bottled water should be cycled periodically taking into account best before dates. Emergency Outdoor Water Sources Four Easy Ways to Purify Water You can use these outdoor sources, but purify the water before drinking it. Avoid water with floating material, an odour or dark colour. Rainwater Streams, rivers Ponds and lakes Natural springs Contaminated water can contain micro-organisms that cause diseases such as dysentery, cholera, typhoid and hepatitis. You must purify all water of uncertain purity before using it for drinking, food preparation or hygiene. There are many ways to purify water. None are perfect. Often the best solution is a combination of methods. Before purifying, let any suspended particles settle to the bottom, or strain them through layers of paper towel or clean cloth. How to Store Emergency Water Supplies Purification methods PAGE 32 Store your water in thoroughly washed plastic, glass, fibreglass or enamel-lined metal containers. Never use a container that has held toxic substances, because tiny amounts may remain in the container s pores. Hard plastic containers, such as soft drink bottles, are best. You can also purchase food-grade plastic buckets or drums. These measures will kill microbes but will not remove other contaminants such as heavy metals, salts, and most other chemicals. 1. Boiling is the safest method of purifying water. Bring water to a rolling boil for one minute, keeping in mind that some water will evaporate. Let the water cool before drinking. Boiled water will taste better if you put oxygen back into it by pouring it back and forth between two containers. This will also improve the taste of stored waters. PAGE 33

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