2 Topics 1) Primary Obligation: Fun, Fundamentals & Safety a) Keep It Fun! b) Make It Safe c) Teach Solid Fundamentals 2) 4 Tenets of Training a) Consistency b) Capacity c) Frequency d) Mixture/Balance 3) Training Phases 4) Special Considerations a) Nutrition b) Growth c) Life Style 5) Progressions 6) Predispositions 7) Benefits 8) Example Alana Hadley
3 Primary Obligations Working with young runners is a privilege We are helping the next generation of athletes get a solid start in the sport Primary obligations of a coach working with young runners: Keep It Fun Make It Safe Teach Solid Fundamentals
4 Keeping It Fun As Adults, kids will take cues from us we set the tone. It s about: Attitude, Attitude, Attitude Get To not Have To Mentality Never use running as a punishment Never force a kid to run
5 Make It Safe Enthusiastic kids tend to over do it Fast kids want to race everything Most kids believe more is better Most kids lack patience Structure helps ensure safety Proper structure doesn t eliminate fun, it helps preserve it Structure should be based around the fundamentals Individualize as much as possible Every kid is different Develop small groups of similar ability/level
6 Teaching Fundamentals We are coaches of people not just bodies Fundamentals is something that will stay with the young runner their whole life. The easiest and most effective time for them to learn the fundamentals is when they first start in the sport. Stress & Recover Principle Fight against the Rocky Montage, it doesn t work in distance running They don t get all the benefits of the hard work until they have recovered from it Make sure they know the purpose of each run Warm-Ups and Cool-Downs Proper use of dynamic and static stretching Form & Strength Work on instilling proper form increases efficiency & reduces injuries Strong core and proper balance between muscle groups Proper execution of different types of workouts / runs Define success proper execution and proper effort
7 The 4 Tenets of Training Kids are people too (sort of). The same basic physiological principles we use as adults apply to kids as well. Many of the same things that get adults into trouble are the same things that get kids into trouble: mainly increasing quantity or quality too quickly I believe there are 4 basic tenets to training distance runners: Consistency Capacity Frequency Mixture And if we balance them together (each with the others), they provide a synergy of fitness we can not get by focusing on 1 or 2 tenets alone.
8 Consistency The body adapts most favorably to what it does on a consistent basis Running is an endurance sport that is more dependent on fitness than skill. Consistency In Training: Stringing together multiple stress and recover cycles without interruption Reducing or eliminating interruptions to training Produces a stair-step effect to fitness over time A major key to maximizing improvement in distance running is the ability to string together long periods of consistent training. To Be Consistent, Training Must Be Sustainable We can not allow sustained deficiencies (in energy, nutrients, rest, etc.) Training must be done in a way that it can be repeated micro-cycle after micro-cycle
9 Capacity Sustainable capacity is one of the greatest tools a distance runner can have to help them realize their maximum potential. Capacity is the amount of work you can handle on a sustainable basis The quantity of work The amount of quality in the work To Build Up Sustainable Capacity Has to be done very slowly over time Increases in capacity have be small and incremental Long adaptation period before another increase is introduced If rushed it will often lead to injury or burn-out Ultimately each individual will have their own maximum useful capacity, based on genetics, lifestyle and other factors.
10 Frequency The body adapts well to things it does regularly, and poorly to things it does not do regularly. Every time we run our bodies make some further adaptations to running or maintain some existing adaptations to running. Every day we do not run we lose some of adaptations to running. Because of this we are often better off running easily rather taking a day off during the recovery portion of the stress and recover cycle. Running is a very specific sport, so cross training while good for general fitness and maintaining some aerobic conditioning, does not fully prepare you for running nor maintain all of the adaptations to running. Similar to capacity, frequency needs to be increased slowly over a long period of time, with changes made small and incremental and significant adaptation time permitted before being increased again.
11 Mixture Once a base level of fitness is obtained, stress workouts can be slowly added: long runs, speed workouts and tempo runs. I use a 3 Category 6 Training Zone system of stress workouts: Category Zone Type/Pace Speed Zone 1 Repeats done at 800 to 3k race pace Zone 2 Repeats done at 5k to 10k race pace Stamina Zone 3 Tempo or repeats done at (LT) 15k to HM pace Zone 4 Tempo run done at (AT) 30k to Marathon pace Endurance Zone 5 Steady State Long Run Zone 6 Easy Pace Long Run All areas of running are interconnected, so a weakness in one area will eventually hold back other areas as well or cause stagnation. For a new or young runners I recommend a balanced approach to workout mixture, working regularly on speed, stamina and endurance, to develop all around running fitness. This will aid their continual all around development in running, and allow them to find areas of natural weakness and strengths.
12 Speed Stamina Endurance Training Phases Training Cycle 6-12 weeks 8-16 weeks Race Peak Race Specific Specific Phase Focus on race specific demands Increase in race pace work Fundamental Phase Good mixture of workouts Shore up weaknesses Advancing balanced running fitness Ability/chance to race a variety of distances 1-3 weeks Regeneration Regeneration Phase Rest Recharge batteries (mentally/physically) Easy aerobic running I recommend that young runners stay in the Fundamental Phase year round except for a couple of short regeneration breaks. Save Specific Phase training until they have something meaningful to peak for later in their careers, or if a Specific Phase is used then keep it short (4-6 weeks). By doing this they will see the greater continual develop as a runner, experience a multitude of racing distances, and establish where their interests and predispositions lay.
13 Special Considerations There are special considerations we need to make in dealing with kids. Nutrition Growth/Maturation Life Style
14 Nutrition We need to teach kids that nutrition is part of training. That they can sabotage the hard work they are doing in practice by not eating properly or eating enough. Focal Points: Balanced Healthy Diet good mixture, healthier foods Eat Enough! Kids must not under run their caloric burn rates Calcium/Vitamin D recent study found that the average high school girl only gets 50% of the calcium she should be getting for proper health and development. Body needs sufficient Vitamin D to absorb the calcium. Iron becomes a bigger issue after puberty Healthy Fats Incredibly important, especially for girls Hydration developing healthy habits
15 Growth Often kids go through growth spurts, not even/consistent growth, and this causes changes in performance. During growth spurts, a young runner s performance often will stagnate or regress slightly. But their bodies adapt best to the growth spurt if we remain mostly consistent with their schedules. Effort Trumps Time doing a workout at the proper effort level is what matters as long as we do that we get the benefit from it, regardless of what the watch says. Effort is the goal, time/pace is our guide
16 Life Style Kids lives are complex and can be very stressful Academics Family Friends/Social Athletics Many have a hard time finding a balance in their life Where running fits in to this balance will determine what they can handle in training Running/Training can also be a great stress relief Sleep: epidemic of high school kids not sleeping enough Similar to nutrition, sleep/rest is a important element of training
17 Progressions Coaches Should Plan Ahead What is the logical next step(s) for young runner How do we begin to prepare them for the next step Progressions / Next Steps Small and incremental steps Plenty of time for their bodies to adjust / get the benefits of the change before another change is introduced. Flexible Timing Keep the time frames for next step(s) flexible Growth/Life Style considerations can and will cause changes to the schedule. Anytime we are dealing with kids, all plans should be done in pencil.
18 Predisposition Over time, you may notice certain predisposition in young runners that will begin to give you a clue as to ultimately what direction/events they wish to head in and where their best chance for success is. The higher the level they get to in the sport the more apparent some of these predispositions become Physical Predispositions: Muscle Fiber Make-Up Muscular-Skelatal Build Mental Predispositions: Personality Predisposition towards certain types of fatigue
19 Benefits Running is a GREAT sport for kids, one with tons of benefits. Physical Benefits Cardio-vascular health Regulation of energy levels Weight control (anti childhood obesity) Mental Benefits Discipline Focus Memory XC teams usually have one of the highest GPA averages of any sports Emotional Benefits Stress Relief Self Esteem Ability To Deal With Peer Pressure
20 Example Alana Hadley Year: 2011 Age: 14 Height: Highlights Mar Win Corporate Cup Half Marathon 1:21:15 Apr - Win VertKlasse Meeting 5,000 17:06 Apr - Win Radford Invitational 10,000 36:15 Sep Virginia Beach Rn R Half Marathon 1:17:15* Nov Savannah Rn R Half Marathon 1:16:58** Dec Foot Locker Finalist as a freshman * 1 st American & World Single Age Record (14 yr olds) ** 3 rd Overall & World Single Age Record (14 yr olds) (5:52 per mile avg. 5k in 17:52 and 10k in 36:10 enroute)
21 Example - Start Running As A Positive Grew up around running Mom and Dad were runners Always has thought of running in a positive light First begged to go on a run at age 3 Started running on a semi-regular basis at age 6 Ran first 5k road race at age 6 and fell in love with it Kept asking when we could go to another running festival
22 Example - Progression Age Runs per week Weekly Total Type of runs Times miles all easy 5k - 29: miles all easy 5k - 25: miles mostly easy, occasional fartlek 5k - 23: miles occasional fartlek or short tempo 5k - 21: miles introduced long runs 5k - 19: miles good mixture 5k - 18: miles good mixture 5k - 17: miles good mixture 10k - 38: miles good mixture 5k - 17: miles good mixture 8k 29: miles good mixture HM 1:21: miles good mixture HM - 1:16:58
23 Example - Fundamentals Alana has set warm-up and cool-down routines for various workout types Weekly Routine Includes: 2 drill/strength circuits per week 4 core circuit per week Perpetual Fundamental Phase no peaking, just sustainable work focused on improving all around balanced running fitness 3 stress workouts per week Minimum of 1-2 easy days between stress workouts 1 stress workout focused on speed 1 stress workout focused on stamina 1 stress workout focused on endurance
24 Example Drill/Strength Drill / Strength Circuit (25-30 minutes) 1) High Knees - 2 sets of 50 meters 2) Butt Kicks - 2 sets of 50 meters 3) Paw Skips (b-skips) 2 sets of 40 meters 4) Walking Lunges 2 sets of 25 meters 5) Cone Hops 2 sets of 24 cones 6) Diagonal Cone Hopes 2 sets of 24 cones 7) Acceleration Sprints - 6 x 100 meters 8) Box Step 2 sets of 20 (each leg) Pictures/Videos of Each: Core Circuit (5-10 minutes) 1) Push-Ups 2 sets 2) Bicycle Crunches 2 sets 3) Prone Alternate Arm-Leg Raises 2 sets 4) Dynamic Plank 2 sets 5) Single Leg Bridges 2 sets
25 Example Nutrition Healthy Appetite eats a lot and a good variety (fruits, veggies, grains, meat, dairy, junk) Make sure she had plenty of sources of health fats (nuts, seeds, etc.) Blood test once every 4 months checking CBC, Ferritin, Vitamin D Takes supplements : Iron (2 days on 1 day off) Calcium (every day) Vitamins D & C (every day) Multi-Vitamin (every other day)
26 Example Life Style Balanced lifestyle is a must for Alana: Academics straight A student in honors classes Family good sister, works with her little sister, supports brother Service teaches a Faith Formation class to first graders Social lots of friends (good mix of runners and non runners) Groups involved in various Chorus Groups Hobbies reading, singing, texting/facebook Sleep huge sleeper (9-11 hrs a night)
27 Example Predispositions Alana s Predispositions Alana has a strong physical predisposition for distance running Small, strong bone structure Long legs in comparison to torso Strong ligaments (never been injured) Small calves Alana s has a very strong mental predisposition for the longer distance races Diligent Personality Handles energy system fatigue extremely well Enjoys and excels at long runs and tempo runs Interests and predispositions seem to both indicate her best events may eventually be the longer races (half marathon to marathon).
COPYRIGHT 2004-2007 All rights reserved The Truth about Six Pack Abs by Michael Geary Certified Nutrition Specialist Certified Personal Trainer Founder TruthAboutAbs.com & BusyManFitness.com Special thanks
The Vertical Jump Development Bible I increased my vertical jump by 19 inches- I m gonna show you how to increase yours too! By: Kelly Baggett Higher-Faster-Sports Copyright 2005 by Higher-Faster-Sports.com
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