The Extent to Which Human Resources Managers in the Kuwaiti Insurance Sector Perceived the Modern Roles Human Resources Management

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1 The Extent to Which Human Resources Managers in the Kuwaiti Insurance Sector Perceived the Modern Roles Human Resources Management Abstract Dr. Salah A. Alabduljader Assistant Professor, Department of Administration - Faculty of Business Studies, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training - Kuwait This study aimed at investigating the extent to which human resources managers in the Kuwaiti insurance sector perceives the modern roles of Human Resources Management.The study population consisted of Managers of human resources in the insurance sector of Kuwait wand a number of these companies is 33 companies, with a comprehensive survey of those companies. 23 questionnaires has been recovered to identify valid statistical analysis. The study concluded the following: 1. There is a high level of awareness among the managers of human resources of the modern roles of Human Resources Management 2. There is a difference in the level of awareness of human resource managers of the roles of the modern roles of Human Resources Management due to the (practical experience),. 3. There is no difference in the level of awareness of human resource managers of the roles of the modern roles of Human Resources Management due to the qualification. The study recommended the necessity of developing the roles management of human resources and training managers on how to use them. Keywords: Human resources, modern roles of Human Resources Management, insurance sector. Kuwaiti Introduction Human resources management became obliged to provide an effective administration to the employees and to set up the plans that they should execute, review and sustain within an appropriate environment for interaction. As performance is an important issue for the organization either in short and long run as a base for success, there should be efficient and effective individuals, to accomplish this, therefore, here comes role of the human resources to confront this huge task in an efficient and effective matter. 253

2 Wright (1992, p. 92) sees that the role of human resources management became multiple and complex, and should include analytical, creative and diagnostically roles in every activity of the human resources management represented in the analytical and diagnostically roles in connection with forming the human resources strategy that is complying with the organizational strategy, the effective role of the human resources management is represented by the continuous interaction and the integrated link between this management, and the top management. The human resources department helps in determine a mission and the purposes of the organization through analyzing the opportunities and threats of the human resources, in addition to the strong and weak points that are exist in the human resources in the organization. The role of human resources management in the organizations cited a huge development in the role it plays during the last decade. Therefore, it was very important to know the extent of human resources managers perception of the modern roles of these departments. 2. Importance Of The Study The study's importance is demonstrated through the following points: 1. The study's importance stems from the importance of its subject regarding the recent roles of the human resources management in the aim to attract the human resources managers attention about their responsibility to take decisions and to grasp the modern roles of the human resources. 2. The importance of the researched sector in the national economy, as the success of the insurance companies in the state of Kuwait, which are under research through adopting the information technology for the human resources will be reflected on the national economy. 3. The study handles the modern subjects which participate in the treatment of human resources management problems, in addition to enriching the library with this type of studies. 3. The Study's Problem And Elements: As a result of the role that the human element can play in the organization's progress and upgrading its performance on one hand, and the transform of the human resources management from a specialized department concerned with the workers affairs as an absolute administrative job, to be one of the basic jobs in the organization, that has the same importance of the other functions in the organization because it is related to the human element with its highest importance in regard with the organization's productivity on the other hand, therefore, the aim of this study is represented by measuring the extent of the human resources managers perception of the modern roles of the human resources managements. 254

3 In other words, the study's problem can be grasped through answering the following questions: 1. What is the extent of the human resources managers perception of the new roles of the human resources managements in the insurance sector? 2. Is there any difference in the perception level of the human resources managers to the new roles of the human resources managements attributed to the (practical experience, the scientific qualification)? 4. The Study's Hypothesis By reviewing the relative literature and the light of what is demonstrated in the study's introduction, problem and elements and depending on the above mentioned questions, and to fulfill the study's objectives the following hypothesizes have been formed: 1. The first hypothesis H0: there is no high level of perception at the human resources managers to the modern roles cited b by the human resources administration. 2. The second hypothesis H0: there is no difference in the level of the extent of perception of the human resources managers to the new roles that the human resources managements cited attributed to the (practical experience, the scientific qualification). 5. The Study's Objectives Based on what is mentioned so far, the study seeks to achieve the following objectives: 1. Determine the extent of perception of the human resources managers to the new roles cited by the human resources management. 2. Determine the extent of existence of a difference in the level of perception of the human resources manager to the (Practical experience, the scientific qualification). 3. Attempt to provide documented and credible information to persons on charge of the human resources management and the executive managers in the researched companies about the new role that the departments must adopt regarding the human department management. 6. The Study's Methodology The study followed the descriptive analytical methodology to determine the perception extent of the human resources managers of the modern roles cited by the human resources management. 255

4 7. The Study's Population The study's Population included the human resources departments managers in the Kuwaiti insurance sector, which is consisted of 33 companies provided with questionnaires retrieved 23 questionnaire of t hem available for the statistical analysis. 8. The Theoretical Side And The Previous Studies According to Wrigh (1992: P92) the human resources management plays an important role to facilitate the interactions and communications between the various units in the organization and to support the creative thoughts which lead to a new strategies that take their way to discussion and study by the top management. Jawad (2000, p 272), see that the human resources management includes analyzing and managing the human resources at the organization to guarantee achieving the targeted objectives, therefore, this process is concerned with planning the human resources and selecting the appropriate elements and appointing them, and upgrading and assessing their performance. According to Al-Adlouni (2002, p6) sees changes of the world of today, a new managerial directions appeared t hat represent a different philosophy from the management's previous ideas and this philosophy is reflected on the organizations and their procedures in confronting the changes. As Ulrich (1997) sees that the changes in the work site require changes in the rapture and model of the human resources management, however, many of the factors that form the future of the human resources management remain on issue difficult to predict. The role of the human resources management became very important in most of the modern organizations and the job of the human resources management requires specialists able to balance the ethical and legal concerns, in addition to the organizations need to survive and achieve profits. However, the human resources management became more than a legal management for the organization, as the top management began to perceive that the human resources if managed properly, might become an important source of the competitive source of the competitive advantage in a world the competition became increasing. In fact, the human resources as considered one of the most important resources in the organization, where recruiting the individuals and Providing them with the proper abilities a highly influence the quality of work (Denisis & Grifin, 2005). 256

5 Jackson & Schuler (2000) See that the human resources systems and practices were linked to the organizational competition and productivity increase and the high profitability in addition to high work quality. Pickles et al. (1999) see that in order to complete the link between the human resources and the organizational success, the role of the human resources should be strategic and not operative, and the function of the human resources management must comply with the strategically needs of the organization. Brewster (1995) sees that merging the human resources management with the work strategy is scare, even in the big organizations and (Down et al., 1997) Say that many managerial teams faced difficulties in transforming the human resources in to strategically function, and the human resources divisions remained in most of the organizations focusing on the managerial sides of the human resources management due to the difficulties they face in merging the human resources management with the organizational objects. As Walker (1999) sees that the strategies of human resources management need to be merge red with the organizational strategies and to focus on all the efforts to accomplish the strategy including selection, appointment, rewards, performance, and the workers relationships and to set up an achievable plan. Dolan & Balkin (2000) see that among the important roles appeared to the human resources management are as follows: 1. Linking: It is expected that the human resources managers will link the human resources with the work, which in return will increase the human resources participation in the long run in the strategically directions of the organization and also to emphasize these activities. 2. Control: In spite of that the human resources specialists authorizes many human resources activities to some managers, they remain responsible of controlling the human resources programs. 3. Creativity: Organizations require from the human resources managements creative procedures and solutions to develop the productivity and the work quality, and to commit to the law in the uncertainty environment and energy saving and the severe international competition. 4. Building the organization's culture: Building a strong culture aims participation in a group of administrative values that are supposed to be in favor of both the worker and the employer. 257

6 9. The Previous Studies Al Jaraidah study (2006)in his study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the human resources information system in the ministry of instruction and education through measuring the efficiency degree of such systems and knowing the problems that limit their effectiveness. Data have been collected from (120) manager work in this ministry and its administrations, and the study conclude that the degree of effectiveness of the human resources information system is high, and the problems that limit their effectiveness are the lack of the direct connection between the instruction and education administration and the ministry with the aim to exchange data and information in addition to not updating the data continuously, and the weak experience of the workers in this field, and the study recommended with the necessity of the continuous updating of the workers data, and establishing the applied programs to satisfy the continuous updating of the workers data, and establishing the applied programs to satisfy the continuous updating of the workers data, and establishing the applied programs to satisfy the continuous renewable work requirements. As Hiashat study (2005) determine that the efficiency and strategies of the human resources management at the Jordanian journalistic organizations represented in (planning the human resources selection and recruitment, and evaluating the workers performance and training the workers) and the relationship of this with the organizational performance. Data have been collected from (50) workers in the Jordanian Journalistic organizations, and the study concluded that there is a positive relationship between each of (efficiency and effectiveness of the human resources strategies and planning, selection and recruitment, evaluating the workers performance and training the workers) and the organizational performance. As Al-Eesaweh study (2005) concluded that there is a relationship with statistical significant between (Planning the human resources, selection and appointment, Evaluation of the workers performance, and workers training), and the extent of total quality application, and that there is a positive attitude towards total quality application, and recommended with the necessity of adopting an effective incentives system because of its importance in applying to total quality. The study also recommended quality. The study also recommended also with the necessity of interest in the evaluation processes and preparing the training programs to demonstrate the concept of quality. Al-Mahound Study (2004) aimed at determining the extent of understanding and awareness of the managers in the banks and insurance companies in Jordan with the concept of total quality management, and their attitudes towards applying the total quality management and the human resources management fields, in addition to determining the relationship that connects the total quality management with the human resources fields and total quality. Data from (57) managers of the human resources responsible of the quality in the banks and insurance companies have been collected, and the study concluded that the banks and the 258

7 insurances companies apply the total quality management and the human resources fields in a high degree, and that there is a positive correlation between the elements of the total quality management and the human resources fields, and positive correlation between each of the total quality management and the human resources fields with the quality performance. Obaidat Study (2003) aimed at determining the reality of the human resources strategy functions in the Jordanian banks sector, through determining the extent of strategic planning in the banks sector, through determining the extent of strategic planning in the banks sector in general and the extent of the strategic planning process for human resources management and the degree of applying the human resources management functions. Data from (40) mangers work in the human resources department have been collected. The study concluded that the Jordanian banks sector applies the human resources management functions at a high degree, and that there is a medium ability to connect the human resources management and the total strategic planning in the organization. Ruocchio study (2001) aimed at studying the human resources roles and strategies in the organizations in order to arrive to discovering the changeable role of the human resources activities. The study concluded that the role of the human resources have changed to become a strategic partner, and the study's results showed that such role also is changeable and the individual's characters in the organizations such as gender, position, and the organization's characters such as size, and structure of t he human resources department influence the human resources role as a strategic partner Sternberger study (2002) under the title "change of t he human resources role from the administrative role into strategic partnership in business". This study aimed at determining the changing nature in the human resources role and exploring the nature of transforming in the human resources roles and functions. The study conducted a survey through a quantitative measurement tool distributed among the human resources managers and their professionility. The researched population included (2000), and (300) respondents have been selected for the purposes of the study. The study concluded that there is a change in the human resources functions from the administrative role into partnership in strategic works, and that it is necessary to focus on strengthening the business relationships between the managers and leaders inside the organizations, reformation of t he role and functions of the human resources in a way that achieve the identified and measurable organization's purposes, in addition to the necessity to focus on the effective management of change and the continuous commitment in improving the professional skills. 259

8 10. The Analysis The study's sample is characterized as follows: The descriptive statistic has been used to find the frequencies and percentages of the study's sample, and the following results have been reached: 10.1 The Scientific Level Table (1) Distribution of the study's Sample according to the educational level Education level Frequency Percentage Secondary school or less - - Society Diploma 2 8.7% Higher studies % Total % We notice t hat 8.7% of the sample hold the diploma, 78.3% hold the bachelor degree and 13% hold the higher studies degrees Gender It has been shown that all the samples individuals were males, which means that the researched companies appoint males in the human resources manager job The Age Group Table (2) Distribution of the study's sample according to the age group Age group Frequency Percentage Less than 30 years - - From years % From years % More than 50 years % Total % We notice that 47.8% of the sample fall in the age group from (30-40) years, and 30.4% of the sample fall in the age group from (41-50) years and 21.7% of the sample exceed 45 years of age. 260

9 10.4 The Practical Experience In General Table (3) Distribution of the study's sample according to the practical experience The practical experience Frequency Percentage Less than 5 years - - From 5 years to less than 10 years % 10-less than 15 years % 15 years and more % Total % We notice that 17.4% of the sample have experience between (5-less than 10 years), 13% of the sample have experience between (10-less than 15) years, and 69.6% of the sample have experience more than 15 years. 11. Methods Of Data Collection The study depends on two types of data, the elementary and secondary data, where the secondary data is represented by the previous theoretical studies, the books and researches related to the study's subjects, while the elementary data is represented in developing a questionnaire to measure the relative variables and dimensions and the assumptions study. 12. The Questionnaire's Design The questionnaire included two major parts, the first part included the personal data for the participants (gender, age, qualification and number of years of experience), while the second part included statements measure the study's variables. Likert measure with five variables has been used to measure the study's variables and the following weights have been given to the study's criterion: Table (4) The criterion used in the study Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree

10 13. Reliability and Validity The Validity of the questionnaire has been tested by presenting the questionnaire to some arbitrators specialized in the management field. Their constructive suggestions have been used to amend the questionnaire and introduce it in its present form. Cronbach alpha test has been used to measure the extent of reliability of the measurement tool, where & for the questionnaire as a whole was equal to 92.2%, it is noted that all & values were greater than the accepted percentage (60%), which reflects the stability of the measurement tool, and this represents of the internal consistency stability (Malhotra, 2004m P268). 14. The Normal Distribution Test (K-S) test was used to test the extent of data following the normal distribution, where sig values for the study's variables were higher them 0.05, which shows that the data follow the normal distribution (Malhotra, 2004, P455). 15. The Statistical Treatment Methods The statistical package (SPSS) has been used in the purpose to analyze the data which have been collected through the study's questionnaire which included the following: 1. The descriptive statistic (Frequencies and percentages, mean and the standard deviation to describe the sample's answers of the study's statements. 2. One sample T-test to test the first hypothesis. 3. ONE Way ANOVA to test the second hypothesis. 16. Presentation Of The Study's Results Means and the standard deviations for the study's variables statements have been calculated and summarized in the following table: 262

11 Table (5) The arithmetic means and the standard deviations of the answers of the study's sample regarding the questionnaire's statements Number Statements The The standard arithmetic deviation mean 1- I have a clear imagination about the jobs The purposes of functions analysis purposes are determined clearly 3- The analysis process is conducted in a precise scientific method 4- Responsibilities and duties of each job is clear Conditions of the jobs occupiers are specified Include the employee in analyzing his Job The Planning Process of the human resources depends on a precise in formation 8- The planning process of the resources participates in specifying the needs of human resources 9- The planning process of the human resources helps in specifying the appropriate resources to obtain the efficient human resources. 10- The planning process of the human resources prepares the organization for the internal and external changes 11- The successful planning process of the human resources facilities completing the remaining functions of the human resources (employment, training, and wages, ). 12- The planning process of the human resources specifies the required qualifications and skills. 13- The planning process of the human resources participates in specifying the deficit or surplus in the organization. 14- The recruitment process participates in providing the proper and sufficient number with the less lost 15- The appropriate source (internal and external) to fill the vacancies is determined

12 Number Statements The The standard arithmetic deviation mean 16- Those who make the recruitment process enjoy the efficiency and experience. 17- The vacant positions are announced in all the media means. 18- The qualified individuals to occupy the vacant jobs are selected based on matching the candidate's efficiency and the job requirements. 20- The selection process is completed by clear procedures. 21- the candidate obtains a clear picture about the work and organization. 22- The organization is interested in the job description (the scientific qualification, experience,.). 23- The organization sets up a training and preparation programs for the recently appointed. 24- The employment policies are linked with the objectives and purposes. 25- The assessment process is competed according to objective basis. 26- The employee s assessment is conducted periodically. 27- The Evaluations standards are united for all the employees. 28- The employee s assessment system is applied to all the employees without any bias. 29- The assessors enjoy high efficiency and experience. 30- The employee discusses his assessment results with his direct boss. 31- The assessment system suggests procedures to improve the workers performance. 32- The management is interested with the assessment results to determine the weak points and attempt to avoid them. 33- The assessment results help in taking multiple decisions such as the training, promotion and wages decisions. 34- The assessment depends on the direct

13 Number Statements supervisor's opinion alone. 35- I feel that the assessment system is a development tool to help the employee to improve his performance 36- The organization's management is interested of preparing the training programs periodically in order to increase the employee s knowledge and development. 37- The return of training is measured after each training course. 38- The training process participates in entering new procedures to complete the work. 39- The training includes all the administrative levels. 40- Certain procedures are followed to assess the training effectiveness and the extent of its success in achieving the targeted objectives. The arithmetic mean The general average Source: Results of the statistical analysis. The standard deviation The above mentioned table indicates that the arithmetic means of the sample's answers on the previous statements are higher than the measurement tool mean (3), which reflects the positive attitudes of the sample towards this tool. It also shows that the statement number (14) is the least statement regarding the compliance of the sample's individuals, which reflects the compliance of the sample's individuals that the recruitment process aims at providing the appropriate number with the least cost. It also has been shown that statement (19) which states that the qualified individuals who are qualified to occupy the jobs based on matching between the candidates'". This is the most complying statement compared with the other statements. 17. The Assumptions Test Hypothesis (1) Ho: There is no high level of perception at the human resources managers of the modern human resources roles cited by the human resources management. 265

14 Table (6) Test of hypothesis (1) Calculated t Tabulated t SIGT Result of The Rull Hypothesis Rejection Source: Results of the statistical analysis. One sample T-test has been used, and by looking at the computer results in the previous table we find that (Calculated t = 8.551) is greater that its tabulated value at (0.05) level,, this means that there is no high level of perception at the human resources manager of the modern roles cited by the human resources management. Hypothesis (2) Ho: There is no difference in the level of perception extent of the human resources managers for the modern roles cited by the human resources management attributed to the (practical experience, the scientific qualification) Table (7) Test of hypothesis (2) Calculated F Tabulated F Sig-F Result The scientific Qualification No differences Experience No differences Source: the statistical analysis results. One Way ANOVA has been used to test the above mentioned hypothesis, it has been shown that there is a difference is the level of the perception level of the human resources managers for the modern role cited by the human resources attributed to the (practical experience), and it has been shown that the differences inclined to the favor of the low experience (15 years and more), while it has been shown that there is no difference in the level of the extent of perception of the human resources managers to the modern roles cited by the human resources management attributed to the scientific qualification. 266

15 18. Summary Of The Results The following results have been reached: There is a high level of perception at the human resources managers of the modern roles cited by the human resources management. There is a difference in the level of perception extent of the human resources managers to the modern roles cited by the human resources management attributed to the (practical experience) and the differences incline towards the favor of the lower experience holders (15 years and more) There is no difference in the level of the perception extent at the human resources managers of the modern roles cited by the human resources management attributed to the scientific qualification: The qualified individuals to occupy the jobs are selected based on matching between the candidate's efficiency and the job's requirements. Those who conduct the recruitment process enjoy the efficiency and experience. 19. Recommendations The researcher recommends as follows: Working to escort the developments in the human resources management field, in a manner that enables the companies to increase their efficiency in the field of using these managements in all the fields related to developing the workers. Conducting specialized training courses to the workers in the human resources management, in the aim to encourage them to work with high efficiency. The necessity to focus on assessing the appointment and promotion procedures in the company and to specify the strong and weak points in order to develop it. The concern of following the scientific procedures in planning the human resources in a manner reflected positively on the company. The concern of conducting, another studies about another important managements in the company, in the aim of benefiting from them in improving the level of insurance companies. 267

16 References Al- Jaraidah, Mohammad Sulaiman, Assessment of the effectiveness of the human resources information system at the ministry of instruction and education in Jordan, supervised by professor Dr. Sami Abullah Khasawneh, the higher studies college, the university of Jordan, 2006m Doctorate dissertation. Al-Adlouni, Mohammad Akram (2002), the organizational work, Amman, IBn Al-Hazm House for publication and distribution. Al-Hiasat, Khalid, The standards of measuring the efficiency and effectiveness of the human resources management strategy and its relationship with the organizational Performance in the Jordanian Journalism organization from the managers point of view, Amman Arabic University for graduate studies, Jordan, 2005 unpublished Doctorate dissertation. Al-Mahmoud, Nisreen, The relationship between the total quality management and the human resources fields and their impact on the performance a field study in the banks and insurance companies sectors in the banks and insurance companies sectors in Jordan, Al-Yermouk University 2004m unpublished master dissertation. DeNisis,A., and Griffin,R. (2005), Human Resource Management, Boston: trogon Mifflin Company. Down, J. W, Mardis, W., Connolly, T. R. and Johnson, S, (1997) A Strategic Model, HR Focus, Vol 74 No.6, pp Edsaweh, Haitham Elias, the impact of human resources management on the extent of applying the total quality in the independent organizations in Jordan, Supervised by Dr. Mohammad Abdul-Fatah Yaghi, university of Jordan, Graduate studies college, 2005, master dissertation. Eichinger, R. (1997). It d de-ja future all over again: Are you getting ready? Human Resource Planning, 18 (4). Jackson, S. E. and Schuler, R. S. ( 2000) Managing Human Resources, A partnership Perspective, London : South Western College Publishing. Jawad Shawai Naji (2000), Business administration from a total perception, Al-Hamed house. Malhotra, N. K. (2004), Marketing research, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Obaidat, Shatha Mahmoud Ibrahim, the reality of the human resouces management strategy in the strategic banking sector,, Al-yermouk university, 2003m Master dissertation. 268

17 Pickles, L. J, Bookbinder S. M, and Watts, C. H. ( 1999), Building The Human Resource Value chain, Employment Relations today, Vol. 25, N0. 4, p 21 Ruocchio, C.R. (2001). The Changing Role of The Human Resources Function: from Administrative to strategic Business partner. (M. S., San Jose State University), sited on 5/2/2004 Sternberger, W.B. (2002). The Changing Role of The Human Resource Profession: the trans formation of the HR function from an administrative, transactional orientation into a strategic business partnership. (ph.d, Union Institute and University), sited on 15/12/2003 Ulrich, D. ( 1997), Human Resource Champions, Michigan : Harvard Business School Press Walker, J.( 1999) What Makes a great human resource strategy? Human Resource Planning, Vol 22 No. 1 pp Wright, P. Machmahan, G., (1992) Theoretical perspectives for strategic Human resource management, Journal of management, vol 18:

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