1 A new species of Silene sect. Dipterosperma (Caryophyllaceae) from Sicily Cristian Brullo 1, Salvatore Brullo 1*, Gianpietro Giusso del Galdo 1, Vincenzo Ilardi 2 & Saverio Sciandrello 1 1 Dipartimento di Botanica, Università di Catania, via A. Longo 19, I Catania, Italy; 2 Dipartimento di Biologia Ambientale e Biodiversitá, via Archirafi 38, I Palermo, Italy Abstract Brullo, C., Brullo, S., Giusso del Galdo, G., Ilardi, V. & Sciandrello, S A new species of Silene sect. Dipterosperma (Caryophyllaceae) from Sicily. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 69(2): Silene kemoniana, a new species of the section Dipterosperma from NW Sicily, is described and illustrated. It is a therophyte that occurs in mountains near Palermo, where it grows on Mesozoic limestones in xerophilous garigues. Its relationships with S. colorata and allied species are also examined. A key of the species belonging to sect. Dipterosperma is provided. Keywords: Caryophyllaceae, Silene kemoniana sp. nov., taxonomy, chorology, ecology, morphology, Sicily. Resumen Brullo C., Brullo S., Giusso del Galdo G., Ilardi V. & Sciandrello, S Una nueva especie de Silene sect. Dipterosperma (Caryophyllaceae) de Sicilia. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 69(2): (en inglés). Se describe e ilustra Silene kemoniana, una nueva especie del NW de Sicilia perteneciente a la sección Dipterosperma. Se trata de un terófito que habita en algunas montañas próximas a Palermo, donde crece sobre calizas mesozoicas entre matorrales mediterráneos xerófilos. Se estudian sus relaciones con S. colorata y otras especies próximas. Se ofrece una clave para todas las especies pertenecientes a la sect. Dipterosperma. Palabras clave: Caryophyllaceae, Silene kemoniana sp. nov., taxo nomía, corología, ecología, morfología, Sicilia. INTRODUCTION Silene L. is the largest genus of the Caryophyllaceae with about 700 species distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, mostly in Europe, Asia and North Africa (Greuter, 1995). A rather critical group within this genus is represented by the annual populations usually grouped under Silene colorata Poiret s.l., that are widely distributed across the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian regions. Previous authors (Maire, 1963; Pignatti, 1982; Talavera, 1990; Chater & al., 1993; Valsecchi, 1995; Greuter, 1997) have considered S. colorata to be a very variable species, encompassing differences in leaf shape, calyx indumentum, petals, capsule, carpophore and seeds. It is included in the sect. Dipterosperma (Rohrb.) Chowdhuri, which groups taxa with the following characters: annual and eglandular herbs, with hermaphrodite, erect flowers, arranged in monochasia or dichasia, the calyx hairy, not inflated, with 10 nerves, anthophore pubescent, petals with the limb deeply bifid and claw not or slightly auriculate, coronal scales present, seeds orbicular-reniform, with flat surfaces that are dorsally furrowed between 2 undulate wings. To treat this variability, several taxa at specific or infraspecific levels have been described within this critical group, and some of these still require further study. During field work carried out in northern Sicily, an odd population of plants closely related to the Silene colorata group was encountered. After a revision of the taxonomic literature and herbarium specimens, it became evident that these plants were quite different from the hitherto known taxa of this group. The most marked diagnostic characters include its small habit, the stem that is branched only at the base and is prostrate-ascending, the few-flowered inflorescence, and petals with very narrow lobes. We believe that such morphological features deserve the recognition of the Sicilian plant as a new species, namely Silene kemoniana. The specific epithet refers to Kemonia, a small river that originates in the mountains near Palermo. MATERIAL AND METHODS Morphometric analyses were carried out on living plants at the original population site. For the taxonomic comparison with Silene colorata and allied species, herbarium material at CAT, and in some cases, living plants cultivated in the Botanical Garden of Catania, were used. The micromorphology of the seed testa was studied on dried material with the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) Zeiss EVO LS10, according to the Huttunen and Laine (1983) protocol. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Silene kemoniana C. Brullo, Brullo, Giusso, Ilardi & Sciandr., sp. nov. (Figs. 1, 2A, 2B) A Sileni colorata differt habito prostrato-adscendente, prope basim ramoso, caulibus simplicibus, 5-15(20) cm longis, articulis usque ad 4 cm long, inflorescentia (1)2-4(5)-floribus, in monochasio dispositis, pedunculis usque ad 15 mm longis, calice mm longo, dentibus oblongis, brevioribus, petalo breviore, lobis lineari-spathulatis, brevioribus, subtilibus mm latis, squamis coronulae eroso-incisis, longioribus, ungue glabro dorsaliter, antheris roseis, capsula longiore, carpophoro breviore, semina latiore. Type: Sicilia, Palermo, monti presso San Martino delle Scale, in garighe su substrati carbonatici, 17.IV.2012, C. Brullo, S. Brullo, G. Giusso del Galdo & V. Ilardi s.n. (holotype, CAT; isotypes; CAT, FI, MA, PAL). * Corresponding author.
2 210 C. Brullo & al. Fig. 1. Silene kemoniana: a, habit; b, flower (lateral view); c, flower (upper view); d, petal (dorsal view); e, petal (ventral view); f, petal (lateral view); g, coronal scale; h, open calyx; i, calyx lobes; j, stamens; k, carpophore and pistil; l, calyx and capsule; m, carpophore and closed capsule; n, carpophore and open capsule; o, seed (lateral view). Based on C. Brullo & al. s.n. (CAT).
3 A new species of Silene sect. Dipterosperma 211 Annual herb 5-15(20) cm, stem branched only at the base, prostrate-ascending, pilose-pubescent, green-purplish. Ascending branches undivided, with internodes 5-40 mm long. Leaves mm, flat, 1-nerved, spathulate, green to green-purplish. Inflorescence lax, (1)2-4(5) flowered. Bracts ovate (in particular those of the lower flowers). Flowers erect, in terminal helicoid monochasia. Pedicels 3-15 mm. Calyx mm, minutely pubescent, subtubulose, green-purplish, umbilicate at the base, 10-nerved, without anastomosis; teeth mm, rounded, oblong, with margin membranous, densely ciliate. Petals mm; limb mm, deeply two-lobed, pink, with lobes mm, linearspathulate, rounded, and coronal scales mm, fused, retuse, erose-incised; claw 7-8 mm, white, glabrous, often with few cilia at margin. Stamens shorter than petals; filament 9-10 mm, white; anthers mm, pink. Ovary mm, glabrous, green. Styles 3, filiform. Capsule 8-10 mm, ellipsoid-ovoid. Carpophore 4-5 mm, pubescent. Seeds mm in diameter, orbicular-reniform, flat-concave laterally, alate and deeply canaliculate dorsally, with wings undulate, dark brown. Seed morphology. According to studies by Esau (1977), Barthlott (1984) and Gontcharova & al. (2009), the seed coat morphology is a constant character in many groups of plants, and it can permit good differentiation between species, and so is an important diagnostic taxonomic feature. Furthermore, the testa micromorphology can be a character that is so unequivocal that it may also have a phylogenetic value, as indicated by some recent studies (Johnson & al., 2004; Attar & al., 2007; Moazzeni & al., 2007). In the genus Silene, several authors have investigated the seed morphology of many species, and have emphasized the remarkable interspecific variability in shape, size and microsculptures (Berggren, 1981; El-Oqlah & Karim,1990; Hosny & Zareh, 1993; Villa, 1995; Yildiz & Cirpici, 1998; Hong & al., 1999; Zareh, 2005; Yildiz, 2006; Yildiz & Minareci, 2008; Perveen, 2009; Fawzi & al., 2010; Ocaña & al., 2011). In order to compare S. kemoniana and S. colorata, the micro-morphology of their seed testa was also investigated (Fig. 3). Our results show that seeds of both species are orbicular-reniform, flat-concave laterally, alate and deeply canaliculate dorsally, with wings more or less undulate. From the micro-morphological viewpoint, the seed-coat of both species is characterized by very elongated and granulate epidermal cells that are short near the hilum and longer towards the periphery, with a colliculate outer periclinal wall provided with showy tubercles that are arranged in rows, and a more or less undulate anticlinal wall. However, several important differences, mostly concerning the primary and secondary sculptures of seed coat, can be observed when comparing S. kemoniana and S. colorata. In particular, S. kemoniana (Fig. 3A) has epidermal cells µm, an outer periclinal wall that is roughly and loosely granulate, and anticlinal wall bounda - ries that are irregularly incise-undulate, canaliculate, with lacerate sutures, while S. colorata (Fig. 3B) has cells µm, an outer periclinal wall that is minutely and densely granulate, and anticlinal wall boundaries that are more regularly undulate, flattened, with entire sutures. Other notable Fig. 2. Silene kemoniana: A, wild population; B, flower detail. S. colo rata: C, flower detail. differences can be observed at the bottom of the dorsal furrow, since S. kemoniana is characterized by several irregularly arranged papillae, interspersed with numerous minute wrinkles, whereas S. colorata has papillae that are regularly arranged in two rows mixed to minute dots. Distribution and habitat. Silene kemoniana was found near San Martino delle Scale, a small village close to Palermo (N Sicily), where it occurs at an altitude of m. Plants occur in the clearings of xerophilous garigues on calcareous (including dolomites and limestones) substrates, chiefly represented by Mesozoic limestones and dolomites. The plant community where S. kemoniana was found is also characterized by several dwarf shrubs, such as Erica multiflora L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Fumana thymifolia (L.) Spach ex Webb, Cistus salvifolius L., Cistus eriocephalus Viv., Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav., Hippocrepis glauca Ten., Matthiola fruticulosa (L.) Maire, etc. This vegetation also hosts some rare Sicilian endemics, such as Polygala preslii Spreng., Helichrysum preslianum C. Brullo & Brullo, Onosma canescens C. Presl, and Dianthus graminifolius C. Presl. Taxonomic remarks. Within sect. Dipterosperma, from a macropmorphological perspective, Silene kemoniana shows close relationships with S. colorata mainly in having bracts of the lower flowers ovate, calyx ribs without anastomoses, and with rounded teeth, the carpophore more than 4 mm, and seeds up to 1.7 mm in diameter. The most relevant differences between the two species are in the habit, inflorescence, calyx,
4 212 C. Brullo & al. Fig. 3. SEM micrographs of seed outer coat: A, Silene kemoniana; B, S. colorata. 1, entire seed; 2-3, seed coat details of lateral surface (at different magnification); 4, seed coat details of dorsal surface.
5 A new species of Silene sect. Dipterosperma 213 Fig. 4. Silene colorata: a, habit; b, flower (lateral view); c, flower (upper view); d, petal (ventral view); e, petal (lateral view); f, open calyx; g, calyx lobes; h, coronal scale; i, carpophore and pistil; j, stamen; k, calyx and capsule; l, carpophore and open capsule; m, seed (lateral view). Based on living plants from Gela (southern Sicily), Brullo & Sciandrello s.n. (CAT).
6 214 C. Brullo & al. corolla, coronal scales, claw indumentum, capsule, carpophore and seeds. In particular, S. colorata (Fig. 4) has erect stems, cm, that are very branched, with internodes up to 7 cm, the inflorescence with 4-10 flowers arranged in dichasia, calyx mm, with teeth triangular-ovate, mm long, petal limb 9-11 mm, with lobes mm wide, coronal scales entire, mm, claw dorsally hairy along the midrib, capsule 7-8 mm, carpophore 5-6 mm long, seeds mm in diameter, while S. kemoniana is characterized by stems that are branched only at the base, prostrate-ascending, 5-15 mm, with internodes up to 4 cm, inflorescence with (1)2-4(5) flowers in monochasia arranged, calyx mm, with teeth oblong, mm, petal limb mm, with lobes mm wide, coronal scales erose-incised, mm, claw glabrous or scattered ciliate at margin, capsule 8-10 mm, carpophore 4-5 mm, seeds mm in diameter. Further differences concern the micro-morphology of seed coat, as already noted above. Besides these morphological differences, these species are also ecologically distinct: since S. colorata is a psammophyte, growing on sandy soils of coastal and inland sands, whilst S. kemoniana is found in submontane garigues occurring on carbonatic substrates. In its small size and prostrate-ascending stems that are only basally branched, S. kemoniana is similar to S. nummica described by Valsecchi (1995) from the Central Mediterranean area. However, the latter is easily distinguished from the new species in having leaves that are thickened and with dense long hairs, solitary flowers, the calyx tomentose-hirsute, corolla lobes 4-5 mm wide, the capsule 5-6 mm, with teeth at maturity not reflexed, and seeds 1 mm in diameter, with wings that are flat and very short. Besides, the habitat of S. nummica is also different, since it is a species found in sandy or rocky coastal habitats. According to literature (Talavera, 1990; Chater, 1993; Valsecchi, 1995; Greuter, 1997), besides S. colorata and S. nummica, the sect. Dipterospema includes also S. apetala Willd. (= S. decipiens Barc.), S. secundiflora Otth, S. gracilis DC. (= S. longicaulis Pourret ex Lag.), S. sericea All., S. morisiana Bég. & Rav., S. canescens Ten., S. arghireica Vals. and S. beguinotii Vals. For identification of these species the following key is provided. IDENTIFICATION KEY TO THE SPECIES OF SILENE SECT. DIPTEROSPERMA 1. Carpophore < 4 mm Carpophore > 4 mm Carpophore (2.5) mm; calyx 6-9 mm long; petal rudimentary or absent, rarely with limb up to 3 mm... S. apetala 2. Carpophore mm; calyx mm long; petal well-developed with limb 6-10 mm... S. gracilis 3. Calyx with markedly anastomosing nerves... S. secundiflora 3. Calyx nerves not anastomosed Calyx mm Calyx mm Flowers solitary; leaves lanceolate, sericeous; capsule 10-11mm; carpophore mm... S. sericea 5. Flowers in monochasia; leaves spathulate, setose; capsule 8-9 mm; carpophore 7-8 mm...s. morisiana 6. Petal with limb lobes mm wide... S. kemoniana 6. Petal with limb lobes more than 2 mm wide Stem prostrate-ascending; flowers solitary; capsule globose, 5-6 mm; seed with wings only slightly developed, flat... S. nummica 7. Stem erect to erect-ascending; flowers in dichasia or monochasia; capsule ovoid to ellipsoid 6-8 mm; seed with wings well-developed, more or less undulate Leaves ovate to spathulate... S. colorata 8. Leaves lanceolate to linear Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate; calyx mm; capsule ovoid, 5-6 mm... S. beguinotii 9. Leaves lanceolate; calyx mm; capsule ellipsoid, 6-8 mm Petals mm, deeply bifid; carpophore 5-6 mm... S. canescens 10. Petals mm. shortly bifid; carpophore 7-8 mm... S. arghireica ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank Dr. G. 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Flower Structure Flowers vary in size, shape and color. The largest flower, with at diameter of one meter (three feet and three inches) and weighing about 9 kilograms (20 pounds), is born on a plant from
E TWV/34/14 ORIGINAL: English DATE: August 21, 2000 INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR THE PROTECTION OF NEW VARIETIES OF PLANTS GENEVA TECHNICAL WORKING PARTY FOR VEGETABLES Thirty-Fourth Session Angers, France,
Grade: 9 to 12 Length: variable Subjects: life science Topics: weed identification Objectives Exercises in this lesson help students achieve the following objectives: Understand the basic parts of a plant
Genus: Geum (Avens) Genus of about 50 perennials, mostly with dense clusters of hairy leaves Geum chiloense Species originating from Island of Chiloe, Chile which enjoys a cold, wet climate. These plants
Flower Model: Teacher Instructions In order to better understand the reproductive cycle of a flower, take a look at some flowers and note the male and female parts. Most flowers are different; some have
Exercise 7 Angiosperm Reproduction: Flowers and Fruits Biol 1012, S2008, Lee, Etterson, and Little Goals Relate structures in a flower to the plant life cycle: alternation of generations. Identify floral,
Ages: 8 to 12 What's in a Flower Contributor: Susan Jauette, Cornell Plantations volunteer Main idea: Flowers are composed of several distinct parts, each of which plays an important role in nature. Objective:
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY The Master of Science in Biology program is designed to provide a strong foundation in concepts and principles of the life sciences, to develop appropriate skills and to inculcate
PLANT BITS 4th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS-NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 11: PLANTS There are four main parts to a plant. They are the root, stem, leaf and flower. Each part has an important task to do in the life of
M. Urbani, G. Becca & M. G. Ledda Notes on systematics and chorology of Asparagus L. (Asparagaceae) in Sardinia (Italy) Abstract Urbani, M., Becca, G. & Ledda, M. G.: Notes on systematics and chorology
MAINTENANCE IN HISTORICAL GARDENS: THE CASE OF THE CASTLE IN FOSDINOVO TUSCANY ITALY Authors: Virginia Neri¹; Greta Parri¹; Claudia Parisi¹ Affiliations: 1 - Università degli Studi di Firenze Many historical
3 How Plants Are Identified T he easiest method, and the one probably used the most often for learning the names of the plants of a particular location or region, or just the name of a particular plant,
Joannea Geol. Paläont. 11: 132-136 (2011) Recent ostracods from the Azores archipelago Ricardo P. MEIRELES, Antonio FRIAS MARTINS & Sérgio ÁVILA The Azores is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean between
All About Plants What are plants? Plants are living things that are made up of cells. They need air, water, soil, and sunlight to live. They cannot move from place to place, but their leaves move to catch
Invasive Tree Species A Contents Invasive Tree Species................. 1 Removal Permit Process.............. 2 Mitigation......................... 3 Identification Guide: Norway maple - Acer platanoides............
PHYTOLOGIA BALCANICA 21 (2): 111 115, Sofia, 2015 111 Lathyrus cassius (L. sect. Cicercula, Leguminosae), a new species for the flora of Europe Fatma Güneş 1 & Ali Hikmet Çırpıcı 2 1 Department of Pharmaceutical
Name Class Date Chapter 18 Classification Using and Constructing a Dichotomous Key You may want to refer students to Chapter 18 in the textbook for a discussion of the classification system used in biology.
Phoenix Biological Consulting Providing proactive biological solutions throughout southern California PO Box 720949, Pinon Hills, CA 92372-0949; (949) 887 0859 cell (760) 249-5463 fax July 30, 2012 Mr.
BRAZILIAN FLORA ONLINE 2020 The Brazilian Flora Online 2020 (BFO 2020) project aims to respond to national and international targets signed by the Brazilian government, centering around the consolidation
Angiosperm Reproduction: Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds Overview In this lab you will observe assorted flowers, fruits, and seeds to better understand the unique adaptations of and the life cycle of angiosperms.
Araştırma Makalesi / Research Article Iğdır Üni. Fen Bilimleri Enst. Der. / Iğdır Univ. J. Inst. Sci. & Tech. 3(4): 21-25, 2013 Iğdır Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi Iğdır University Journal
THE FLOWER: PARTS OF THE FLOWER Materials Large flower A flower for each child Presentation (This is usually a group presentation) 1. Say, I would like to talk about the parts of the flower. 2. Place a
Caladenia tonellii Listing Statement for Caladenia tonellii (robust fingers) robust fingers T A S M A N I A N T H R E A T E N E D S P E C I E S L I S T I N G S T A T E M E N T Image by Mark Wapstra Scientific
New Species and Combinations in Astragalus (Leguminosae) from China and the Himalayas Dietrich Podlech Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department Biologie I Systematic Botany, Menzinger Straße 67,
Female Reproductive System Laboratory Exercise 60 Background The organs of the female reproductive system are specialized to produce and maintain the female sex cells, to transport these cells to the site
IDENTIFICATION OF ADULT CORIXIDS 25 THE IDENTIFICATION OF BRITISH ADULT SPECIMENS OF SIGARA LATERALIS (LEACH), SIGARA CONCINNA (FIEBER), CALLICORIXA PRAEUSTA (FIEBER) AND CALLICORIXA WOLLASTONI (DOUGLAS
BIOL 153L General Biology II Lab Black Hills State University Lab 12: Flowers, Fruits & "Grocery Store" Botany FLOWERS: As introduced in Lab 8, the term "flower" refers to sexual reproductive structures
West Virginia Trees Basic Tree Identification For FFA Forestry Contest Developed in cooperation with the West Virginia Division of Forestry and the Tyler County FFA Chapter. Identification of trees base
10B Plant Systems Guided Practice Reproduction Station 1 1. Observe Plant A. Locate the following parts of the flower: stamen, stigma, style, ovary. 2. Draw and label the parts of a flower (listed above)
7. Flowers Flowers are one of the most important features used to identify plants. Flower types The parts of a flower vary greatly from plant to plant. However, all tend to follow a basic pattern of: Calyx
Poisonous Plants of Southern Arizona Created using University of Arizona College of Pharmacy website. http://www.pharmacy.arizona.edu/centers/arizona-poison-druginformation-center/plantsbad#top Candelabras
LOCAL NAMES Arabic (hodung,gharab,bhan,bahan); Chinese (huyang); English (Indian poplar,euphrates poplar); Hindi (hotung,hondung,bhan,bahan); Trade name (bhan,bahan) BOTANIC DESCRIPTION Populus euphratica
Botanical Illustration for the Classroom Bringing Art to Science... Partially supported with funds provided by the American Society of Botanical Artists Applying botanical illustration techniques to teach
Apricot Tree Prunus armeniaca Up to 25-30 tall x 15-20 wide or partial shade 10 degrees F. General: The Apricot Tree is a subspecies of the peach and dates back 3,000 years to northeastern China. Apricots
Different wing in pitchers of the myrmecophagous species Sarracenia minor and S. rubra Miloslav Studnička Liberec Botanic Gardens Purkyňova 630/1 CZ-460 01 Liberec Czech Republic email@example.com Keywords:
1 Dichotomous Keys Dichotomous keys are used to assist in the identification and classification of specimens of living things. To use a key, start at the top. At each decision point within a key, there
Turkish Journal of Botany http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/botany/ Research Article Turk J Bot (2015) 39: 841-849 TÜBİTAK doi:10.3906/bot-1411-34 Taxonomic and nomenclatural contributions to Pyrus L. (Rosaceae)
ACTIVITY 3 Introduction Several species of plant which grow in the Squares show clear morphological differences between leaves which grow in full sunlight and leaves which grow in the shade. In this investigation,
Two new species of Freziera (Pentaphylacaceae) from Costa Rica Daniel Santamaría-Aguilar, 1,2 Alex K. Monro, 3 Quírico Jiménez-Madrigal, 4 and Laura P. Lagomarsino 5 Abstract. Two new species of Freziera
DRY GRASSLAND MEETING Rome May 14, 2013 Palazzo Valentini The 6210 and 6220 habitats of the SCIs of the project LIFE 09 NAT/IT000118 Francesca Paolella Carlo Fratarcangeli Enrico L. Redi Alessandro Murgante
Grade 4 Title: My Name is Magnolia Whittney McCray Student Learning Objective(s): The students will understand why Magnolias are a type of evergreen. The students will create a story based on the information
Anatomy PHL 212 By Dr Tajdar Husain Khan Overview of Anatomy Anatomy(from the Greek word anatome,"dissection") is a branch of natural science dealing with the structural organization of living things The
Parts of a flower Teacher Guidance Introducing the parts of a flower pollen petal stamen anther filament stigma style ovary carpel ovule sepal stem Figure 2. A half flower, showing the basic parts: sepal,
NUMBER 14 QUEDENSLEY AND VÉLIZ: NEW SPECIES OF RAMALINA 3 RAMALINA MAHONEYI, A NEW CORTICOLOUS LICHEN FROM A WESTERN GUATEMALAN CLOUD FOREST Taylor Sultan Quedensley 1 and Mario Véliz Pérez 2 1 Plant Biology